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Népouite

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About NépouiteHide

Formula:
(Ni,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Colour:
Pale green
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Specific Gravity:
3.24
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named after type locality.

Classification of NépouiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1907
8/H.27-150
9.ED.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
D : Phyllosilicates with kaolinite layers composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.1.2b.3

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
1 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
14.26.3

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
26 : Silicates of Ni

Physical Properties of NépouiteHide

Vitreous, Pearly
Colour:
Pale green
Streak:
Greenish white
Hardness:
2 - 2½ on Mohs scale
Density:
3.24 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.26(13) g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of NépouiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.600 - 1.630 nγ = 1.635 - 1.650
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.035
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v medium
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X = dark green; Z = yellow-green

Chemical Properties of NépouiteHide

Formula:
(Ni,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4
IMA Formula:
Ni3Si2O5(OH)4

Crystallography of NépouiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.29(2) Å, b = 9.17(3) Å, c = 7.26(2) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.577 : 1 : 0.792
Unit Cell V:
352.18 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
As crude pseudohexagonal vermiform crystals, to 1 cm., massive.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.31 Å(100)
4.55 Å(50b)
3.63 Å(90)
2.894 Å(60)
2.501 Å(70)
2.321 Å(40)
1.530 Å(60)

Type Occurrence of NépouiteHide

Reference:
Glasser, M.E. (1907) Note sur une espèce minérale nouvelle, la népouite, silicate hydraté de nickel et de magnésie. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie: 30: 17-28.

Synonyms of NépouiteHide

Other Language Names for NépouiteHide

German:Népouit
Simplified Chinese:镍绿泥石
Spanish:Népouita

Relationship of Népouite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
Brindleyite(Ni,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon.
CaryopiliteMn2+3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.
ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.
CronstedtiteFe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon.
GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
KellyiteMn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
5 photos of Népouite associated with TrevoriteNi2+Fe3+2O4
2 photos of Népouite associated with QuartzSiO2
1 photo of Népouite associated with MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.ED.ClinochrysotileMon. 2/m
9.ED.05DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.05NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05Odinite(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)2.4((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.10HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.10HisingeriteFe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.ED.10Halloysite-7ÅAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.15AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.15AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.15Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.15Brindleyite(Ni,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15CaryopiliteMn2+3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15CronstedtiteFe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
9.ED.15Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15KellyiteMn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
9.ED.15LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
9.ED.15ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8Orth.
9.ED.15PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
9.ED.20Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2OAmor.
9.ED.20ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2OOrth.
9.ED.20ImogoliteAl2SiO3(OH)4
9.ED.20Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2OAmor.
9.ED.25BismutoferriteFe3+2Bi(SiO4)2(OH)Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.25ChapmaniteFe3+2Sb3+(Si2O5)O3(OH)Mon. m : Bm

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

71.1.2b.1CaryopiliteMn2+3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.
71.1.2b.2LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
71.1.2b.4Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.26.1Liebenbergite(Ni,Mg)2SiO4Orth.
14.26.2PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.
14.26.4WillemseiteNi3Si4O10(OH)2Mon.
14.26.5Karpinskite(Ni,Mg)2Si2O5(OH)2 (?)
14.26.6Falcondoite(Ni,Mg)4Si6O15(OH)2 · 6H2OOrth.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for NépouiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Glasser, M.E. (1907) Note sur une espèce minérale nouvelle, la népouite, silicate hydraté de nickel et de magnésie. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie: 30: 17-28.
Brindley, G.W., Wan, H.-M. (1975) Compositions, structures, and thermal behavior of nickel-containing minerals in the lizardite-nepouite series. American Mineralogist: 60: 863-871.
Mineralogical Magazine (1981): 44: 153.
Wiewióra, A. (1990) Crystallochemical classifications of phyllosilicates based on the unified system of projection of chemical composition: III. The serpentine-kaolin group. Clay Minerals: 25: 93-98.
Baron, F., Petit, S. (2016) Interpretation of the infrared spectra of the lizardite-nepouite series in the near- and mid-infrared range, American Mineralogist: 101: 423-430.

