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About OsarizawaiteHide

Al:Cu is 2:1 in the ideal end-member.
Greenish yellow
3 - 4
Specific Gravity:
3.89 - 4.037
Crystal System:
From the type locality, the Osarizawa mine, Kazuno City, Honshu Island, Japan.
Compare the closely related beaverite-(Cu).

Classification of OsarizawaiteHide


7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations

2 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq

25 : Sulphates
7 : Sulphates of Pb

Physical Properties of OsarizawaiteHide

Greenish yellow
3 - 4 on Mohs scale
3.89 - 4.037 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.183(17) g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of OsarizawaiteHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.712(3) nε = 1.732(2)
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.020
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
O = dark yellow
E = pale yellowish
May be biaxial

Chemical Properties of OsarizawaiteHide


Al:Cu is 2:1 in the ideal end-member.

Crystallography of OsarizawaiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.05 Å, c = 17.24(1) Å
a:c = 1 : 2.445
Unit Cell V:
742.07 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of OsarizawaiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Oxidized zone.

Other Language Names for OsarizawaiteHide

Simplified Chinese:羟铝铜铅矾

Relationship of Osarizawaite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
ArgentojarositeAgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe3+2Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
DorallchariteTlFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
JarositeKFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
6 photos of Osarizawaite associated with QuartzSiO2
6 photos of Osarizawaite associated with PhilipsbornitePbAl3(AsO4)(AsO3OH)(OH)6
3 photos of Osarizawaite associated with AnglesitePbSO4
2 photos of Osarizawaite associated with Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
2 photos of Osarizawaite associated with JarositeKFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
2 photos of Osarizawaite associated with Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
2 photos of Osarizawaite associated with IodargyriteAgI
2 photos of Osarizawaite associated with MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
2 photos of Osarizawaite associated with DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
1 photo of Osarizawaite associated with NitratineNaNO3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.BC.Adranosite-(Fe)(NH4)4NaFe3+2(SO4)4Cl(OH)2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
7.BC.Adranosite(NH4)4NaAl2(SO4)4Cl(OH)2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
7.BC.10AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10ArgentojarositeAgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10DorallchariteTlFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10JarositeKFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe3+2Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.20AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3ClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/ncc
7.BC.25ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.BC.30FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.BC.35KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.BC.40PiypiteK4Cu4O2(SO4)4 · (Na,Cu)ClTet.
7.BC.45AlumoklyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)4O2Tric. 1 : P1
7.BC.50CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
7.BC.55WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
7.BC.60MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2Mon. 2 : B2
7.BC.65LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
7.BC.65MunakataitePb2Cu2(Se4+O3)(SO4)(OH)4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
7.BC.70ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6Tric. 1 : P1
7.BC.75KrivovichevitePb3Al(OH)6(SO4)(OH)Trig. 3m : R3c

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 3m : R3m,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.7.1SchaurteiteCa3Ge(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
25.7.2Zircosulfate(Zr,Ti)(SO4)2 · 4H2OOrth.
25.7.3AnglesitePbSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.7.4LanarkitePb2(SO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.7.5Palmierite(K,Na)2Pb(SO4)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.7.6LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
25.7.7ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2OMon. 2/m
25.7.8ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6Tric. 1 : P1
25.7.10ItoitePb3Ge4+(SO4)2O2(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.7.11FleischeritePb3Ge(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
25.7.12Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.7.13PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for OsarizawaiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Taguchi, Y. (1961): On osarizawaite, a new mineral of the alunite group, from the Osarizawa mine, Japan. Mineralogical Journal: 3: 181-194.
American Mineralogist (1962): 47: 1216.
The crystal structure of osarizawarite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1980): 401-407.

