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Natron

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About NatronHide

Formula:
Na2CO3 · 10H2O
Colour:
Colourless to white, greyish, yellowish; colourless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
1 - 1½
Specific Gravity:
1.478
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
In allusion to its sodium content (Latin = NATRium).
This page provides mineralogical data about Natron.


Classification of NatronHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
5.CB.10

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
C : Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O
B : With large cations (alkali and alkali-earth carbonates)
15.1.2.1

15 : HYDRATED NORMAL CARBONATES
1 : A(XO3)·xH2O
11.1.7

11 : Carbonates
1 : Carbonates of the alkali metals and ammonium

Pronounciation of NatronHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of NatronHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless to white, greyish, yellowish; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness:
1 - 1½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {001} distinct; on {010} imperfect; on {110} in traces.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
1.478 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of NatronHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.405 nβ = 1.425 nγ = 1.440
2V:
Measured: 71° , Calculated: 80°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.035
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v

Chemical Properties of NatronHide

Formula:
Na2CO3 · 10H2O
IMA Formula:
Na2(CO3) · 10H2O

Crystallography of NatronHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.75 Å, b = 9 Å, c = 12.6 Å
β = 115.85°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.417 : 1 : 1.4
Unit Cell V:
1,301.18 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Occurs naturally only as crystalline, granular, and columnar crusts. Artificial crystals somewhat tabular {010} with varying development of the [100] and [001] zones.
Twinning:
On {001}.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
In solution in soda lakes.

Synonyms of NatronHide

Other Language Names for NatronHide

Catalan:Natró
Dutch:Natron
Italian:Natron
Polish:Natron
Portuguese:Natrão
Simplified Chinese:泡碱
Spanish:Natrón
Traditional Chinese:泡鹼

Common AssociatesHide

CalciteCaCO3
GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2O
TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.CB.05ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
5.CB.15TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
5.CB.20MonohydrocalciteCaCO3 · H2OTrig. 3 : P31
5.CB.25IkaiteCaCO3 · 6H2OMon.
5.CB.30PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2OOrth. mm2 : Fdd2
5.CB.35GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
5.CB.40ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
5.CB.45BaylissiteK2Mg(CO3)2 · 4H2OMon.
5.CB.50TuliokiteNa6BaTh(CO3)6 · 6H2OTrig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.1.1ZabuyeliteLi2CO3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
11.1.2NatriteNa2CO3Mon.
11.1.3NahcoliteNaHCO3Mon. 2/m
11.1.4WegscheideriteNa5H3(CO3)4Tric. 1 : P1
11.1.5ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
11.1.6TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
11.1.8KaliciniteKHCO3Mon. 2/m
11.1.9ShortiteNa2Ca2(CO3)3Orth. mm2 : Amm2
11.1.10NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
11.1.11NatrofairchilditeNa2Ca(CO3)2Orth.
11.1.12ZemkoriteNa2Ca(CO3)2Hex.
11.1.13PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2OOrth. mm2 : Fdd2
11.1.14GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
11.1.15BaylissiteK2Mg(CO3)2 · 4H2OMon.
11.1.16FairchilditeK2Ca(CO3)2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
11.1.17BütschliiteK2Ca(CO3)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
11.1.18Teschemacherite(NH4)HCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pccn

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Melting Point: 34.5°.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Natron in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for NatronHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
de Lisle, Romé (1783) Cristallographie, ou description des formes propres à tous les corps du regne minéral. 4 volumes, Paris: 1: 149 (as Cristaux d'alkali fixe minéral).
Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol., Paris: 2: 374 (as Souda carbonatée).
Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: 832 (as Soda).
Brooke (1823) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 6: 287 (as Subcarbonate of Soda)
Mohs, F. (1824) Grundriss der Mineralogie. 2 volumes, Dresden: 2: 27 (as Hemiprismatisches Natronsalz).
Zippe, F.X.M. (1839) Physiographie des Mineralreichs. Vienna: 2: 29.
Weisbach, Albin (1875) Synopsis mineralogical, systematische Übersicht des Mineralreiches. 78 pp., Freiberg: 7 (as Natrit).
Goldschmidt, V. (1886) Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien. 3 volumes, vol. 3, 420p.: 139.
Hintze, Carl (1916) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: I(3A): 2778.
Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 8: 63.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 230-231.
Acta Crystallographica (1969): B25: 2656-2658.

