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Laurionite

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About LaurioniteHide

Formula:
PbCl(OH)
Colour:
Colourless, white
Lustre:
Adamantine
Hardness:
3 - 3½
Specific Gravity:
6.241
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1887 by Rudolf Ignatz Koechlin after the type locality at Laurion, Greece. (Note that the type material consists of a piece of oxidised galena ore, not a slag.)
Dimorph of:

Classification of LaurioniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1887
3.DC.05

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
C : With Pb (As,Sb,Bi), without Cu
10.2.2.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
2 : A(O,OH)Xq
8.8.7

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb

Pronounciation of LaurioniteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of LaurioniteHide

Adamantine
Transparency:
Transparent
Comment:
pearly on {100}
Colour:
Colourless, white
Hardness:
3 - 3½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {101}.
Density:
6.241 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.212 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of LaurioniteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 2.077 nβ = 2.116 nγ = 2.158
2V:
Measured: 70° , Calculated: 90°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.081
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r < v strong

Chemical Properties of LaurioniteHide

Formula:
PbCl(OH)

Crystallography of LaurioniteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.111 Å, b = 9.6987 Å, c = 4.0203 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.733 : 1 : 0.415
Unit Cell V:
277.27 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals elongated [010] thick to thin tabular {100}. Often sword-shaped morphology. {100} striated [021] at times. Significant form {812} is generally replaced, or accompanied, by vicinal faces. Also lenticular.

Crystallographic forms of LaurioniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Laurionite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Laurionite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Laurionite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Type Occurrence of LaurioniteHide

Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Reference:
Köchlin, R. (1887) Ueber Phosgenit und ein muthmasslich neues Mineral vom Laurion. Annalen des K.K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums: 2: 185-190.

Synonyms of LaurioniteHide

Other Language Names for LaurioniteHide

Relationship of Laurionite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BismocliteBiOClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
RorisiteCaFClTet.
Zavaritskite(BiO)FTet.