Internet Links for OsarizawaiteHide

Localities for OsarizawaiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Catamarca Province
    • Andalgalá Department
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
  • New South Wales
    • Georgiana Co.
      • Tuena
Donald H. McColl (1973) A New Occurrence of Raspite at the Cordillera Mine, New South Wales, Australia. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics Record 1973/152
    • Kennedy Co.
      • Condobolin district
Graham, I. T., Pogson, R., Colchester, D. M. and McKinnon, A. R. (2005): Secondary minerals of the Mineral Hill field. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 101-116.
Gilligan, L.B., Suppel, D.W. (1993) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Nymagee 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map (SI/55-2). Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 171 pages.
    • Robinson Co.
      • Cobar
Leverett, P., McKinnon, A. R., Sharpe, J. L. and Williams, P. A. (2005) Secondary minerals from the central Cobar mines. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 75-82.
  • Northern Territory
    • Coomalie Shire
      • Batchelor
        • Rum Jungle
Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory (Darwin) collection (ID by Pete Williams)
  • Queensland
    • Tablelands Region
Harris, D.L., Lottermoser, B.G., Duchesne, J. (2003) Ephemeral acid mine drainage at the Montalbion silver mine, north Queensland. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 50(5), 797-809.
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
Nickel, E.H., Gartrell, B.J. (1993) Secondary Minerals of Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993) 24:3: 203-218.
Mineralogical Record 24,203-216,218.
Nickel, E.H., Gartrell, B.J. (1993) Secondary Minerals of Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993) 24:3: 203-218.
Nickel, E., Gartrell, B(1993): Secondary Minerals from Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993): 24:3:203-218
    • East Pilbara Shire
      • Marble Bar
        • Mount Edgar Station
Morris, R.(1961):Osarizawaite from Western Australia, American Mineralogist, Vol 47, 1079-1093
    • Leonora Shire
      • Ten Mile Outcamp
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
    • Meekatharra Shire
      • Peak Hill Goldfield
        • Doolgunna Station
Murray Thompson ; Murray Thompson, DeGrussa mine
    • Roebourne Shire
      • Whim Creek
Nickel, E.H.(1980): Ring Crystals of Osarizawaite from Whim Creek Western Australia, American Mineralogist (1980):65: 1287-1290; Nickel, E. H., & Hitchen, G. J. (1994). The phosphate analog of molybdofornacite from Whim Creek, Western Australia. Mineralogical Record, 25(3), 203.
    • Wyndham-East Kimberley Shire
      • Kununurra
Downes, P.J., Bevan, A.W.R., Costeo, D., Verrall, M. (2011) Mafic-hosted Secondary Mineralisation from the Shangri-La Pb-Ag-Au-Cu Mine Kimberley Western Australia, Australian Journal of Mineralogy, (Nov. 2011) 16: p15-24.
  • Salzburg
    • Tamsweg District
      • Murwinkel
        • Schellgaden
          • Gold mines
Auer, Ch. (2005)
  • Haskovo Province
    • Mineralni Bani Municipality
      • Spachievo ore field (Spahievo ore field)
Kunov, A. (1995): Osarizawaite - new mineral for Bulgaria. Dokl. Bulg. Akad. Nauk. 48, 47-50.; Kunov, A. & Petrov, P. (2001): Beaverite from the Chala gold-base metal ore deposit: a new mineral for Bulgaria. Geokhimiya, Mineralogiya i Petrologiya 38, 67-71.
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Sierra Gorda
        • Caracoles
Paar, W. H. & Burgstaller, J. (1980): Osarizawaite-beaverite intergrowths from Sierra Gorda, Chile. Mineralogical Record 1980, 101-104
    • Tocopilla Province
      • Tocopilla District
maurizio dini collection
  • Atacama
    • Copiapó Province
      • Zapallar district
samples analysed by Gerhard Mohn and Joy Desor
maurizio dini - analysed by EDX & PDF (by dr. Jochen Scluter)
  • Coquimbo
    • Elqui Province