Internet Links for NatronHide

Localities for NatronHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Transantarctic Mountains
      • Buckley Island quadrangle
Liu, T. and Bish, D.L. (2010) MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE EVAPORITES AT LEWIS CLIFF ICE TONGUE, ANTARCTICA: A POTENTIAL MARTIAN ANALOG. 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2010); Liu, T., Bish, D. L., Socki, R. A., Harvey, R. P., & Tonui, E. (2015). Mineralogy and formation of evaporite deposits from the Lewis Cliff ice tongue, Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 27(1), 73-84.
Austria
 
  • Burgenland
    • Neusiedl am See District
      • Seewinkel
A.Csaplovics (2014)
Götzinger, M. A. (2009): Die Salzminerale des Seewinkels, Burgenland.
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí
    • Nor Lípez Province
      • San Juan
USGS Bulletin # 1975, (1992)
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Nicola Mining Division
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231.
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
GRICE, J.D. (1989) Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec: Canada's Most Diverse Mineral Locality. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 100-108; 166-175.; HORVÁTH, L., GAULT, R.A. (1990) The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire. Mineralogical Record, 21, 281-359.
  • Saskatchewan
Last, W. M. (1990). Paleochemistry and paleohydrology of Ceylon Lake, a salt-dominated playa basin in the northern Great Plains, Canada. Journal of Paleolimnology, 4(3), 219-238.
China
 
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
      • Alxa Left Banner (Alashan Zuoqi)
Zhenmi Liu (2000): Journal of Salt Lake Research 29(3), 21-26
  • Tibet
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Baingoin Co. (Bange Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Nyima Co. (Nima Co.)
Qian Wu, Mianping Zheng, Zhen Nie, and Lingzhong Bu (2013): Chinese Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 29(1), 36-44
Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Kezao Chen (1992): Quaternary Sciences 3(8), 193-202
    • Hetian Prefecture (Khotan Prefecture; Hotan Prefecture; Hoten Prefecture)
      • Yutian Co. (Keriye Co.)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Egypt
 
  • Beheira
Marchesini, M., Barresi, A. (2009) I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.; Marco Marchesini & Antonello Barresi (2019) The Wadi Natrun evaporite deposits, Western Desert, Buhayra Governate, Egypt. Mineralogical Record 50:723-748
Salem, S.M., Sayed Ahmed El Gammal, El. (2018) Salt Minerals at Wadi El Natrun Saline Lakes, Egypt. New Implications from Remote Sensing Data. European Chemical Bulletin, 7(2), 72-80. [DOI: 10.17628/ecb.2018.7.72-80].
Salem, S.M., Sayed Ahmed El Gammal, El. (2018) Salt Minerals at Wadi El Natrun Saline Lakes, Egypt. New Implications from Remote Sensing Data. European Chemical Bulletin, 7(2), 72-80. [DOI: 10.17628/ecb.2018.7.72-80].
Ethiopia
 
  • Oromia Region
Field collected by Alfredo Petrov, ID by wet chemistry by Dr Fred Riley, chemistry teacher at Ethiopian Adventist College.
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Penmarc'h
Chauris, L. (2014): Minéraux de Bretagne, Les Editions du Piat, 156.
Germany
 
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Ahrweiler
      • Brohltal
        • Burgbrohl
Abandoned puzzolane quarries located in the Brohltal, north of Laach lake
Hungary
 
