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Leonite

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About LeoniteHide

Formula:
K2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Colour:
Colourless, pale yellow; colourless (transmitted light).
Lustre:
Vitreous, Waxy
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
2.201
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
Named in honor of Leo Balthasar Leberecht Strippelmann (26 July 1826, Kassel, Germany - 17 June 1892, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany), Director of the salt works at Westeregeln, Germany.
The magnesium analogue of Mereiterite.
May occur as a dehydration product of Picromerite.


Classification of LeoniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.CC.55

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
29.3.3.3

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
3 : A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
25.3.14

25 : Sulphates
3 : Sulphates of Mg

Physical Properties of LeoniteHide

Vitreous, Waxy
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless, pale yellow; colourless (transmitted light).
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
2.201 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of LeoniteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.479 nβ = 1.482 nγ = 1.487
2V:
Measured: 90° , Calculated: 76°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of LeoniteHide

Formula:
K2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O

Crystallography of LeoniteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.78 Å, b = 9.53 Å, c = 9.88 Å
β = 95.4°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.236 : 1 : 1.037
Unit Cell V:
1,104.24 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals tabular {100} and elongated [001]. Usually anhedral.
Twinning:
On {100} - artificial crystals. Lamellar twinning observable under magnification.

Type Occurrence of LeoniteHide

Synonyms of LeoniteHide

Other Language Names for LeoniteHide

Relationship of Leonite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
MereiteriteK2Fe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
20 photos of Leonite associated with HaliteNaCl
1 photo of Leonite associated with SylviteKCl

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.CC.CobaltoblöditeNa2Co(SO4)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.AndychristyitePbCu2+Te6+O5(H2O)Tric. 1 : P1
7.CC.Ammoniovoltaite(NH4)2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12(H2O)18Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.05KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CC.10TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.15KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CC.15MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.20Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso.
7.CC.20Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.20Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.20LanmuchangiteTl+Al(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.25VoltaiteK2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.25ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.25PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe3+2Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
7.CC.25Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.30KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.35FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3
7.CC.40GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.45LöweiteNa12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2OTrig.
7.CC.50BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.50NickelblöditeNa2(Ni,Mg)(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.50ChangoiteNa2Zn(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.55MereiteriteK2Fe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon.
7.CC.60Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.60CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.60Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.60Nickelboussingaultite(NH4)2Ni(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.65PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric. 1
7.CC.70LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric.
7.CC.75AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CC.80KonyaiteNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.85WattevilleiteNa2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)Orth.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

29.3.3.1BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
29.3.3.2NickelblöditeNa2(Ni,Mg)(SO4)2 · 4H2O

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.3.1KieseriteMgSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m
25.3.2SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
25.3.3StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.3.4PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2OTric.
25.3.5HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
25.3.6EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
25.3.7CaminiteMg7(SO4)5(OH)4 · H2OTet.
25.3.8VanthoffiteNa6Mg(SO4)4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
25.3.9BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
25.3.10KonyaiteNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.3.11LöweiteNa12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2OTrig.
25.3.12UklonskoviteNaMg(SO4)F · 2H2OMon.
25.3.13LangbeiniteK2Mg2(SO4)3Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
25.3.15PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
25.3.16Efremovite(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3Iso.
25.3.17Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.3.18PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
dehydration occurs at 410-420 K and leads to langeinite and arcanite
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LeoniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
van der Heide (1893) Berichte deutsche chemische Gesellschaft: 26: 414 (as Kalium-Astrakanit).
Naupert and Wense (1893) Berichte deutsche chemische Gesellschaft: 26: 873 (as Kaliastrakanit).
Tenne (1896) Zeitschrift der Deutsche geologische Gesellschaft, Berlin: 48: 632 (as Kalium-Blödit, Leonit).
Strandmark (1902) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 36: 461.
Görgey (1910) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 29: 207.
Schaller and Henderson (1932) USGS Bull. 833: 44.
Anspach (1939) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 39: 101.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 450.
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1985): 173: 75-79.
Hertweck, B. & Libowitzky, E. (2002): Vibrational spectroscopy of phase transitions in leonite-type minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy 14, 1009-1017.
Hertweck, B.; Armbruster, T.; Libowitzky, E. (2002): Multiple phase transitions of leonite-type compounds: optical, calorimetric, and X-ray data. Mineralogy and Petrology 75, 245-259.
Hertweck, B., Libowitzky, E. and Schultz, A. J. (2003): The hydrogen bond system of Mn-leonite: neutron diffraction results in comparison with IR spectroscopic data. Zeitschrift fuer Kristallographie 218, 403-412.
Ishigami, H.; Sumita, M.; Shiro, M.; Hikita, T.; Sato, S.; Tanimoto, M. (2003): Phase transition in K2Fe(SO4)2.4H2O. Ferroelectrics 285, 133-137.
Balić-Žunić, T., Birkedal, R., Katerinopoulou, A., Comodi, P. (2016): Dehydration of blödite, Na2Mg(SO4)2(H2O)4, and leonite, K2Mg(SO4)2(H2O)4. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28(1): 33-42