      • El Indio deposit
Llaumet C./Henríquez F. (1976); "Faja de mineralización de oro, plata, cobre y arsenico en la Cordillera Andina de la III y IV región"; Primero Congreso Geológico Chileno, Vol. II.
Llaumet C./Henríquez F. (1976); "Faja de mineralización de oro, plata, cobre y arsenico en la Cordillera Andina de la III y IV región"; Primero Congreso Geológico Chileno, Vol. II.
  • O'Higgins
    • Cachapoal Province
      • Rancagua
        • El Teniente
maurizio dini - analysed material
  • Xinjiang
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Shanshan Co. (Piqan Co.; Pichan Co.)
        • Kanggur-Xifengshan gold belt
Zhaoxin Han, Lijun Luan, and Chaoyou Wang (2004): Journal of Xi'an University of Science and Technology 24(3), 324-327; Kaiyin Bai and Zhaoxin Han (2007): Northwestern Geology 40(2), 114-117
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Le Pradet
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
KOLITSCH, U., BLASS, G., GRAF, H.-W. & GRÖBNER, J. (2004): Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald. Lapis 29 (2) 18-23; 50. (in German) [proves erroneous ID of osarizawaite in Schnorrer-Köhler (1988)]
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Braunlage
No reference listed
    • St Andreasberg District
      • Oder valley
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1984): Mineralogische Notizen II. Der Aufschluss 35(6), 219-230.
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Märkischer Kreis
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
      • Siegen-Wittgenstein
        • Siegen
          • Niederschelden
Heinrich, M. & Reinhardt, M. (2011): Die Mineralien der Kobaltgrube "Alte Buntekuh" bei Niederschelden im Siegerland. Mineralien Welt. 22 (3): 14-27
    • Cologne
      • Aachen
        • Stolberg
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Sounion Area
            • Agia Varvara Mines (St Barbara Mines)
No reference listed
  • Fejér County
    • Pátka
HOM Collection 2008
  • Heves County
    • Recsk
GEODA 2013/2
  • Sardinia
    • South Sardinia Province
      • Sarrabus-Gerrei
        • Gerrei
          • Villaputzu
Campostrini, I., Gramaccioli, C. M. and Demartin, F. (1999): Orlandiite, Pb3Cl4(SeO3)3•H2O, a new mineral species, and an associated lead-copper selenite chloride from the Baccu Locci mine, Sardinia, Italy. Can. Mineral. 37, 1493-1498
      • Villacidro
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., and Tanca, G.A. [with contributions of Vinci, A., and Astolfi, M.] (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Associazione Mineralogica Sarda, Associazione Mineralogica Domusnovas, Gruppo Mineralogico Arburese, Gruppo Mineralogico Paleontologico Piacentino, Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo et al. Ed., Siena, Vol. 2, 192 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
Sabelli C., Olmi F., Brizzi G., Meli R., 1996. Serrabottini (GR): recenti ritrovamenti nelle antiche discariche. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 19
Bazzoni, C., Betti, C., & Capperi, M. (2007). Valle dello Stregaio e Monte Gai, Massa Marittima, Grosseto. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (2), 92-102.
      • Montieri
        • Gerfalco
Bazzoni, C. & Capperi, M. (2001): La miniera di «Montevecchio» in Toscana (Gerfalco - Grosseto). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2011, 236-241
Japan (TL)
  • Akita
    • Kazuno City
Min.Journ.Japan (1961) 3, 181-194
Matsubara et al (1997) Ganko-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi, 159.; Ohnishi, M., & Shimobayashi, N. (2011). Tsumebite from the Kisamori mine, Akita Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 106(1), 51-56.
  • Niigata
    • Aga-machi (Higashi-Kanbara-gun)
Murata (1999) Suisyou, 12, #1, 15-16.
  • East Kazakhstan
Pavel M. Kartashov data
New Zealand
  • Waikato Region
    • Matamata-Piako District
      • Te Aroha
