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Lazurite

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About LazuriteHide

Formula:
Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
Often there is minor K substituting for Na.
The IMA takes the ideal formula with S as the dominant anion and not sulfate, from Hassan et al. (1985), but even that reference indicates that sulfate is dominant, making Lazurite either a sulfide rich variety of Hauyne or just a theoretical endmember of a series with hauyne.
Colour:
ultramarine, midnight blue, bluish green, green
Lustre:
Resinous
Hardness:
5 - 5½
Specific Gravity:
2.38 - 2.45
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
From the Persian "Lazhward" for "blue." Also for its dark blue color resemblance to "azurite." Both Lazurite and azurite derive from "Lazhward".

Dana (System of Mineralogy, 1868) considered lapis-lazuli to be the dark blue mineral in the lazulite-calcite rock of the same name, but these were renamed lazurite in 1891 Brögger W C, Bäckström H 1891.
Lazurite is the blue component of the 'gemstone' (or, more usually, decorative rock) Lapis Lazuli, which is a lazurite-calcite-pyrite rock that has been mined as a gem material for some 9,000 years. Dana (System of Mineralogy, 1868) actually considered lapis-lazuli to be the dark blue crystals in this rock, but these were renamed lazurite in 1891 Brögger W C, Bäckström H 1891.

However, all* lazurites analysed to date represent only sulfide-rich varieties of Hauyne and not a separate species.Moore & Woodside, 2014 It probably needs redefining via the IMA; until then it formally remains as a hypothetical sulphide rich endmember of a series with hauyne, and all existing specimens labelled as sulphide-rich hauyne.
* With one exception: Rastsvetaeva et al. (2002) give a formula Na6.34Ca1.66(Al6Si6O24)((SO4)0.88S1.26) for a sample from the Malo-Bystrinskoe deposit.

Lazurite is an ultramarine- to midnight-blue, opaque, and non-fluorescent mineral with a bright blue streak. The lower limit of polysulphide (primarily S3), which is responsible for the blue colour of lazurite, is ~0.4 at%; however, in some cases there is no explicit correlation between blue colour and polysulphide content (Tauson et al., 2012).

Some blue green and green "lazurites" (hauynes) have a small unit-cell edge. Since S is smaller than SO4, these were mistakenly thought to be probably dominant in sulfur. These "lazurites" are translucent and fluorescent under long-wave UV and have a white streak just as hauyne has. The name lazurite should not be applied to the small-cell green hauynes.

Lazurite and hauyne are members of the Sodalite Group, in the feldspathoid family. The two sodalite cages in lazurite contain (Na,Ca)4(SO4,S3,S2). The situation is analogous to Hackmanite which is a sulfide-rich variety of sodalite.

It is difficult to determine the oxidation state of sulfur in a sodalite cage. S, S2, S3, S4, SO3, and SO4 have been suggested.Tauson et al. 2003 ,"Fleet et al., 2005. By XPS and XAS spectroscopy, Tauson et al. (2012) detected sulphate and polysulphides as main constituents in the structural cages of lazurites; additionally, sulphite, thiosulphate, monosulphide and elemental sulphur were found.

A possible triclinic dimorph (?) is known: UM1976-26-SiOSO:AlCaClHNa. Compare this with closely related, orthorhombic Vladimirivanovite and the polytype Lazurite-O. Lazurite-C is a monoclinic polytype.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Lazurite.


Classification of LazuriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
Approval History:
Based on Brögger W C, Bäckström H 1891 the name lazurite was grandfathered by the IMA who later gave it Hassan's ideal formula, Na3Ca(Si3Al3)O12S Hassan et al. 1985. The data used by Hassan all came from hauynes with approximately Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,Cl,OH)2 as no sulfide-dominant mineral required by Hassan's formula has been observed to date.

The situation is similar to sodalite and hackmanite. In sodalite Cl is the dominant cage filler and an ideal hackmanite would have S as the cage filler. Though S readily substitutes for Cl in sodalite, no sulfide-dominant species has ever been observed. On that basis hackmanite never was approved, avoiding the approval of a hypothetical mineral. The situation has been reversed with lazurite and hauyne. What has been commonly called lazurite, all has dominant SO4 and is sulfide-rich hauyne, just as all hackmanites are sulfide-rich sodalites.
9.FB.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
F : Tektosilicates without zeolitic H2O
B : Tektosilicates with additional anions
76.2.3.4

76 : TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
2 : Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
17.9.1

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
9 : Silicates with sulphide or sulphite

Physical Properties of LazuriteHide

Resinous
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
ultramarine, midnight blue, bluish green, green
Comment:
Ultramarine to midnight blue are the usual gem colours. Modulated translucent blue and green small cell hauyne with a white streak has been called Lazurite
Streak:
Bright blue for Lazurite, White for the small cell Hauynes
Hardness:
5 - 5½ on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
Imperfect on {110}
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
2.38 - 2.45 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.4(1) g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Variable density results from varible sodalite cage contents

Optical Data of LazuriteHide

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 1.502 - 1.522
Birefringence:
Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Low
Comments:
Anomalously anisotropic.