Internet Links for NépouiteHide

Localities for NépouiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Albania
 
  • Korçë County
Thorne, R., Roberts, S., Herrington, R. (2012) The formation and evolution of the Bitincke nickel laterite deposit, Albania. Mineralium Deposita, 47:8, 933-947. 
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
      • Heazlewood district
RRUFF Project Specimen ID: R050268
  • Western Australia
    • Coolgardie Shire
      • Kambalda
        • Kambalda Nickel mines
          • Juan complex
Eardleyite as a Product of the Supergene Alteration of Nickel Sulphides in Western Australia; E Nickel, C Davis, M Bussell, P Bridge, J Dunn, R Macdonald; American Mineralogist, Vol 62, pp 449-457, 1977
      • Widgiemooltha
Nickel E H, Robinson B W, Mumme W G (1993) Widgiemoolthalite: the new Ni analogue of hydromagnesite from Western Australia. American Mineralogist 78, 819-821; Clissold, M. E. (2007) Aspects of the Supergene Geochemistry of Copper, Nickel and Bismuth. PhD Thesis University of Sydney, Australia 162pp.
    • Leonora Shire
      • Eulaminna (Murrin Murrin mining centre)
Sue Koepke collection via Jiri Just
    • Wiluna Shire
      • Mount Keith
Grguric, B.A. (2003) Minerals of the MKD5 nickel deposit, Mount Keith, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 9, No.2 pp.55-71.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Spittal an der Drau District
      • Gmünd in Kärnten
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
        • Radlgraben
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
Burundi
 
  • Rutana Province
The Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA), sample # 13204; http://metafro.be/mineralogy/browse_hierarchical_geo?country=Burundi
Canada
 
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
      • Baie Verte Peninsula
        • Baie Verte
          • Advocate Ophiolite complex
Escayola, M., Garuti, G., Zaccarini, F., Proenza, J.A., Bédard, J.H. & Van Staal, C. (2011) Chromitite and platinum-group-element mineralization at Middle Arm Brook, Advocate Ophiolite complex, Baie Verte Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 49, 1523-1547.
  • Ontario
    • Timiskaming District
      • Cobalt-Gowganda region
        • Cobalt area
          • Coleman Township
            • Nipissing 404
Reiner Mielke 2017
China
 
  • Yunnan
    • Wenshan
      • Malipo County
Kaiji Yu (1981): Geology and Prospecting 17(1), 19-25 (in Chinese).
Czech Republic
 
  • South Moravian Region
    • Blansko District
No reference listed
  • Vysočina Region
    • Žďár nad Sázavou District
      • Bystřice nad Pernštejnem
Pelíšek, J.: Ni-nerosty v serpentinitu západní Moravy. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1987, roč. 32, č. 2, s. 207.
Dominican Republic
 
  • La Vega Province
    • Bonao
Villanova-de-Benavent, C., Proenza, J. A., Galí, S., Nieto, F., García-Casco, A., Roqué-Rosell, J., ... & Lewis, J. F. (2014). Mineralogy of Niphyllosilicates in the Falcondo Nilaterite deposit (Dominican Republic): A multiscale approach. In Proceedings ot the twenty first meeting of the International Mineralogical Association IMA (Vol. 298).
  • Monseñor Nouel Province
    • Bonao
Rob Lavinsky
DR Congo
 
  • Haut-Katanga
    • Kambove District
      • Shinkolobwe
MinRec 20:287-288
France
 
