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About NeptuniteHide

5 - 6
Specific Gravity:
3.19 - 3.23
Crystal System:
Member of:
For Neptune, Roman god of the sea, for close association at type locality with aegirine (named after Aegir, a Scandinavian sea god).

Classification of NeptuniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
H : Transitional structures between phyllosilicate and other silicate units

70 : INOSILICATES Column or Tube Structures
4 : Column or Tube Structures with linked chains forming cages

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
9 : Silicates of Ti

Physical Properties of NeptuniteHide

Deep bloodred in splinters
5 - 6 on Mohs scale
on {110}
3.19 - 3.23 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.24 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of NeptuniteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.690 - 1.691 nβ = 1.693 - 1.700 nγ = 1.719 - 1.736
Measured: 36° to 49°, Calculated: 36° to 56°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.029 - 0.045
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v strong
X= pale yellow
Y= yellow-orange
Z= red-orange to red-brown

Chemical Properties of NeptuniteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of NeptuniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
m - Domatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 16.427(2) Å, b = 12.478(2) Å, c = 9.975(1) Å
β = 115.56(1)°
a:b:c = 1.316 : 1 : 0.799
Unit Cell V:
1,844.54 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Prismatic crystals
Interpenetrant on {301}

Crystallographic forms of NeptuniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Neptunite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Neptunite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Neptunite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Neptunite no.16 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by

Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

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Crystal StructureHide

Unit Cell | Unit Cell Packed
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Big Balls | Small Balls | Just Balls | Spacefill
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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0018847NeptuniteCannillo E, Mazzi F, Rossi G (1966) The crystal structure of neptunite Acta Crystallographica 21 200-2081966San Benito, California, USA0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of NeptuniteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Crystals from mm-sized up to 3-4 cm large, on aegirine or embedded in feldspar
Chemical Analysis of Type Material:
SiO251.53 %
TiO218.13 %
FeO10.91 %
MnO4.97 %
MgO0.49 %
K2O4.88 %
Na2O9.26 %
Total:100.17 %
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Flink, G. (1893): Om några mineral från Grönland. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholms Förhandlingar. 15, 195-208

