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About MercalliteHide

Giuseppe Mercalli
Colourless, sky-blue; colourless in transmitted light
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in 1936 by Guido Carobbi in honor of Giuseppe Mercalli (21 May 1850, Milan, Italy – 19 March 1914, Naples, Italy), volcanologist. At different times he was professor of geology at the University of Catania, professor at Naples University, and Director of the Vesuvius Observatory.
This page provides mineralogical data about Mercallite.

Classification of MercalliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations

1 : Anhydrous Acid Sulfates

25 : Sulphates
1 : Sulphates of the alkali metals and ammonium

Physical Properties of MercalliteHide

Colourless, sky-blue; colourless in transmitted light
None Observed
2.31 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of MercalliteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.445 nβ = 1.460 nγ = 1.491
Measured: 56° , Calculated: 72°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.046
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
relatively strong

Chemical Properties of MercalliteHide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of MercalliteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.79 Å, b = 18.96 Å, c = 8.41 Å
a:b:c = 0.516 : 1 : 0.444
Unit Cell V:
1,561.05 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Stalactites composed of minute tabular crystals. Crystals tabular {001} and elongated [100] at times (artificial).

Crystal StructureHide

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2x2x2 | 3x3x3 | 4x4x4
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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0009207MercalliteLoopstra L H, MacGillavry V H (1958) The crystal structure of KHSO4 (mercallite) Acta Crystallographica 11 349-3541958synthetic0293
0009528MercalliteCotton F A, Frenz B A, Hunter D L (1975) The structure of potassium hydrogensulfate Acta Crystallographica B31 302-3041975synthetic0293
0009570MercallitePayan F, Haser R (1976) On the hydrogen bonding in potassium hydrogen sulphate. Comparison with a previous crystal structure determination Acta Crystallographica B32 1875-18791976synthetic0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of MercalliteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Active volcanic fumaroles.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for MercalliteHide

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.AD.CalciolangbeiniteK2Ca2(SO4)3Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
7.AD.BubnovaiteK2Na8Ca(SO4)6Trig. 3m : P3 1c
7.AD.05ArcaniteK2SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.AD.05Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.AD.25GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
7.AD.30AnhydriteCaSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.AD.35AnglesitePbSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.AD.35BaryteBaSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.AD.35CelestineSrSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.AD.40Palmierite(K,Na)2Pb(SO4)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.1.1ThénarditeNa2SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fddd
25.1.2MatteucciteNaHSO4 · H2OMon.
25.1.3MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2OMon. 2/m
25.1.4ArcaniteK2SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.1.8Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma

Other InformationHide

Soluble in water, yielding an acidic solution.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for MercalliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Marignac, J.C. (1856) Annales des mines [5]: 9: 6. (artificial)
Marignac, J.C. (1856) Oeuvres: 1: 436. (artificial)
Lang (1858) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 51: 95.
Gossner, B. (1904) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 39: 381.
Groth, P.H.R. (1908) Chemische Kristallographie. Leipzig. 5 volumes: vol. 2: 313. (artificial)
Carobbi, G. (1935) «Mercallite» nuovo minerale fra i prodotti dell'attivita fumarolica vesuviana del 1933. Rendiconti, Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rendus, Rome: 21: 385-393.
Carobbi, G. (1936) Fluoruro di allumino, magnesio e calcio, bisolfato sodico, mercallite ed hieratite fra i prodotti dell' attivita fumarolica vesuviana del 1934. Atti della R. Accademia di scienze, lettere ed arti di Modena: v1: ser5: 33.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 395.
Loopstra, L.H., MacGillavry, V.H. (1958) The crystal structure of KHSO4 (mercallite). Acta Crystallographica: 11: 349-354.
Cruickshank, D.W.J. (1964) Refinements of structures containing bonds between Si, P, S or Cl and O or N. VIII. KHSO4 (mercallite). Acta Crystallographica: 17: 682-683.
Cotton, F.A., Frenz, B.A., Hunter, D.L. (1975) The structure of potassium hydrogen sulfate. Acta Crystallographica: B31: 302-304.
Payan, F., Haser, R. (1976) On the hydrogen bonding in potassium hydrogen sulphate. Comparison with a previous crystal structure determination. Acta Crystallographica: B32: 1875-1879.

Internet Links for MercalliteHide

Localities for MercalliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Saskatchewan
Shang, Y. (2000). Mineralogy, lithostratigraphy and geochemistry of North Ingebright Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada. PhD thesis University of Manitoba.
Costa Rica
  • Cartago Province
    • Irazú Volcano
Ulloa, A., Gázquez, F., Sanz-Arranz, A., Medina, J., Rull, F., Calaforra, J.M., Alvarado, G.E., Martinez, M., Avard, G., de Moor, J., De Waele, J. (2018) Extremely high diversity of sulfate minerals in caves of the Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) related to crater lake and fumarolic activity. International Journal of Speleology, 47(2), 229-246.
  • Southern Region
    • Rangárþing eystra
Balić-Žunić, T., Garavelli, A., Jakobsson, S. P., Jonasson, K., Katerinopoulos, A., Kyriakopoulos, K., & Acquafredda, P. (2016). Fumarolic minerals: An overview of active European volcanoes. In Updates in Volcanology-From Volcano Modelling To Volcano Geology. InTechOpen.
Italy (TL)
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 395; Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI; Accad. Lincei. Rend. Cl. Sci. fis. mat. nat. Roma (1935).
Russo, M., and Punzo, I. (2004) I Minerali del Somma-Vesuvio. AMI Associazione Micro-mineralogica Italiana, Tipografia Fantigrafica s.r.l., Cremona, 320 pp.
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