  • Bács-Kiskun County
    • Kiskőrös District
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
  • Csongrád County
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231.
  • Hajdú-Bihar County
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231.
  • Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231; www.dinet.it/Mineral-GMC/AMI/vesuvio.html.
  • Sicily
    • Metropolitan City of Catania
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231.
Kenya
 
  • Trans-Nzoia County
    • Mount Elgon
Bowell, R. J., Warren, A., & Redmond, I. (1996). Formation of cave salts and utilization by elephants in the Mount Elgon region, Kenya. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 113(1), 63-79.
Mongolia
 
  • Eastern Gobi Desert
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231.
Russia
 
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Khibiny Massif
PEKOV, I.V. & NIKOLAEV, A.P. (2013) Minerals of the pegmatites and hydrothermal assemblages of the Koashva deposit (Khibiny, Kola Peninsula, Russia). Mineralogical Almanac 189(2), 7-65.
Pekov, I.V. & Podlesnyi, A.S. (2004): Kukisvumchorr Deposit: Mineralogy of Alkaline Pegmatites and Hydrotermalites. Mineralogical Almanac, vol. 7, 140 pages + xxiv photo's pages
    • Lovozersky District
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
        • Umbozero mine (Umbozerskii mine; Umba Mine)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Pekov, I.V. (2000): Lovozero Massif. Moscow, Ocean Pictures Ltd, 480 pp.
      • Kedykverpakhk Mountain
        • Karnasurt mine (Kedyk area)
Mineralogical Record: 36(4): 397-416.
Spain
 
  • Aragón
    • Huesca
      • Flumen-Monegros District
Vizcayno, C., Garcia-Gonzalez, M. T., Gutierrez, M., & Rodriguez, R. (1995). Mineralogical, chemical and morphological features of salt accumulations in the Flumen-Monegros district, NE Spain. Geoderma, 68(3), 193-210.
Vizcayno, C., Garcia-Gonzalez, M. T., Gutierrez, M., & Rodriguez, R. (1995). Mineralogical, chemical and morphological features of salt accumulations in the Flumen-Monegros district, NE Spain. Geoderma, 68(3), 193-210.
Vizcayno, C., Garcia-Gonzalez, M. T., Gutierrez, M., & Rodriguez, R. (1995). Mineralogical, chemical and morphological features of salt accumulations in the Flumen-Monegros district, NE Spain. Geoderma, 68(3), 193-210.
Switzerland
 
  • Vaud
    • Bex
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 288.
Turkmenistan
 
  • Balkan
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Just
Bowell, R.J. (1992): Journal of the Russell Society 4(2), 51; Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Owens Valley
        • Olancha
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231; Chatard, T.M. (1890b), Natural soda; Its occurrence and utilization: USGS Bulletin 60: 75; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 277-278.
    • Lake Co.
      • Sulphur Creek Mining District (Sulfur Creek Mining District; Wilbur Springs Mining District)
        • Clear Lake Oaks
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231.
    • San Bernardino Co.
Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 297; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 278.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
  • Colorado
    • Alamosa Co.
      • San Luis Valley
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
MILTON, C. (1977): Mineralogy of the Green River Formation. Mineralogical Record 8, 368-379.
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Soda Lake Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231; NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
USBM Inf Circ 6941 (1938)
  • Oregon
    • Lake Co.
Am.Min.54:1034
  • Washington
    • Grant Co.
      • Soap Lake
Bennett, W. A. G. (1962), Saline Lake Deposits in Washington, Bulletin 49, State of Washington Division of Mines and Geology.
      • Warden
W. A. G. Bennett, 1962, Bulletin 49, State of Washington Division of Mines and Geology
www.dnr.wa.gov/geology/okanogan.htm.
  • Wyoming
(2004) Mineral Occurrence and Development Potential Report :U.S Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management Casper Field Office , Wyoming pp. 3-25
Mars
 
  • Aeolis quadrangle
    • Gusev Crater
SILICA-RICH DEPOSITS AND HYDRATED MINERALS AT GUSEV CRATER, MARS. M. S. Rice1, J. F.
 
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