Synonyms of NeptuniteHide

Other Language Names for NeptuniteHide

Simplified Chinese:柱星叶石
Traditional Chinese:柱星葉石

Relationship of Neptunite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
MagnesioneptuniteKNa2Li(Mg,Fe)2Ti2Si8O24Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Structurally related to group(s):
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
327 photos of Neptunite associated with BenitoiteBaTi(Si3O9)
230 photos of Neptunite associated with NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
104 photos of Neptunite associated with Joaquinite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2FeTi2[Si4O12]2O2(OH,F) · H2O
28 photos of Neptunite associated with Crossite
10 photos of Neptunite associated with DjurleiteCu31S16
7 photos of Neptunite associated with AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
5 photos of Neptunite associated with Joaquinite Group
4 photos of Neptunite associated with Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
2 photos of Neptunite associated with MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
2 photos of Neptunite associated with Bario-orthojoaquinite(Ba,Sr)4Fe2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2 · H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EH.05MagnesioneptuniteKNa2Li(Mg,Fe)2Ti2Si8O24Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EH.10GrumantiteNa(HSi2O5) · H2OOrth. mm2 : Fdd2
9.EH.20UssingiteNa2AlSi3O8OHTric. 1 : P1
9.EH.25Leifite(Na,H2O)Na6[Be2Al2(Al,Si)Si15O39]F2Trig. 3m : P3m1
9.EH.25Telyushenkoite(Cs,Na,K)Na6[Be2Al3Si15O39]F2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
9.EH.25EirikiteKNa6Be2(Si15Al3)O39F2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
9.EH.30NafertisiteNa3Fe2+10Ti2(Si6O17)2O2(OH)6F(H2O)2Mon. 2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Fe)2Ti2Si8O24Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.9.2LorenzeniteNa2Ti2(Si2O6)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
14.9.3LintisiteLiNa3Ti2(Si2O6)2O2 · 2H2OMon.
14.9.6TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)OMon. 2/m : P21/b
14.9.7OhmiliteSr3(Ti,Fe3+)(Si4O12)(O,OH) · 2-3H2OMon.
14.9.9BenitoiteBaTi(Si3O9)Hex. 6 m2 : P62c
14.9.11FresnoiteBa2Ti(Si2O7)OTet. 4mm : P4bm
14.9.12Joaquinite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2FeTi2[Si4O12]2O2(OH,F) · H2OMon. 2 : B2
14.9.13Orthojoaquinite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2FeTi2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH) · H2OOrth.
14.9.14StrontiojoaquiniteSr2Ba2(Na,Fe)2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH)2 · H2OMon.
14.9.15Bario-orthojoaquinite(Ba,Sr)4Fe2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2 · H2OOrth.
14.9.16Strontio-orthojoaquinite(Na,Fe)2Sr2Ba2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH)2 · H2OOrth.
14.9.18HejtmaniteBa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2Tric. 1
14.9.19Delindeite(Na,K)2(Ba,Ca)2(Ti,Fe,Al)3(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2 · 2H2OMon.
14.9.22Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe3+2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.9.25TisinaliteNa3H3(Mn,Ca,Fe)TiSi6(O,OH)18 · 2H2OTrig.
14.9.29AstrophylliteK2NaFe2+7Ti2Si8O26(OH)4FTric. 1 : P1
14.9.31LobanoviteK2Na(Fe2+4Mg2Na)Ti2(Si4O12)2O2(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
14.9.32BaratoviteKCa7(Ti,Zr)2Li3Si12O36F2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
14.9.34AenigmatiteNa4[Fe2+10Ti2]O4[Si12O36]Tric. 1 : P1
14.9.35SchorlomiteCa3Ti2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
14.9.37Janhaugite(Na,Ca)3(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(Ti,Zr,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
14.9.38KoashviteNa6(Ca,Mn)(Ti,Fe)Si6O18 · H2OOrth.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for NeptuniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Flink, G. (1893): Om några mineral från Grönland. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholms Förhandlingar. 15, 195-208
Hlawatsch, C. (1909), Bemerkungen zum Aragonit von Rohitsch, Natrolit, und Neptunit von S. Benito: Tschermaks Mitt.: Band 28, pp. 293-296, 1909.
Bradley, W.M. (1909), On the analysis of the mineral neptunite from San Benito County, California: Am. Jour. Sci., 4th. Series: 28: 15-16; & Zeitschr. Kristallographie, band 46: 516-517 (1909).
Ford, William Ebenezer (1909), Neptunite crystals from San Benito, California: Am. Jour. Sci., 4th. Series: 27: 235-240; …Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 46: 321-325 (1909).
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1911), Notes on neptunite: USGS Bull. 490: 55-57.
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1911), Krystallographische Notizen ueber Albit, Phenakit, und Neptunit: Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 48: 550-558; …USGS Bull. 490: 53-56 (1911).
Berry, Leonard G. (1963b), Neptunite: unit cell and X-ray powder data: Canadian Mineralogist:7: 679-681.
Cannillo, E., F. Mazzi & G. Rossi (1966), The crystal structure of neptunite: Acta Crystallographica: 21: 200-208.
Bancroft, G.M., R.G. Burns & A.G. Maddock (1967), Oxidation state of iron in neptunite from Mossbauer spectroscopy: Acta Crystallographica: 22: 394-395.
Laird, J. & A.L. Albee (1972), Chemical composition and physical, optical, and structural properties of benitoite, neptunite and joaquinite: American Mineralogist: 57: 85-102.
Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen (1982): 30: 237-247.
Physics and Chemistry of Minerals (1991): 18: 199.
American Mineralogist (1993): 78: 237.
Petersen, O. V & Johnsen, O. (2005): Minerals first described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist, Special Publication. 8, 184p

