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Liroconite

This page kindly sponsored by Robert Bowell
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About LiroconiteHide

Formula:
Cu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
Colour:
Sky-blue to green; light blue to light bluish green in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Specific Gravity:
2.9 - 3
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1825 by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger from the Greek λειρός = pale, and κουία = powder, in allusion to the color of its streak.
A rare secondary mineral found in oxidized zones of copper deposits.


Classification of LiroconiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.DF.20

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
F : With only medium-sized cations, (OH,etc.):RO4 > 3:1
42.2.1.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
20.1.13

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
1 : Arsenates of Cu

Pronounciation of LiroconiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of LiroconiteHide

Vitreous, Resinous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Sky-blue to green; light blue to light bluish green in transmitted light.
Streak:
Light blue
Hardness:
2 - 2½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
On {110} and {011}, indistinct.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
2.9 - 3 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.97 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Density varies with the P:As ratio. Calculated value based on P:As = 1:4.

Optical Data of LiroconiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.612 nβ = 1.652 nγ = 1.675
2V:
Measured: 67° , Calculated: 72°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.063
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
none
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of LiroconiteHide

Formula:
Cu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O

Crystallography of LiroconiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.66 Å, b = 7.57 Å, c = 9.89 Å
β = 91.25°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.672 : 1 : 1.306
Unit Cell V:
947.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals thin or lenticular [001] with a flat octahedral aspect. The faces of m and e are striated parallel to their intersection edges.

Crystallographic forms of LiroconiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Liroconite no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Liroconite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0010249LiroconiteBurns P C, Eby R K, Hawthorne F C (1991) Refinement of the structure of liroconite, a heteropolyhedral framework oxysalt mineral Acta Crystallographica C47 916-9191991Roughton Gill, England0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.46 Å(10)
5.95 Å(9)
3.92 Å(5)
3.01 Å(10)
2.79 Å(5)
2.69 Å(6)
2.21 Å(5)

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Oxidized zones of copper deposits.

Type Occurrence of LiroconiteHide

Synonyms of LiroconiteHide

Other Language Names for LiroconiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
CupriteCu2O
Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
10 photos of Liroconite associated with ClinoclaseCu3(AsO4)(OH)3
7 photos of Liroconite associated with OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
4 photos of Liroconite associated with StrashimiriteCu8(AsO4)4(OH)4 · 5H2O
4 photos of Liroconite associated with QuartzSiO2
3 photos of Liroconite associated with ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
2 photos of Liroconite associated with PharmacosideriteKFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
1 photo of Liroconite associated with ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.DF.05HotsoniteAl11(SO4)3(PO4)2(OH)21 · 16H2OTric.
8.DF.10BolivariteAl2(PO4)(OH)3 · 4-5H2OAmor.
8.DF.10EvansiteAl3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2OAmor.
8.DF.10Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2OOrth.
8.DF.10Rosièresite(Pb, Cu, Al, P, O, H)Amor.
8.DF.15Rusakovite(Fe3+,Al)5(VO4,PO4)2(OH)9 · 3H2O
8.DF.25SieleckiiteCu3Al4(PO4)2(OH)12 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.DF.30ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2OTrig. 3 : R3
8.DF.35ParnauiteCu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2OOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
8.DF.40GladiusiteFe2(Fe,Mg)4(PO4)(OH)11(H2O)Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

20.1.1LammeriteCu3(AsO4)2Mon.
20.1.2OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
20.1.3ClinoclaseCu3(AsO4)(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
20.1.4CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
20.1.5CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
20.1.6Chlorotile (of Frenzel)
20.1.7GeminiteCu(HAsO4) · H2OTric.
20.1.8EuchroiteCu2(AsO4)(OH) · 3H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
20.1.9StrashimiriteCu8(AsO4)4(OH)4 · 5H2OMon.
20.1.10ArhbariteCu2Mg(AsO4)(OH)3Tric. 1 : P1
20.1.11LindackeriteCuCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2OTric. 1 : P1
20.1.12ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
20.1.14CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2OTric.
20.1.15ChenevixiteCu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
20.1.16ArthuriteCuFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LiroconiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Bournon (1801) Phil. Trans.: 174 (as Octahedral Arseniate of Copper).
Rashleigh, P. (1802) Specimens of British Minerals Selected from the Cabinet of Phillip Rashleigh. London. part 2: Pl. 2, 5, 11 (as Octahedral Arseniate of Copper).
Werner (1803) (as Linsenerz).
Werner (1804) Ludwig's Min.: 2: 215 (as Linsenerz).
Karsten, D.L.G. (1808) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin, second edition: 64 (as Linsenerz).
Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 1051 (as Linsenkupfer).
Mohs, F. (1822) Grundriss der Mineralogie. 2 volumes, Dresden: 180 (as Lirokon-malachite).
Glocker, E.F. (1831) Handbuch der Mineralogie, Nürnberg: 859 (as Chalcophacit).
Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 600.
Hermann (1844) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 33: 296.
Damour (1845) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 13: 414.
Des Cloizeaux (1859): 2: 71.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 853.
Church (1895) Mineralogical Magazine: 11: 1.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 163.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 101.
Hintze, Carl (1931) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 953.
American Mineralogist (1951): 36: 484.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 921-922.
Giuseppetti G., Coda A., Mazzi F., Tadini C. (1962) La struttura cristallina della liroconite Cu2Al[(As,P)O4(OH)4]*4(H2O). Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 19-42.
Burns, P. C., Eb, R. K. and Hawthorne, F. C. (1991): Refinement of the structure of liroconite, a heteropolyhedral framework oxysalt mineral. Acta Cryst. C 47, 916-919.

