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Liebigite

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About LiebigiteHide

07482250014946683244853.jpg
Justus von Liebig
Formula:
Ca2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 11H2O
Colour:
Green to yellowish-green
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
2.41
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in honor of Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803, Darmstadt, Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt, Holy Roman Empire - 18 April 1873, Munich, Kingdom of Bavaria, German Empire), chemist who is considered one of the principal founders of analytical and organic chemistry. He made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and has been called the "father of the fertilizer industry".
A secondary uranium mineral.


Classification of LiebigiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
5.ED.20

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
E : Uranyl Carbonates
D : UO2:CO3 = 1:3
15.3.2.1

15 : HYDRATED NORMAL CARBONATES
3 : AmBn(XO3)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p = 1:1

Physical Properties of LiebigiteHide

Vitreous, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on cleavage {100}
Colour:
Green to yellowish-green
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
On {100}.
Density:
2.41 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.43 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of LiebigiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.497 nβ = 1.502 nγ = 1.539
2V:
Measured: 37° to 42°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.042
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
moderate r > v
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Nearly colourless
Y = Light yellowish green
Z = Light yellowish green

Chemical Properties of LiebigiteHide

Formula:
Ca2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 11H2O

Crystallography of LiebigiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 16.699 Å, b = 17.557 Å, c = 13.697 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.951 : 1 : 0.78
Unit Cell V:
4,015.75 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Crystals equant or short prismatic [001], normally indistinct with rounded edges and convex or vicinal faces. Commonly granular or scaly aggregates and thin crusts; botryoidal.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0015691LiebigiteMereiter K (1982) The crystal structure of liebigite, Ca2UO2(CO3)3*~11H2O Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 30 277-2881982Joachimsthal, Bohmen0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Secondary mineral formed by alkteration of uraninite in alkaline carbonate solutions.

Type Occurrence of LiebigiteHide

Synonyms of LiebigiteHide

Other Language Names for LiebigiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10-12H2O
CarnotiteK2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
UraniniteUO2
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
8 photos of Liebigite associated with VogliteCa2Cu(UO2)(CO3)4 · 6H2O
3 photos of Liebigite associated with GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
3 photos of Liebigite associated with NickelineNiAs
3 photos of Liebigite associated with BismuthBi
2 photos of Liebigite associated with BayleyiteMg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2O
2 photos of Liebigite associated with RabbittiteCa3Mg3(UO2)2(CO3)6(OH)4 · 18H2O
1 photo of Liebigite associated with ZelleriteCa(UO2)(CO3)2 · 5H2O
1 photo of Liebigite associated with Uranopilite(UO2)6(SO4)O2(OH)6 · 14H2O
1 photo of Liebigite associated with SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
1 photo of Liebigite associated with UraniniteUO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.ED.05BayleyiteMg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2OMon.
5.ED.10SwartziteMgCa(UO2)(CO3)3 · 12H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
5.ED.15AlbrechtschraufiteCa4Mg(UO2)2(CO3)6F2 · 17-18H2OTric. 1 : P1
5.ED.25RabbittiteCa3Mg3(UO2)2(CO3)6(OH)4 · 18H2OMon.
5.ED.30AndersoniteNa2Ca(UO2)(CO3)3 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
5.ED.35GrimseliteK3Na(UO2)(CO3)3 · H2OHex.
5.ED.40WidenmannitePb2(OH)2[(UO2)(CO3)2]Orth.
5.ED.45ZnucaliteZn12Ca(UO2)(CO3)3(OH)22 · 4H2OOrth.
5.ED.50ČejkaiteNa4(UO2)(CO3)3Mon. m : Bb
5.ED.50AgricolaiteK4(UO2)(CO3)3Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Fluorescence of LiebigiteHide

Green to blue green fluorescence (LW & SWUV).