Internet Links for NeptuniteHide

Localities for NeptuniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • New South Wales
    • Darling Co.
      • Barraba
Slansky, E., Glen, R.A. (1981) Neptunite from the Woodsreef Serpentinite, New South Wales: A New Occurrence (A Preliminary Communication), Geological Survey of New South Wales, GS1981/231. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 30, 237-247.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Poços de Caldas alkaline complex
      • Poços de Caldas
ATENCIO, D., COUTINHO, J.M.C., ULBRICH, M.N.C., VLACH, S.R.F., RASTVETAEVA, R.K. & PUSHCHAROVSKY, D.Yu. (1999) Hainite from Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist, 37, 91-98.
  • Paraná
    • Tijucas do Sul
      • Morro Redondo complex
Vilalva, F.C.J., and Vlach, S.R.F. (2010): Mineralogical Magazine 74(4), 645-658
  • Santa Catarina
G Traversa et al (1994) Petrology and Mineral Chemistry of the Alkaline District of Lages, SC, Brazil. Geochem Brazil 8:179-214
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
Curtis, L.W. & Currie, K.L. (1977) Geology and petrology of the Red Wine complex, Central Labrador. GSC Bulletin 287, 61p. + maps
William Heinrich, E. & Quon, Shi H. (1963): Neptunite from Seal Lake, Labrador. Canadian Mineralogist 7, 650-654. ; Nickel, E.H., J.F. Rowland, and D.J. Charette (1964) Niobophyllite - the niobium analogue of astrophyllite; a new mineral from Seal Lake, Labrador. Can. Mineral., 8, 40-52.
\"Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences,\" G.J. Orris and R.I. Grauch, Open File Report 02-189, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 2002.; GSC database locality No. 4100
GSC database; GSC database locality No. 4101; Cámara, F., Sokolova, E., Hawthorne, F. C., Rowe, R., Grice, J. D., & Tait, K. T. (2013). Veblenite, K2〈 2Na (Fe2+ 5Fe3+ 4Mn2+ 7〈) Nb3Ti (Si2O7) 2 (Si8O22) 2O6 (OH) 10 (H2O) 3, a new mineral from Seal Lake, Newfoundland and Labrador: mineral description, crystal structure, and a new veblenite Si8O22 ribbon. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(7), 2955-2974.
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
XRD, WDS Can. Museum of Nature data
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald
        • Bötzingen
Uwe Kolitsch (SXRD- and EDS-analysis on material collected by Bernd Gassmann, to be published)
Greenland (TL)
  • Kujalleq
    • Igaliku
      • Narsaarsuk Plateau
Flink, G. (1893): Om några mineral från Grönland. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholms Förhandlingar. 15, 195-208; Petersen, O. V & Johnsen, O. (2005): Minerals first described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist, Special Publication. 8, 184p.
    • Narsaq
Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
        • Kangerluarsuk Fjord
          • Head of Kangerluarsuk
            • Lilleelv
Danø, M., Sørensen, H. (1959): An examination of the rare minerals from the Nepheline Syenites of south west Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland.162, Nr.5, Reitzels Forlag, København
          • Qeqertaussaq Island
Soerensen, H. (1962): On the occurrence of Steenstrupine in the Ilimaussaq massif, southwest Greenland, Meddelelser om Groenland, Reitzels Forlag Koebenhavn
Friis, H., Balic-Zunic, T, Pekov, I., Peterson, O. (2004): Kuannersuite-(Ce), a new member of the Apatite-group, from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland, Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 42, 95-106
Petersen, O. V. & Johnsen, O. (2005): Mineral species first described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist, Special publication no. 8.
Metcalf-Johansen, J. (1977): Willemite from the Ilimaussaq alkaline Intrusion. Mineralogical Magazine. 41, 71-75
Petersen, O.V., Giester, G., Brandstätter, F., Niedermayr, G. (2002): Nabesite, a new mineral species from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex. Canadian Mineralogist. 40, 173-181
Found by Frank de Wit (2008)
        • Tunulliarfik Fjord
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Reitzels Forlag København. Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages. (p.256); Sørensen, H. (1962): On the occurence of Steenstrupine in the Ilimaussaq massif, southwest Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland. 167. Reitzels Forlag København. 251 p.
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages. (p.256)
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages. (p.256)