Chemical Properties of LazuriteHide

Formula:
Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2

Often there is minor K substituting for Na.
The IMA takes the ideal formula with S as the dominant anion and not sulfate, from Hassan et al. (1985), but even that reference indicates that sulfate is dominant, making Lazurite either a sulfide rich variety of Hauyne or just a theoretical endmember of a series with hauyne.
Idealised Formula:
Na3Ca(Si3Al3)O12S
Common Impurities:
Fe,Mg,K,H2O

Crystallography of LazuriteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
4 3m - Hextetrahedral
Space Group:
P4 3n
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.09 Å
Unit Cell V:
751.09 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
Dodecahedrons, cubes, granular, disseminated, massive.
Twinning:
None observed
Comment:
Has monoclinic (Lazurite-C) and orthorhombic polytypes (Lazurite-O). The latter was originally thought to be triclinic. An orthorhombic variant was a approved as Vladimirivanovite; another is UM1976-26-SiOSO:AlCaClHNa. (In)commensurately modulated green lazurite from Baffin Island (Hassan et al., 1985) and Ladjuar Medan (F. Camara, priv. comm. 2009) both have a cell edge of 9.05 A; see also Sapozhnikov et al. (1992) and Bolotina (2007) and references therein.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.43Å(40)
3.71Å(100)
2.622Å(80)
2.872Å(45)
2.272Å(25)
2.141Å(35)
1.782Å(30)
Comments:
ICDD 17-749.
Lazurite appears to be defined partly by the powder patterns labeled Lazurite. With more sulfate in the cages they get bigger, so smaller cell edges get called lazurite. However, this is not always definitive, as some will small unit cells are sulphide poor.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Paragenetic Mode(s):
Geological Setting:
Contact metamorphic mineral in marble and skarns. Also in some syenites and alkaline volcanics.

Type Occurrence of LazuriteHide

Synonyms of LazuriteHide

Other Language Names for LazuriteHide

German:Lazurit
Norwegian:Lasuritt
Spanish:Lazurita

Relationship of Lazurite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
NoseanNa8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3n
SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
Tsaregorodtsevite(N(CH3)4)(AlSi5O12)Orth.
VladimirivanoviteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S3,S2,Cl)2 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Common AssociatesHide