Courtney, S.F., King, P. & Rodgers, K.A., (1990). A Check List of Minerals from the Tui Mine, Te Aroha, New Zealand. New Zealand Natural Sciences 17: 95-98.
  • Oppland
    • Lunner
      • Grua
        • Grua mining district
Eldjarn,K. (1977): Osarizawaitt- fra Lykkens prøve, Grua. NAGS-nytt. 4(3),14-15.
  • Beja
    • Almodôvar
      • Almodôvar
  • Altai Krai
    • Rubtsovsky District
Pekov, I.V., Lykova, I.S., Bryzgalov, I.A., Ksenofontov, D.A., Zyryanova, L.A. & Litvinov, N.D. (2010): Extremely rich iodide mineralization at the Rubtsovskoe base metal deposit (North West Altay, Russia) and its genesis. 20th General Meeting of the IMA (IMA2010), Budapest, Hungary, August 21-27, CD of Abstracts, p. 416.
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Cuevas del Almanzora (Cuevas de Vera)
        • Sierra Almagrera
          • Jaroso Ravine
Calvo, M. (2015). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol VII. Fosfatos, Arseniatos y Vanadatos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 479 págs.
      • Níjar
        • Rodalquilar
          • Cerro de los Guardias
JR & C Eytier collection
Martins da Pedra specimen
  • Valais
    • Anniviers Valley
      • Saint-Luc
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
  • England
    • Cheshire
Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177;
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.:69
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 319.
      • Silver Plume Mine (Emerald & Silver Plume Mine group)
Tony Kampf identification 2010
    • Coconino County
      • Grand Canyon
        • Grand View Mining District
          • Horseshoe Mesa
Michael Cline collection
    • Mohave County
      • Cerbat Mts (Cerbat Range)
        • White Hills
          • Gold Basin Mining District
rolf luetcke
      • Lost Basin Mts (Lost Basin Range)
        • Lost Basin Mining District
          • Tut Peak
rolf luetcke
    • Pima Co.
      • Helvetia-Rosemont Mining District
        • Helvetia
          • Monument Mountain
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 319.
      • Waterman Mining District
        • Silver Hill Mining District
          • Silver Hill
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 319; Stolberg, C.S. (1988), Osarizawaite from the Silver Hill mine, AZ, Min.Rec.: 19: 311-313.
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Bradshaw Mts (Bradshaw Range)
        • Pine Grove Mining District
          • Crown King
            • Lane Mountain
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 319; Modreski, P.J. & J.A. Scovil (1990), Stolzite, wulfenite's hidden brother: Occurrence at the Fat Jack gold mine, Yavapai Co., AZ (abstract), Min.Rec.: 21: 99-100; Scovil, J.A. & L. Wagner, Jr. (1991), The Fat Jack mine, Yavapai Co., AZ, Min.Rec.: 22: 21-28.
  • Colorado
    • Custer Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • San Juan Co.
      • Animas Mining District
        • Silverton
          • Round Mountain
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
  • Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Iron Point Mining District
        • Valmy
Silver Coin Mine. Compact Disc. Paul Adams
    • White Pine Co.
      • Eagle Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Utah
    • Millard Co.
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
  • Wisconsin
    • Rusk Co.
      • Ladysmith-Rhinelander Metavolcanic Complex
        • Ladysmith
Jones, C., J. Jones & G. LaBerge, G. (1999) The Flambeau Mine, Ladysmith, Wisconsin. Mineralogical Record, 30 (2), 107-131
  • Mashonaland West
    • Kadoma District
Vetter, U., Weck, H.-D., Weale, T., Klosa, D., Wittich, C. and Hoffmann, K. (1999): A provisional inventory of the Sanyati oxide-zone minerals, Zimbabwe. Z. Angew. Geol. 45, 15-21.; Frei, Martina (2005) Composition, formation, and leaching behaviour of supergene, polymetallic ores from the Sanyati deposit (Zimbabwe): A case study
矿物 and/or 产地  
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