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in H2SO4 with effervescence.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Liebigite loses 10 of its 11 water molecules in the range between 25 and 150°C (Vochten et al., 1993).
Health Risks:
Radioactive

References for LiebigiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Smith, J.L. (1848) Two new minerals, - medjidite (sulphate of uranium and lime) - liebigite (carbonate of uranium and lime). American Journal of Science and Arts: 5: 336-338.
Smith, J.L. (1851) American Journal of Science: 11: 259.
Vogl (1853) Jahrbuch Geol. Reichsanst., Vienna: 4: 221 (as Kalk-Uran-carbonate).
Lindacker analysis in: Vogl (1856) Gangverh. Mineralreich. Joachimsthal, Teplitz.
Weisbach, Albin (1875) Synopsis mineralogical, systematische Übersicht des Mineralreiches. 78 pp., Freiberg: 48 (as Flutherite).
Schrauf (1882) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 6: 410 (as Uranothallite).
Brezina (1890) Annalen des kaiserlich-königlichen naturhistorischen Hofmuseums Wien: 5: 495.
Larsen, E.S. (1917) The probable identity of uranothallite and liebigite. American Mineralogist: 2(7): 87-87.
Meixner (1940) Zentralblatt Mineralien: 145.
Evans, H.T. Jr., Frondel, C (1950) Studies of uranium minerals (II): Liebigite and uranothallite. American Mineralogist: 35: 251.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 240-241.
Appleman, D. (1956) Crystal structure of liebigite. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America: 67: 1666.
Meyrowitz, R., Ross, D.R., Weeks, A.D. (1958) Synthesis of liebigite. Short Papers in Geology and Hydrology Articles 1-59, Geological Survey Professional Paper 475-B: 9(15.5): 162-163.
Mochnacka, K. (1962) On the Occurrence of Liebigite in the Metamorphic Mantle of the Karkonosze Massif. Bulletin: Série des sciences géologiques et géographiques: 10: 129.
Matsubara, S. (1976) The occurrence of liebigite from Tsukiyoshi orebody of the Tono mine, Gifu prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum C; Japan: 2(3): 111-114.
Alwan, A.K., Williams, P.A. (1980) The aqueous chemistry of uranium minerals. Part 2. Minerals of the liebigite group. Mineralogical Magazine: 43(329): 665-667.
Mereiter, K. (1982) The crystal structure of liebigite, Ca2UO2(CO3)3·11H2O. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 30: 277-288.
Deliens, M. (1985) Une occurrence de liebigite, carbonate d'uranyle et de calcium, à Shinkolobwe, Shaba, Zaïre. Musée Royal d'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren (Belgique), Rapport annuel 1981-1984: 79-80.
Mereiter, K. (1986) Hemimorphy of crystals of liebigite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatshefte: 7: 325-328.
Vochten, R., Van Haverbeke, L., Van Springel, K. (1993) Synthesis of liebigite and andersonite, and study of their thermal behavior and luminescence. The Canadian Mineralogist 31, 167-171.
Vochten, R., Van Haverbeke, L., Van Springel, K. (1994) The structure and physicochemical characteristics of a synthetic phase compositionally intermediate between liebigite and andersonite. The Canadian Mineralogist 32, 553-561.
Martaus, A., Maly, K.D. (2005) Liebigit Ca2[(UO2)(CO3)3].11H2O z uranoveho loziska Zalesi u Javornika. Zpravy o geologickych vyzkumech: 2004: 106-108.
Burns, P.C. (2005) U6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures. The Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1839-1894.
Frost, R.L., Erickson, K.L., Weier, M.L., Carmody, O., Čejka, J. (2005) Raman spectroscopic study of the uranyl tricarbonate mineral liebigite. Journal of Molecular Structure: 737(2-3): 173-181.
Frost, R.L., Weier, M.L., Martens, W. (2005) Thermal decomposition of liebigite. Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry: 82(2): 373-381.

Internet Links for LiebigiteHide

Localities for LiebigiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Mendoza Province
    • San Rafael Department
      • Sierra Pintada
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Mount Lyndhurst station
          • Nichol Nob
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Spittal an der Drau District
      • Malta
MEIXNER, H. & K. WALENTA (1979): Liebigit, ein für Österreich neues Urancarbonatmineral von der Kölnbreinsperre, Maltatal, Kärnten. Der Karinthin, 81, 152-153.; G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Salzburg
    • St. Johann im Pongau District
      • Bad Gastein
        • Siglitz - Bockhart gold mining district
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
Canada
 
  • Northwest Territories
    • Great Bear Lake
Tyson, R. (1989) The Port Radium District, Northwest Territories, Canada. The Mineralogical Record: 20(3): 201-208.
China
 