  • Baranya County
    • Pécs District
      • Hosszúhetény
collector: Csaba Papp, XRD: Béla Fehér, WDS: Norbert Zajzon
  • Leinster
    • Louth County
      • Carlingford
Nockolds, S. R. (1950): The occurrence of neptunite and eudialyte in quartz-bearing syenites from Barnavave, Carlingford, Ireland. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 27-33. ; Nockolds, S.R. and Vincent, H.G.C. (1947) On Tilleyite and Its Associated Minerals from Carlingford, Ireland. Mineralogical Magazine 28:151-158.
  • Jabal al Gharbi District
    • Gharyan (Gharian)
Lustrino, M., Cucciniello, C., Melluso, L., Tassinari, C. C., dè Gennaro, R., & Serracino, M. (2012). Petrogenesis of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the NW sector of the Gharyan volcanic field, Libya. Lithos, 155, 218-235.
  • Khovd Province
    • Myangad District
      • Khaldzan Buragtag massif
U. Kempe, J. Götze, S. Dandar and D. Habermann (1999) Magmatic and Metasomatic Processes During Formation of the Nb-Zr-REE Deposits Khaldzan Buregte and Tsakhir (Mongolian Altai): Indications from a Combined CL-SEM Study. Mineralogical Magazine 63:165-177.; Kempe, U., Möckel, R., Graupner, T., Kynicky, J., & Dombon, E. (2015). The genesis of Zr–Nb–REE mineralisation at Khalzan Buregte (Western Mongolia) reconsidered. Ore Geology Reviews, 64, 602-625.
  • Ömnögovi Province
    • Khanbogd District
J Kynický, C Xu, J Mašek, O Jaroš, H Káňová (2009) Arfvedsonite pegmatites of Khan Bogd massif, Mongolia: Zr mineralization. pp222-224 in Czech
Jindrich Kynicky
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek Rural
      • Aris
Blass, G. & Tremmel, G. (2014): Neptunit und weitere neue Mineralien aus den Phonolith-Steinbrüchen von Aris, Windhoek. Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 76-83 (in German); Kolitsch, U., Blaß, G., Jahn, S., Cámara, F., von Bezing, L., Wartha, R. R., Tremmel, G., Sturla, M., Cerea, P., Skebo, M. and Ciriotti, M. E. (2016): Aris - mineralogy of the famous alkaline phonolite. AMI - Associazione Micromineralogica Italiana, Cremona, Italy, 95 pp.; Koller F, Skoda R, Palfi A, Popp F, Jost B (2014) Paleogene phonolites of the Aris, Staalhart and Klinghardt groups, central and south Namibia, Africa. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 194
  • Buryatia
    • Mama River Basin
      • Maigunda River
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.; Vladykin, N. V., & Sotnikova, I. A. (2017). Petrology, geochemistry and source characteristics of the Burpala alkaline massif, North Baikal. Geoscience Frontiers, 8(4), 711-719.
  • Kabardino-Balkaria
    • Baksan Valley
      • Upper Chegem volcanic caldera (Verkhnechegemskaya caldera)
        • Lakargi Mountain
Zadov, A.E., Gazeev, V.M., Karimova, O.V., Pertsev, K.N., Pekov, I.V., Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Gurbanov, A.G., Belakovsky, D.I., Borisovsky, S.E., Kartashev, P.M., Ivanova, A.G., Yakubovich, O.V. (2011): Magnesioneptunite KNa2Li(Mg,Fe)2Ti2Si8O24 - a new mineral of the neptunite group. Zapiski Rossiiskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society), 140(1), 57-66 (in Russian). English translation: Geology of Ore Deposits, 53, 775-782.
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Khibiny Massif
PEKOV, I.V. & NIKOLAEV, A.P. (2013) Minerals of the pegmatites and hydrothermal assemblages of the Koashva deposit (Khibiny, Kola Peninsula, Russia). Mineralogical Almanac 189(2), 7-65.
    • Lovozersky District
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Sorokhtina N.V., Voloshin A.V., Pakhomovskii Ya.A., Selivanova E.A. (2004) The first find of daqingshanite-(Ce) on Kola peninsula, - Trudy 1 Fersmanovskoi Nauchnoi Sessii Kolskogo Otdeleniya VMO, Apatity,pt.1, pp. 34-36 (in Russ.)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Seidozero Lake
Pekov, I. et al (2003): New Data on Minerals: 38: 20-33.
Pavel M. Kartashov data; Semenov E.I. (1972) Mineralogy of Lovozero alkaline massif, - Moscow, Nauka, p. 308 (in Rus.)
Arzamastseva, L.V., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A. [Арзамасцева, Л.В., Пахомовский Я.А.] (1999): Mineral associations in rocks of Niva agpaitic intrusion (Kola Peninsula) as indicators of its forming conditions [Минеральные ассоциации пород агпаитовой интрузии Нива (Кольский Полуостров) как индикаторы условий ее образования]. Zap. VMO [Зап. ВМО], 128, 6, 1-16 (in Russian); Arzamastsev, A.A., Belyatsky, B.V., Arzamastseva, L.V. (2000): Agpaitic magmatism in the northeastern Baltic Shield: a study of the Niva intrusion, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Lithos, 51, 1, 27-46.