Brindley, G.W. & Hsien Ming Wan. (1975): Compositions, structures, and thermal behavior of nickel-containing minerals in the lizardite-nepouite series. American Mineralogist. 60, 863-871
    • Northern Province
      • Canala Commune
Dana 6:A2:75.; Glasser M E (1907) Note sur une espèce minérale nouvelle, la népouite, silicate hydraté de nickel et de magnésie, Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, 30, 17-28
      • Houaïlou Commune
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., Bliss, J.D., and Moring, B.C., 2011, Ni-Co laterite deposits of the world; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1058.
      • Kouaoua Commune
Dana 6:A2:75.; Glasser M E (1907) Note sur une espèce minérale nouvelle, la népouite, silicate hydraté de nickel et de magnésie, Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, 30, 17-28
      • Kua River
Dana 6:A2:75.; Glasser M E (1907) Note sur une espèce minérale nouvelle, la népouite, silicate hydraté de nickel et de magnésie, Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, 30, 17-28
      • Poya North Commune
        • Népoui
Dana 6:A2:75.; Glasser M E (1907) Note sur une espèce minérale nouvelle, la népouite, silicate hydraté de nickel et de magnésie, Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, 30, 17-28
C.R.Acad.Sci.Paris (1906) 143, 1173; Bull.Soc.fr.Min.(1907) 30, 17-28
    • Southern Province
      • Comboui River
Dana 6:A2:75.; Glasser M E (1907) Note sur une espèce minérale nouvelle, la népouite, silicate hydraté de nickel et de magnésie, Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie, 30, 17-28
Handbook of Mineralogy
      • Yaté Commune
Wells, Martin A.; Ramanaidou, Erick R.; Verrall, Michael; Tessarolo, Christian (2009): Mineralogy and crystal chemistry of "garnierites" in the Goro lateritic nickel deposit, New Caledonia. European Journal of Mineralogy 21, 467-483. ; Wells, M. A., Ramanaidou, E. R., Verrall, M., & Tessarolo, C. (2009). Mineralogy and crystal chemistry of “garnierites” in the Goro lateritic nickel deposit, New Caledonia. European Journal of Mineralogy, 21(2), 467-483.; Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., Bliss, J.D., and Moring, B.C., 2011, Ni-Co laterite deposits of the world; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1058. ; Wells, M.A., Ramanaidou, E.R., Verral, M., and Tessarolo, C., (2009) Mineralogy and crystal chemistry of “garnierites” in the Goro lateritic nickel deposit, New Caledonia. European Journal of Mineralogy, 21, p.467-483
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Franconia
      • Haßberge
        • Maroldsweisach
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Saxony
    • Zwickau
      • Glauchau
        • Callenberg
XRD and SEM-EDX analysis (T. Witzke)
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
No reference listed
Indonesia
 
  • Central Sulawesi Province
    • Petasia
Wei Fu, Yongzhang Zhou, Yuanrong Chen, Yunhu Hu, Nanchun Chen, Hujie Niu, Zhiwei Zhang, and Xiaolong Li (2010): Earth Science Frontiers 17(2), 127-139
  • Maluku Province
Taixu Luo (2008): Geology and Prospecting 52(4), 45-49
Italy
 
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Crissolo
        • Pian Melzé (Pian della Regina)
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    • Metropolitan City of Turin
      • Almese
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
      • Roure
Piccoli G.C., Maletto G., Bosio P., Lombardo B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Alba, 607 pp.
Japan
 
  • Fukushima Prefecture
    • Koriyama City
Matsubara (1996) Memoirs of the National Science Museum, 29, 33-40.
  • Mie Prefecture
    • Toba City
Minakawa et al (1989) Sanko-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi, 27.; Go Ito, 2004.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Aktobe Region
    • Kargaly
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data 2019
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Zagora Province
      • Aït Ahmane
Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
North Macedonia
 
  • Veles
Spasovski, O, Doneva B. (2009) Metalogenetic Characteristics of the Groot Fe-Ni Deposit Republic of Macedonia. 3rd Balkan Mining Congress, BALKANMINE 2009. :23.: The Chamber of Mining Engineers of Turkey
Norway
 
  • Telemark
    • Porsgrunn
      • Auenslandet
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71; Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Ząbkowice Śląskie Co.
      • Gmina Ząbkowice Śląskie
Spangenberg, K., and Müller, M. (1949): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 1(5/6), 560-572.
Spangenberg, K., and Müller, M. (1949): Die lateritische Zersetzung des Peridotits bei der Bildung der Nickelerzlagerstätte von Frankenstein in Schlesien. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 1(5/6), 560-572
Portugal
 
  • Aveiro
    • Albergaria-a-Velha
      • Branca
Marques de Sá, J. & Leal Gomes, C. (2010): Les mines de cuivre et nickel de Palhal et Telhadela, Albergaria-a-Velha, Aveiro, Portugal. Le Règne Minéral, 92, 36-47.
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Verkhny Ufaley
      • Ufaley District (Ufalei District)
Talovina, I.V., Lazarenkov, V.G., Ryzhkova, S.O., Ugol'kov, V.L., and Vorontsova, N.I. (2008): Lithology and Mineral Resources 43(6), 588-595.; Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., Bliss, J.D., and Moring, B.C., 2011, Ni-Co laterite deposits of the world; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1058.
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Serov
      • Kola massif
Mikhailov, B.M. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(4), 351-364.
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo
    • Vhembe District
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 227 pp.
  • Mpumalanga
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Barberton
        • Bon Accord
Am. Min. 61, 502 (1976); Zaccarini, F., Tredoux, M., Miller, D. E., Garuti, G., Aiglsperger, T., & Proenza, J. A. (2014). The occurrence of platinum-group element and gold minerals in the Bon Accord Ni-oxide body, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 99(8-9), 1774-1782.
South Korea
 