Internet Links for LeoniteHide

Localities for LeoniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Wooltana homestead area
Snow, M.R., Pring, A., Allen, N. (2014) Minerals of the Wooltana Cave, Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 138:2, 214-230.
Austria
 
  • Upper Austria
    • Gmunden District
      • Hallstatt
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta
    • El Loa Province
      • San Pedro de Atacama
        • Cordillera de la Sal
De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Sanna, L., Vattano, M., Galli, E., & Forti, P. (2017). Secondary minerals from halite caves in the Atacama Desert (Chile). In 17th International Congress of Speleology (No. I, pp. 242-246). Australian Speleological Federation Inc.
De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Sanna, L., Vattano, M., Galli, E., & Forti, P. (2017). Secondary minerals from halite caves in the Atacama Desert (Chile). In 17th International Congress of Speleology (No. I, pp. 242-246). Australian Speleological Federation Inc.
China
 
  • Qinghai
    • Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Mangnai City (Mangya Co.)
Mily Wang, Yijie Wang, Chenglin Liu, and Yongzhi Chen (1993): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 15(1)
  • Xinjiang
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
Xiaohong Sun, Chenglin Liu, and Zhiqiang Xuan (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 631-639
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Gaochang District
        • Turfan basin (Turpan basin)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Fulda
      • Neuhof
Krah, O., (1988): Beobachtungen beim Durchbruch eines Basaltganges durch das Kalilager vom Werk Neuhof-Ellers, Der Aufschluss Vol. 39 (2), 103-113
    • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
      • Heringen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Phillippsthal
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Celle
      • Hänigsen
Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
      • Wathlingen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Schwarmstedt
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Stassfurt Potash deposit
      • Egeln
        • Tarthun
No reference listed
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 451.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 451.
  • Thuringia
    • Wartburgkreis
      • Krayenberggemeinde
W.I. Borrisenkow (1968) Zeitschr. für angewandte Geologie 14, 7-10
Iran
 
  • Kerman Province
    • Rafsanjan County
      • Pariz
Khorasanipour, M. (2015). Environmental mineralogy of Cu-porphyry mine tailings, a case study of semi-arid climate conditions, Sarcheshmeh mine, SE Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 153, 40-52.
Italy
 
  • Sicily
    • Enna Province
      • Enna (Castrogiovanni)
Mariani, P., Scaini, G. (1978) I minerali d'Italia. Compagnia Generale Editoriale, Milano, 574 pp.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Atyrau Region
    • Inder
Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
Namibia
 
  • Hardap Region
    • Daweb
Bowell, R. J., & Davies, A. A. (2017). Assessment of supergene uranium-vanadium anomalies, Meob Bay deposit, Namibia. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 17(2), 101-112.
Pakistan
 
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
    • Swabi District
M. Qasim Jan, P.S.B. Colback & Masood Ahmad , (1985) Low-temperature Secondary Minerals from Tarbela. Geol. Bull. Univ. Peshawar, 18:189-197
Romania
 
  • Bistrița-Năsăud
    • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
Mineralogical Magazine: 65(1): 1-7.
USA
 
  • New Mexico
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 451; Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
    • Eddy Co.
      • Carlsbad Potash Mining District
SIMMONS, P.S. (2013)The Carlsbad Potash Basin, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Mineralogical Record, 44 (1), 13-49.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 451; Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
 
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