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Aldan
      • Inagli Massif
N.V. Chukanov et al.: Zap. Vses. Mineral. Obshch. 133(1):59-72 (2004)
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Lučenec District
Huraiová, M., Konečný, P., Holický, I., Nemec, O., Milovská, S., Hurai, V. (2017): Late-magmatic neptunite in composite peralkaline granite syenite nodules within a Pleistocene basalt (Bulhary, Slovakia). Periodico di Mineralogia, 86, 1-17
  • Districts of Republican Subordination
Agakhanov, A.A., Pautov, L.A., Uvarova, Y.A., Sokolova, E.V., Hawthorne, F.C., Karpenko, V.Yu. (2005) Senkevichite, CsKNaCa2TiO[Si7O18(OH)], a new mineral. New Data on Minerals: 40: 11-16.; Agakhanov, A.A., Pautov, L.A., Karpenko, V.Yu., Bekenova, G.K., Uvarova, Yu.A. (2011) Orlovite, KLi2 TiSi4 O11F, a new mineral of the mica group. New Data on Minerals: 46: 13-19.; Agakhanov, A.A., Pautov, L.A., Sokolova, E., Hawthorne, F.C., Karpenko, V.Yu., Siidra, O.I., Muftakhov, V.A. (2016) Odigitriaite, CsNa5Ca5[Si14B2O38]F2, a new cesium borosilicate mineral from the Darai-Pioz alkaline massif, Tajikistan: Description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 113-122.
  • California
    • San Benito Co.
      • New Idria Mining District
        • Picacho Peak; William S. Wise (1982) Strontiojoaquinite and bario-orthojoaquinite: two new members of the joaquinite group . American Mineralogist 67:809-816.; Dunning, G. E., Walstrom, R. E., & Lechner, W. (2018) Barium Silicate Mineralogy of the Western Margin, North American Continent, Part Geology, Origin, Paragenesis and Mineral Distribution from Baja California Norte, Mexico, Western Canada and Alaska, USA. Baymin Journal, Vol. 19, No. 5
Joseph F. Cooper Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A.Hadley (2003) Minerology of the Victor Claim, Clear Creek Area, New Idria District, San Benito County, California.; Dunning, G. E., Walstrom, R. E., & Lechner, W. (2018) Barium Silicate Mineralogy of the Western Margin, North American Continent, Part Geology, Origin, Paragenesis and Mineral Distribution from Baja California Norte, Mexico, Western Canada and Alaska, USA. Baymin Journal, Vol. 19, No. 5
        • Santa Rita Peak
Louderback, George Davis & Walter C. Blasdale (1907), Benitoite, a new California gem mineral, with chemical analysis by Walter C. Blasdale: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 5: 149-153; Arnold, Ralph (1908), Notes on the occurrence of the recently described gem material, benitoite: Science, new series: 27: 312-314; Ford, William Ebenezer (1909), Neptunite crystals from San Benito, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 27: 235-240; Louderback, George Davis & Walter C. Blasdale (1909), Benitoite, its mineralogy, paragenesis and mode of occurrence: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 5: 354; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1911d), Notes on neptunite: USGS Bulletin 490: 55-57; Buttgenbach, H. (1937-38), Sur un crystal de neptunite: Soc. Geol.. de Belgique Liege Annales: 61: 324-325; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 102; Wise, W.S & Gill, R.H. (1977): Minerals of the Benitoite Gem mine. Mineralogical Record 8, 442-452; William S. Wise (1982) Strontiojoaquinite and bario-orthojoaquinite: two new members of the joaquinite group . American Mineralogist 67:809-81; Dunning, G. E., Walstrom, R. E., & Lechner, W. (2018) Barium Silicate Mineralogy of the Western Margin, North American Continent, Part Geology, Origin, Paragenesis and Mineral Distribution from Baja California Norte, Mexico, Western Canada and Alaska, USA. Baymin Journal, Vol. 19, No. 5
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 467.
  • Montana
    • Meagher Co.
Chakhmouradian A.R., Mitchell R.H. (2002): The mineralogy of Ba- and Zr-rich alkaline pegmatites from Gordon Butte, Crazy Mountains (Montana, USA): comparisons between potassic and sodic agpaitic pegmatites. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 143, 93-114.
  • New Mexico
    • Colfax Co.
      • Springer
        • Point of Rocks Mesa (Pecks Mesa)
Rocks & Min.:60:229.
  • North Carolina
    • Alexander Co.
Collected & identified by Michael Reynolds
矿物 and/or 产地  
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