CalciteCaCO3
DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PyriteFeS2
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
75 photos of Lazurite associated with CalciteCaCO3
54 photos of Lazurite associated with PyriteFeS2
45 photos of Lazurite associated with PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
21 photos of Lazurite associated with Afghanite(Na,K)22Ca10(Si24Al24O96)(SO4)6Cl6
11 photos of Lazurite associated with DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
8 photos of Lazurite associated with Marble
6 photos of Lazurite associated with Bystrite(Na,K)7Ca(Al6Si6O24)(S5)Cl
6 photos of Lazurite associated with Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
4 photos of Lazurite associated with Gonnardite(Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
4 photos of Lazurite associated with AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.FB.05Afghanite(Na,K)22Ca10(Si24Al24O96)(SO4)6Cl6Trig. 3m : P3 1c
9.FB.05Bystrite(Na,K)7Ca(Al6Si6O24)(S5)ClHex.
9.FB.05Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2OHex. 6 : P63
9.FB.05CancrisiliteNa7(Al5Si7O24)(CO3) · 3H2OHex.
9.FB.05Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2Hex. 6/m : P63/m
9.FB.05Franzinite(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2 · 0.5H2OHex.
9.FB.05Giuseppettite(Na,K,Ca)7-8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,Cl)1-2Hex.
9.FB.05HydroxycancriniteNa8(Al6Si6O24)(OH)2 · 2H2OHex.
9.FB.05Liottite(Na,K)16Ca8(Al6Si6O24)3(SO4)5Cl4Hex.
9.FB.05MicrosommiteNa4K2Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)Cl2Hex.
9.FB.05PitiglianoiteNa6K2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · 2H2OHex.
9.FB.05Quadridavyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)Cl4Hex.
9.FB.05Sacrofanite(Na61K19Ca32)(Si84Al84O336)(SO4)26Cl2F6•2H2OHex.
9.FB.05Tounkite(Na,Ca,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2Cl · H2OHex.
9.FB.05Vishnevite(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2OHex. 6 : P63
9.FB.05Marinellite(Na,K)42Ca6(Al6Si6O24)6(SO4)8Cl2 · 3H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
9.FB.05Farneseite(Na,Ca,K)56(Al6Si6O24)7(SO4)12 · 6H2OHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.FB.05Alloriite(Na,Ca,K)26Ca4(Al6Si6O24)4(SO4)6Cl6Trig. 3m : P3 1c
9.FB.05Fantappièite[Na82.5Ca33K16.5](Si99Al99O396)(SO4)33 · 4H2OTrig. 3 : R3
9.FB.05KyanoxaliteNa7(Al6-xSi6+xO24)(C2O4)0.5+x · 5H2O (0 < x < 0.5)Hex. 6 : P63
9.FB.05Balliranoite(Na,K)6Ca2(Si6Al6O24)Cl2(CO3)Hex. 6 : P63
9.FB.05CarbobystriteNa8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3) · 3.5H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
9.FB.05DepmeieriteNa8(Al6Si6O24)(PO4,CO3)1-x · 3H2O (x<0.5)Hex. 6 : P63
9.FB.05KircheriteNa5Ca2K(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2 · 0.33H2OTrig. 3 2 : R3 2
9.FB.10BicchuliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
9.FB.10DanaliteBe3Fe2+4(SiO4)3SIso. 4 3m : P4 3n
9.FB.10GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3SIso. 4 3m : P4 3n
9.FB.10Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
9.FB.10HelvineBe3Mn2+4(SiO4)3SIso. 4 3m : P4 3n
9.FB.10KamaishiliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2Tet.
9.FB.10NoseanNa8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3n
9.FB.10SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
9.FB.10Tsaregorodtsevite(N(CH3)4)(AlSi5O12)Orth.
9.FB.10TugtupiteNa4BeAlSi4O12ClTet. 4 : I4
9.FB.15MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24ClTet. 4/m : I4/m
9.FB.15MeioniteCa4Al6Si6O24CO3Tet. 4/m : I4/m
9.FB.15Silvialite(Ca,Na)4(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3)Tet. 4/m : I4/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

76.2.3.1SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
76.2.3.2NoseanNa8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3n
76.2.3.3Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
76.2.3.5BicchuliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
76.2.3.6KamaishiliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2Tet.
76.2.3.7TugtupiteNa4BeAlSi4O12ClTet. 4 : I4
76.2.3.8Tsaregorodtsevite(N(CH3)4)(AlSi5O12)Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.9.2JasmunditeCa11(SiO4)4O2STet. 4 2m : I4m2
17.9.3GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3SIso. 4 3m : P4 3n
17.9.4HelvineBe3Mn2+4(SiO4)3SIso. 4 3m : P4 3n
17.9.5DanaliteBe3Fe2+4(SiO4)3SIso. 4 3m : P4 3n

Fluorescence of LazuriteHide

The opaque ultramarine and midnight blue varieties are not fluorescent. The translucent green and blue hauynes have an orange brown fluorescence under Long Wave UV.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
The blue mineral in Lapis Lazuli, an ornamental stone