  • Gyeonggi Province
    • Gwancheon city (Kwancheon)
Song, Y., Moon, H. S., & Chon, H. T. (1995). New occurrence and characterization of Niserpentines in the Kwangcheon area, Korea. Clay Minerals, 30(3), 211-224.
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Málaga
      • Álora
Romero Silva, J.C. (2003) Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Málaga. Published by CEDMA Málaga County council. 318 pages, 1map. (in Spanish).
      • Carratraca
        • Los Jarales
Romero Silva JC (2003) Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Malaga España. Edita CEDMA County council
Romero Silva JC (2003). Minerales y Rocas de la Provincia de Málaga. CEDMA edition County council. Málaga 318pp
      • Estepona
Romero Silva, JC (2003). Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Málaga. Edited by Cedma. Malaga County Council 318 pg. 1 map
      • Ojén
        • Ojén lherzolite massif
Calvo, M. (2018). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol IX. Silicatos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 767 págs.
      • Ronda Massif
Romero Silva, JC (2003). Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Málaga. Edited by Cedma. Malaga County Council 318 pg. 1 map
  • Catalonia
    • Tarragona
      • Priorat
        • Falset
Joan Abella i Creus specimens; XRD by Dr. Felicià Plana and Josep Elvira, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en Barcelona.
USA
 
  • California
    • Del Norte Co.
      • Klamath Mountains
        • Diamond Creek Mining District
          • Rockland
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 197; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 422.
      • Klamath Mts
        • Gasquet
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 422.
        • Rocky Saddle
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 422.
    • El Dorado Co.
      • Salmon Falls Mining District (Flagstaff Hill area)
        • Flagstaff Hill
Clark, Wm. B. & D.W. Carlson (1956), Mines and mineral resources of El Dorado County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology: 52(4): 387, 438; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 197; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 422.
Montoya, J.W. & Gretta S. Baur (1963), Nickeliferous serpentines, chlorites, and related minerals found in two lateritic ores: American Mineralogist: 48: 1227, 1228.
    • Imperial Co.
      • Coyote Mts
        • Carrizo Mountain
Pemberton, H Earl " Minerals of California" Van Nostrand Reinholt Press
      • Plaster City
Morton, P.K. (1977) Mines and mineral resources of Imperial County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology County Report 7, 104 pp.: 77; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 422.
    • Mariposa Co.
      • Mother Lode Belt
        • Bagby-Mariposa-Mount Bullion-Whitlock Mining District
          • Bagby
            • Pacific Mining Co. group
Bradley, W.W. (1941), Thirty-seventh report of the State Mineralogist: California Division Mines Report 37: 491; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 422.
    • San Benito Co.
      • New Idria Mining District
        • Idria Peak
Bradley, W.W. (1938), Thirty-fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Division Mines Report 34: 608; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 197; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 423.
    • Santa Cruz Co.
      • Santa Cruz
Mineralogical Record: 17:315
    • Tulare Co.
      • Ivanhoe
        • Venice Hills
Goodwin, Joseph Grant (1958), Mines and mineral resources of Tulare County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology (Report 54): 54(3): 344; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 424.
  • New Mexico
    • Luna Co.
Excalibur Mineral Corporation - Rare Species K-N
  • North Carolina
Genth,F.A,1891,The Minerals of North Carolina,pg.63 and pg.88
    • Jackson Co.
      • Webster-Balsam
Conley,J.F,1958,Mineral Localities of North Carolina,pg 39,32,64
    • Macon Co.
      • Cowee Valley
        • Ellijay Mining District
          • Franklin
            • Corundum Hill
Genth,F.A,1891,The Minerals of North Carolina,pg63 and pg.103
 
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