  • Shaanxi
    • Xi'an
      • Lantian County
Zhang Jianguo, Chen Shaoqing, Rao Sun and Qi Jing (2004). In: IAEA Technical Document 1419
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
      • Háje
Plášil, J. et al.: Supergenní mineralizace z haldy šachty č. 16 Příbram - Háje. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2008, vol. 16, 1, 43-55.
Plášil J., Sejkora J., Čejka J., Škácha P., Goliáš V., Pavlíček R., Hofman P. (2008): Supergenní mineralizace z haldy šachty č. 16 Příbram - Háje. - Bull. mineral.-petrolog. Odd. Nár. Muz. (Praha) 16/1, 43-55. ISSN: 1211-0329.
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Karlovy Vary District
      • Jáchymov
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 237.
Lapis 2002(7/8), 58
Plášil, J., Čejka, J., Sejkora, J., Hloušek, J., Škoda, R., Novák, M., Dušek, M., Císařová, I., Němec, I., Ederová, J. (2017) Línekite, K2Ca3[(UO2)(CO3)3]2.8H2O, a new uranyl carbonate mineral from Jáchymov, Czech Republic. Journal of Geosciences: 62: 201–213.
      • Ostrov
Specimen from Jakub Plasil. In the collection of Brent Thorne
    • Sokolov District
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
Plašil J, Sejkora J, Ondruš P, Veselovský F, Beran P, Goliáš V (2006): Supergene minerals in the Horní Slavkov uranium ore district, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 149-158. ; Sejkora, J. & Plasil, J. (2009): Mineralien aus dem Uranrevier Horni Slavkov. Lapis 34 (7-8), 63-67; 70 (in German).
  • Liberec Region
    • Semily District
      • Harrachov
Bradna, J., Šita, F.: Nálezy minerál na Rýžovišti u Harrachova. Opera Corcontica, 1968, 5, s. 246-247.
  • Olomouc Region
    • Jeseník District
      • Javorník
Sejkora, J., Pauliš, P., Škoda, R.: Uranové ložisko Zálesí v Rychlebských horách. Minerál, 2007, roč. 15, č. 4, s. 305-238.
  • Plzeň Region
    • Klatovy District
      • Nalžovské Hory
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Teplice District
      • Moldava
Sejkora, J.: Minerály ložiska Moldava v Krušných horách. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 110-116.
  • Vysočina Region
    • Žďár nad Sázavou District
      • Nové Město na Moravě
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
      • Rožná
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
Petr Pauliš, Stanislav Kopecký, Pavel Černý: Uranové minerály České republiky a jejich lokality. (2007)
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
DR Congo
 
  • Haut-Katanga
    • Kambove District
      • Shinkolobwe
Deliens, M. (1996) Overzicht van de mineralogie van de koper-, kobalt- en uraniumvoorkomens in Zuid-Shaba (Zaïre). Pages 35-49 in: Schatten der Aarde. Van mineraal tot juweel. Tentoonstelling in de abdij Saint-Gérard de Brogne van 27 april tot 27 oktober 1996. Catalogus opgemaakt onder de leiding van R. Warin, AGAB en P. Van hee, MKA (in Dutch).
France
 
  • Occitanie
    • Hérault
      • Lodève
        • Le Bosc
          • Saint-Martin-du-Bosc
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
        • Le Puech
Caubel, A. (1997) Minéralogie du gisement d'uranium de Rabejac (Hérault). Le Règne Minéral: 13: 5-18.; Dal Bo, F., Hatert, F., & Philippo, S. (2018). Supergene Uranyl Mineralization of the Rabejac Deposit, Lodève, France. Minerals, 8(9), 414.
    • Lozère
      • Mende
        • Saint-Léger-de-Peyre
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Karlsruhe Region
      • Baden-Baden
        • Müllenbach U deposit
Walenta, K. (1992) Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes und ihre Fundstellan. Christian Weise Verlag, München, 336 pages [in German].
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Franconia
      • Aschaffenburg District
        • Sailauf
          • Hartkoppe
No reference listed
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Cham District
        • Miltach
          • Altrandsberg
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Tirschenreuth District
        • Mähring
          • Poppenreuth bei Tirschenreuth
            • Uranium deposit
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld-Südharz
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 241.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 241.
      • Schneeberg
Lapis 30(7/8):41-70 (2005)
        • Neustädtel
          • Weißer Hirsch Mine (shaft 3)
Lapis 30(7/8):41-70 (2005)
    • Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 241.
  • Thuringia
    • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Hungary
 
  • Baranya County
    • Pécs District
Szakáll & Jánosi: minerals of hungary, 1995
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
Italy
 