Lazurite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for LazuriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Fischer, H. (1869) [Resultate seiner microscopisch-mineralogischen studien]. Neues Jahrbuch fuer Mineralogie 1869, 344-347.
Zirkel, Ferdinand (1873) Die mikroskopische Beschaffenheit der Mineralien und Gesteine. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, page 165.
Vogelsang, Hermann (1873) Über die natürlichen ultramarin-verbindungen. Med. Akad., Amsterdam, v. 7, p. 161. (See also "Über die natürlichen Ultramarin-Verbindungen", Max Cohen & Sohn, Bonn, pp. 39.
Brögger, W.C., Bäckström, H. (1891) Die Mineralien der Granatgruppe. Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie, 18, 209-276.
Voskoboinikova, N. (1938) The mineralogy of the Slyudyanka deposits of lazurite. Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 67: 601-622 (in Russian).
Hogarth, D.D. and Griffin, W.L. (1976) New data on lazurite. Lithos: 9: 39-54.
Sapozhnikov, A.N., Ivanov, V.G., Kashaev, A.A. (1979): New data on a triclinic modification of lazurite. Kristallokhim. Strukt. Mineral. 1979, 48-54 (in Russian).
Hassan, I., Peterson, R. C., and Grundy, H. D. (1985) The structure of lazurite, ideally Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)S2, a member of the sodalite group. Acta Crystallographica: C41: 827-832.
Sapozhnikov, A.N. (1990): Identification of additional reflections on the X-ray powder diffraction patterns of lazurite based on a study of its structural modulation. Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva 119(1), 110-116 (in Russian).
American Mineralogist (1991): 76: 1734.
Sapozhnikov, A.N., Vasil'ev, E.K., Bayliss, P. (1992): On indexing x-ray diffraction powder patterns of cubic lazurites with an incommensurate-modulated structure. Powder Diffraction 7, 134-136.
American Mineralogist (1993): 78: 849.
Rastsvetaeva, R.K., Bolotina, N.B., Sapozhnikov, A.N., Kashaev, A.A., Schoenleber, A. and Chapuis, G. (2002): Crystallography Reports, 47, 404-407. [sample from from the Malo-Bystrinskoe deposit; formula given as Na6.34Ca1.66(Al6Si6O24)((SO4)0.88S1.26)]
Tauson, V.L. and Sapozhnikov, A.N. (2003) Nature of lazurite coloration. Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 132(5): 102-107.
Bolotina, N. B.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Sapozhnikov, A. N.; Kashaev, A. A.; Schoenleber, A.; Chapuis, G. (2003): Three-dimensionally modulated incommensurate crystal structure of lazurite from the Baikal Region. Crystallography Reports 48, 8-11.
Bolotina, N. B.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Chapuis, G.; Schoenleber, A.; Sapozhnikov, A. N.; Kashaev, A. A. (2004): On the symmetry of optically isotropic modulated lazurites from the Baikal region. Ferroelectrics 305, 95-98.
Fleet, M. E., Liu, X., Harmer, S. L. and Nesbitt, H. W. (2005) Chemical state of sulfur in natural and synthetic lazurite by S K-edge XANES and X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1589-1603.
Aleksandrov, S.M. and Senin, V.G. (2006): Genesis and composition of lazurite in magnesian skarns. Geochemistry International 44, 976-988.
Bolotina, N.B., Rastsvetaeva, R.K., Sapozhnikov, A.N. (2006): Average structure of incommensurately modulated monoclinic lazurite. Crystallography Reports 51, 589-595.
Bolotina, N. B. (2006): Isotropic lazurite: A cubic single crystal with an incommensurate three-dimensional modulation of the structure. Crystallography Reports 51, 968-976.
Bolotina, N. (2007): Forms and origin of structure modulation in lazurites. Philosophical Magazine 87, 2679-2685.
Kaneva, E. V.; Cherepanov, D. I.; Suvorova, L. F.; Sapozhnikov, A. N.; Levitskii, V. I. (2010): Orthorhombic lazurite from the Tultui deposit (Baikal region). Zapiski Rossiiskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva 139, 95-101 (in Russian).
Tauson, V.L., Goettlicher, J., Sapozhnikov, A.N., Mangold, S., Lustenberg, E.E. (2012): Sulphur speciation in lazurite-type minerals (Na,Ca)8[Al6Si6O24](SO4,S)2 and their annealing products: a comparative XPS and XAS study. European Journal of Mineralogy 24, 133-152.
Moore, T.P., Woodside, R. W. M. (2014) The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines. Mineralogical Record 45(3): 281-336.

Internet Links for LazuriteHide

Localities for LazuriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Afghanistan
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
  • Badakhshan
    • Jurm District
      • Koksha Valley (Kokscha Valley; Kokcha Valley)
        • Jurm (Firghamu; Firgamu)
RWMW Collection
    • Khash & Kuran Wa Munjan Districts
      • Koksha Valley (Kokscha Valley; Kokcha Valley)
Mountain Minerals specimen
Dudley Blauwet priv. comm.(2008), RWMW collection
Woolley A.R. (2019) Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World. Part 4: Antarctica, Asia and Europe, p. 28
Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:253; Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52 Moore, T.P.,Woodside, R.M.W. (2014): The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines, Kuran Wa Munjan district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Record 45 (3), 280-336
John Attard PXRD
RWMW collection
Canada
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cumberland Co.
Goodman, N.R. (1957) Gypsum in Nova Scotia and its Associated Minerals. Geology of Canadian Industrial Mineral Deposits.
  • Nunavut
    • Qikiqtaaluk Region
      • Baffin Island
Hogarth, D.D., Griffin, W.L. (1978) Lapis lazuli from Baffin island — a Precambrian meta-evaporite. Lithos, 11(1) (15 January 1978), 37-60.; Hogarth, D.D. (1979) Afghanite; new occurrences and chemical composition. Canadian Mineralogist, 17(1), 47-52.; Grice, Joel D. (1989) Lapis Lazuli from Baffin Island. In: Famous Mineral Localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 124-130; 181.
  • Ontario
    • Hastings County
      • Wollaston Township
Identified by Mineral Associates Inc. See message thread in external links for this locality.
    • Ottawa
      • Gloucester Township
Analysis by Canadian Museum of Nature
Chile
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
  • Coquimbo
    • Limarí Province
      • Monte Patria
        • El Polvo
Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
      • Ovalle
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
British Natural History Museum online catalogue 2007
India
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
Italy
 