Internet Links for LiroconiteHide

Localities for LiroconiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Olary Province
      • Boolcoomatta Reserve (Boolcoomata Station)
Noble (1983): Catalogue of South Australian Minerals ; Vera Munro-Smith (2006) Cobalt Mineralisation in Selected Australian Deposits. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney.
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Cologne
      • Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis
        • Engelskirchen
          • Loope
Habel, B. & Linder, R. (2009): Die Grube "Castor" bei Loope und ihre Mineralien. Mineralien-Welt 20 (3), 10-23
  • Saxony
    • Mittelsachsen
      • Sayda
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Thuringia
    • Saale-Orla District
      • Bad Lobenstein
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Hirschberg
        • Ullersreuth
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 922.
Ireland
 
  • Leinster
    • Wicklow County
      • Avoca
Barry Flannery personal observations of University College Dublin historical collections. Specimen now resides at National Museum of Ireland. NOTE THAT THERE IS A DEBATE ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF THIS REFERENCE SPECIMEN
Russia
 
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Beryozovsky
      • Berezovsk deposit
Cook, R. B. (2001). Connoisseur's Choice: Liroconite: Gwennap, Cornwall, England. Rocks & Minerals, 76(6), 404-405.
  • Tuva
    • Chedi-Kholsky District
Cook, R. B. (2001). Connoisseur's Choice: Liroconite: Gwennap, Cornwall, England. Rocks & Minerals, 76(6), 404-405.
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica District
      • Ľubietová
Pauliš,P.,Ďuďa,R.,2002: Nejzajímavejší mineralogická naletište Slovenska. Kuttna,K.Hora, 136p
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 922; Koděra, M., a kol.: Topografická mineralogie Slovenska. Sv. 3 Sed-Ž, Bratislava, Veda 1990, s. 1247-1256.
    • Brezno District
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
Spain
 
  • Valencian Community
    • Castellón
Mineralogía de la concesión San Rafael, Villahermosa del Río, Castellón, España
        • San Rafael claim
- Cócera, H., Menor-Salván, C. and Muñoz-Alvarado, R. (2010): Mineralogía de la concesión San Rafael, Villahermosa del Río, Castellón, España. Acopios, 1, 1-51. [http://mti-acopios.blogspot.com/ ; http://issuu.com/malacate/docs/acopios-1-1?mode=a_p]
UK
 
  • England
    • Cheshire
      • Alderley Edge
No reference listed
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
      • Calstock
        • Gunnislake
          • Clitters United Mines
Hall, T.M. (1868): Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Smyth, W.M., Reeks, T., and Rudler, F.W. (1864): A Catalogue of the Mineral Collections in the Museum of Practical Geology. HMSO Publications (London), 190pp.
      • Carharrack
        • Carharrack
          • West Clifford United Mines
[Ian Bruce, pers. comm.]; Bruce, I, & D. Aubrey-Jones (1998) UKJMM 19:18-23
      • Gwennap
        • St Day
Phillips, W. (1823): An Elementary Introduction to the Knowledge of Mineralogy, 3rd ed. William Phillips (London), 535 pp.; Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society (1870): 38. Annual Report, pp. 30-31; Collins, J.H. (1892): A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon, 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.; American Mineralogist 36:484-503
David Ifold collection
      • Redruth
Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society (1870): 38. Annual Report, pp. 30-31
      • St Day
Phillips, W. (1823) An Elementary Introduction to the Knowledge of Mineralogy, 3rd ed. William Phillips (London), 535 pp.; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1892) A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon, 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.; Miers, H.A. (1894) Spangolite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 10, n° 48, 273-277.; American Mineralogist (1951) 36: 484.; Embrey, P.G. and Symes, R.F. (1987) Minerals of Cornwall and Devon. British Museum (Natural History), London, 154 pp.; Rocks & Minerals: 60(1): 24.
Phillips, W. (1823): An Elementary Introduction to the Knowledge of Mineralogy, 3rd ed. William Phillips (London), 535 pp.; Embrey, P.G., and Symes, R.F. (1987): Minerals of Cornwall and Devon. British Museum of Natural History (London), 154 pp.; Dana 6: 853
      • St Ewe
        • Sticker
          • Kingsdown Mine (Hewas Water Mine)
Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1871): A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon. D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.
      • St Ives
        • Carbis Bay
Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.
      • St Just
        • Botallack
          • Botallack Mine
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
    • Cumbria
      • Allerdale
        • Caldbeck
          • Potts Gill
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953).
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous Mineral Localities: Pyromorphite Group Minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
      • Bisbee
Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 5.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Inyo Mts (Inyo Range)
Calif. Div. of Mines & Geology Bull. #189, Murdoch, et al (1966): 50.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 922; Calif. Div. of Mines & Geology Bull. #189, Murdoch, et al (1966): 50.
          • Cerro Gordo
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Dunn(1995):Pt5:671.
 
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