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • Trento Province (Trentino)
      • Valdaone
        • Daone
          • Daone Valley
            • Limes
Campostrini, I., Demartin, F., Gramaccioli, C.M. (2005): Val Daone. Minerali secondari del giacimento uranifero presso Limes, Daone (TN). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2005, 228-240.
Japan
 
  • Gifu Prefecture
    • Mizunami City
      • Tsukiyoshi uranium ore deposits
Matsubara (1976) Bulletin of the National Science Museum, 2, 111-114
  • Tottori Prefecture
K. Watanabe (1976) Journal of the Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 11, 53-113 (in japanese with english summary)
    • Tōhaku District
      • Yurihama
S. Matsubara & R. Miyawaki (2006) Catalogue of Japanese Minerals.
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Arandis
Schreiber, U. (2005) Uranium mineralization in Namibia (poster), Namibia Geological Survey.
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Krødsherad
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 103
  • Troms og Finnmark
    • Nordreisa
      • Reisa national park
Geological Survey of Norway. The Ore Database. Njallaavzi. Deposit Area 1942 - 064
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Jelenia Góra County
Mochnacka, K., Banaś, M. (2000): Occurrence and genetic relationships of uranium and thorium mineralization in the Karkonosze-Izera Block (The Sudety Mts, SW Poland). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae: 70: 137-150; Mochnacka, K., Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Mayer, W., & Pieczka, A. (2015). Ore mineralization related to geological evolution of the Karkonosze–Izera Massif (the Sudetes, Poland)—Towards a model. Ore Geology Reviews, 64, 215-238.
Portugal
 
  • Coimbra
    • Figueira da Foz
      • Vila Verde
Museu Alfredo Bensaude, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa.
Sweden
 
  • Jämtland County
No reference listed
  • Örebro County
    • Lindesberg
No reference listed
Turkey (TL)
 
  • Edirne Province
Smith, J.L. (1848) American Journal of Science: 5: 336; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 241..
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Carn Brea
        • Carnkie
          • Basset Mines
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 241.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Date Creek Mountains
        • Martinez Mining District
          • Congress
MRDS database Dep. ID #10027544, MRDS ID #M003323.
  • Arizona & Utah
    • Apache; Navajo and San Juan Cos.
      • Colorado Plateau
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 277.
  • Colorado
    • Eagle Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
      • Vail Pass
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • Garfield Co.
      • East Rifle Creek area
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • Jefferson Co.
      • Ralston Buttes Mining District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Moffat Co.
      • Maybell Mining District
        • Maybell Mines
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Saguache Co.
      • Marshall Pass Mining District
http://www.minsocam.org/msa/AmMin/TOC/Articles_Free/2004/Catalano_p1004-1021_04.pdf
  • Montana
    • Big Horn Co.
Anita Moore-Nall and David R. Lageson (2015) Elevated REE in Ore Minerals of the Pryor Mountain Mining District, South Central Montana. 2015 Mining and Mineral Symposium, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology pp47-49.
Anita Moore-Nall and David R. Lageson (2015) Elevated REE in Ore Minerals of the Pryor Mountain Mining District, South Central Montana. 2015 Mining and Mineral Symposium, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology pp47-49.
  • New Mexico
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
    • McKinley Co.
NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    • Sandoval Co.
      • Nacimiento Mountains District
NMBMMR Memoir 38 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region 1979; USGS Open-File Report 79-1510
Leonard S.Wiener and Sigrid Ballew,1995, Updated by Kenny Gay,2006, A Listing Of North Carolina Minerals,Geologic Note No.4
  • Pennsylvania
    • Carbon Co.
      • Jim Thorpe (Mauch Chunk)
Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
Young, R. G., Million, I., Hausen, D. M. (1960) Geology of the Green River Mining District, Emery and Grand Counties, Utah, AEC RME-98.
    • Grand Co.
Van King
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • Big Indian Mining District (Big Indian Wash - Lisbon Valley area)
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • White Canyon
        • Fry Mesa
  • Washington
    • Stevens Co.
      • Wellpinit
Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.53; George E. Becraft and Paul L. Weis (1963) Geology and mineral deposits of the Turtle Lake quadrangle, Washington. USGS Bulletin 1131
  • Wyoming
    • Campbell Co.
      • Pumpkin Buttes Mining District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Carbon Co.
      • Baggs-Poison Basin District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Converse Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:385
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Fremont Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:386
Rocks & Minerals 76:386
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Am Min 51:1567-1578; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp361-370.
    • Natrona Co.
      • Gas Hills Mining District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
 
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