  • Basilicata
    • Potenza Province
      • Rionero in Vulture
Stoppa, F., and Liu, Y. (1995): European Journal of Mineralogy 7(2), 391-402
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
vom Rath, G., (1869): Krystallinischer Lasurstein vom Vesuv, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Vol. 214, 491
          • Ercolano
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I Minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
            • San Vito
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
        • Mt Vesuvius
          • Terzigno
Luigi Chiappino data
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
Federico, M., Peccerillo, A., (2002): Mineral chemistry and petrogenesis of granular ejecta from the Alban Hills volcano, Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol 74, 223-252
      • Ariccia
Christof Schäfer
Myanmar
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
  • Mandalay Region
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
      • Mogok Township
        • Kyauk-Pyat-That
          • Gwe-kyi (Gwe-gyi?)
Uwe Kolitsch et al. (to be published)
        • Mogok Valley
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
        • Pein-Pyit (Painpyit; Pyan Pyit)
Pavel M. Kartashov data
North Macedonia
 
  • Probistip Municipality
    • Kratovo-Zletovo ore District
Serafimovski, T., Volkov, A. V., Serafimovski, D., Tasev, G., Ivanovski, I., & Murashov, K. Y. (2017). Plavica epithermal Au–Ag–Cu deposit in eastern Macedonia: Geology and 3D model of valuable component distribution in ore. Geology of Ore Deposits, 59(4), 296-304.
Russia
 
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Lake Baikal area
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
        • Malaya Bystraya River Valley
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Pavel M. Kartashov data; Aleksandrov, S. M., & Senin, V. G. (2006). Genesis and composition of lazurite in magnesian skarns. Geochemistry International, 44(10), 976-988.
Slovakia
 
  • Žilina Region
    • Turčianske Teplice District
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
Soviet Union (1922-1991)
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
Sweden
 
  • Jönköping County
    • Vetlanda
      • Alseda
The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Bergskollegium collection # 18577211
Tajikistan
 
  • Gorno-Badakhshan
    • Shughnon
      • Shakhdara range
        • Badom-Dara
P.M. Kartashov data; Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52
USA
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
  • Alabama
    • Tallapoosa Co.
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
  • Arkansas
    • Pulaski Co.
      • Little Rock
Rocks and Minerals, (1989) 64:314-322
Henry Barwood - unpublished (2010)
  • California
    • Los Angeles Co.
      • San Gabriel Mountains
        • San Antonio Canyon
          • San Antonio Creek
Rogers, Austin Flint (1912), Notes on rare minerals from California: Columbia University, School of Mines Quarterly: 33: 377; Surr, Gordon (1913), Lapis lazuli in southern California: Mining and Engineering World: Dec 27, 39: 1153-1154; Rogers, Austin Flint (1938b), Lapis lazuli from San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 23: 111-114; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 367-368.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • San Gabriel Mountains
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
        • Stoddard Peak
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Rogers, Austin Flint (1912b), Notes on rare minerals from California: Columbia University, School of Mines Quarterly: 33: 377; Surr, Gordon (1913), Lapis lazuli in southern California: Mining and Engineering World: Dec 27, 39: 1153-1154; Rogers, Austin Flint (1938b), Lapis lazuli from San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 23: 111-114; Sharp, W.E. (1959) Minerals from Los Angeles County, California. Printed privately, Los Angeles, California: 43; Sinkankas, J. (1976) Gemstones of North America II. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York: 323; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 367-368.
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
      • Dorchester Mining District
        • Taylor Park
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Balmat-Edwards Zinc Mining District
        • Balmat
George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
Rocks & Minerals 82:472-483
        • Edwards
Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52
  • North Carolina
Genth,F.A and Kerr,W.C,1881,Minerals and Mineral Localities of North Carolina,Geologic Survey
  • Wyoming
    • Sweetwater Co.
Am Min 49:778-781
Zimbabwe
 
  • Manicaland
    • Buhera District
      • Shawa complex
        • Dorowa
Meck, M. L., Atlhopheng, J., Masamba, W. R. L., Ringrose, S., & Diskin, S. (2011). Minerals that host metals at Dorowa rock phosphate mine, Zimbabwe. Open Mineralogy Journal, 5, 1-9.
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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