Common AssociatesHide

AnglesitePbSO4
CerussitePbCO3
FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)
PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
5 photos of Laurionite associated with NealitePb4Fe2+(As3+O3)2Cl4 · 2H2O
5 photos of Laurionite associated with LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
4 photos of Laurionite associated with PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
3 photos of Laurionite associated with CumengeitePb21Cu20Cl42(OH)40 · 6H2O
2 photos of Laurionite associated with BotallackiteCu2(OH)3Cl
2 photos of Laurionite associated with GalenaPbS
2 photos of Laurionite associated with AnglesitePbSO4
2 photos of Laurionite associated with GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
2 photos of Laurionite associated with KapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
1 photo of Laurionite associated with MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DC.05ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.DC.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2OMon. 2/m
3.DC.15PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
3.DC.20LaurelitePb7F12Cl2Hex. 6 : P6
3.DC.25BismocliteBiOClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25RorisiteCaFClTet.
3.DC.25Zavaritskite(BiO)FTet.
3.DC.25ZhangpeishaniteBaFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.30NadoritePbSbClO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
3.DC.30PeritePbBiClO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
3.DC.35AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2OTric.
3.DC.37CalcioaravaipaitePbCa2AlF9Tric. 1
3.DC.40ThorikositePb3Cl2(OH)(SbO3,AsO3)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
3.DC.45MereheaditePb47Cl25(OH)13O24(CO3)(BO3)2Mon. m
3.DC.50BlixitePb8O5(OH)2Cl4Orth.
3.DC.55PinalitePb3WO5Cl2Orth.
3.DC.60SymesitePb10(SO4)O7Cl4 · H2OTric. 1 : P1
3.DC.65EcdemitePb6Cl4(As2O7)Mon. 2 : P21
3.DC.65HeliophyllitePb6Cl4(As2O7)Orth.
3.DC.70MendipitePb3Cl2O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
3.DC.75DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2Orth. mm2 : Pmc21
3.DC.80OnoratoiteSb8Cl2O11Tric. 1 : P1
3.DC.85CotunnitePbCl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.DC.90PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4Orth.
3.DC.95BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.8.1AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6Trig.
8.8.2MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
8.8.3LaurelitePb7F12Cl2Hex. 6 : P6
8.8.4CotunnitePbCl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.8.5MendipitePb3Cl2O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
8.8.6DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2Orth. mm2 : Pmc21
8.8.8ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.8.9PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
8.8.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2OMon. 2/m
8.8.11BlixitePb8O5(OH)2Cl4Orth.
8.8.12PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4Orth.
8.8.13DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4Tet. 4mm : P4mm
8.8.14PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
8.8.15ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.8.17BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
8.8.18BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
8.8.19AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2OTric.
8.8.20YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8Trig. 3 : R3
8.8.21KolaritePbTeCl2Orth.
8.8.22HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Slightly soluble in cold water, more soluble in warm water. Soluble in nitric acid.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LaurioniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Köchlin, R. (1887) Ueber Phosgenit und ein muthmasslich neues Mineral vom Laurion. Annalen des K.K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums: 2: 185-190.
vom Rath, G. (1887) Berichte Niederrheinische Gesellschaft für Natur und Heilkunde, Bonn: 102: 149.
De Schulten, M.A. (1897) Sur la production artificielle de la laurionite et de composes isomorphes avec celli-ci. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie: 20: 186-191.
Köchlin (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 17: 112.
Hintze, C. (1889) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [2B]: 2632.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 171.
Smith, G.F.H. and Prior, G.T. (1899) On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine: 12(55): 102-110.
Ktenas, C.A. (1910) Sur les relations cristallographiques entre la laurionite et la paralaurionite. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 173.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 124.
Russell, A. and Hutchinson, A. (1928) On laurionite and associated minerals from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine: 21(116): 221-228.
Palache, C. (1934) The form relations of the lead oxychlorides, laurionite, paralaurionite, and fiedlerite. Mineralogical Magazine: 23(146): 573-586.
Goldsztaub, S. (1937) Structure cristalline de la laurionite. Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 204: 702-703.
Goldsztaub, S. (1939) Arrangement des atoms dans la laurionite PbOHCl. Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 208: 1234-1235.
Brasseur, H. (1940) Etude roentgenographique de la laurionite PBOHCl. Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège: 9: 166-169.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 62-64.
Strunz, H. and Tennyson, C. (1956) Isotypie laurionit-contunnit. Rend. Soc. Min. Ital.: 12: 214-215.
Badikov, V.V. (1966) On the synthesis of laurionite under hydrothermal conditions. 169: 656-659.
Cannillo, E., Giuseppetti, G., and Tadini, C. (1969) Riesame della struttura della laurionite PbOHCl. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma: 395-402.
Venetopoulos, C.C. and Rentzeperis, P.J. (1975) The crystal structure of laurionite, Pb(OH)Cl. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 141: 246-259.
Merlino, S., Pasero, M., and Perchiazzi, N. (1993) Crystal structure of paralaurionite and its OD relationships with laurionite. Mineralogical Magazine: 57(387): 323-328.
Lutz, H.D., Beckenkamp, K., Kellersohn, T., Möller, H., Peter, S. (1996) Neutron and X-ray structure determination of laurionite-type Pb{O(H,D)}X, with X=Cl, Br, and I, Hydrogen Bonds to Lead (II) Ions as a Hydrogen-Bond Acceptor. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 124: 156-161.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 307.

Internet Links for LaurioniteHide

Localities for LaurioniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Robinson Co.
      • Cobar
Chapman, J. & Scott, K. (2005): Supergene minerals from the oxidised zone of the Elura (Endeavor) lead-zinc-silver deposit. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 83-90. ; Leverett, P., McKinnon, A. R., & Williams, P. A. (2005). Supergene geochemistry of the Endeavor ore body, Cobar, NSW, and relationships to other deposits in the Cobar basin. Regolith 2005–Ten Years of CRC LEME, 191-194.
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Kimba
Paul, M. W., Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., Anderson, J., & Murray, J. (2015) Preliminary Mineralogical Investigations of the Paris Silver Deposit, Northern Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World • 13th SGA Biennial Meeting 2015. Proceedings, Volume 1
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Mount Lyndhurst station
Toma, J. (2017): Mineral news from South Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 18 (1), 68.
  • Tasmania
    • Central Coast municipality
http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/zeolites.pdf
Bottrill, R.S., Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Tasmania Bulletin 73, 254 pages.
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
Nickel, E.H., Gartrell, B.J. (1993) Secondary Minerals of Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993) 24:3: 203-218.
Nickel, E., Gartrell, B(1993): Secondary Minerals from Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993): 24:3:203-218
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Sankt Veit an der Glan District
      • Hüttenberg
        • Hüttenberg
          • Waitschach
U. Kolitsch and H. Pristacz (2009): An orthorhombic dimorph of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, from slags at Maria Waitschach, Austria, and Lavrion, Greece. Poster, Joint MinPet 2009 and 4th MSCC, Budapest, Hungary, September 7-11; abstract in Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 83.; Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Estrie
      • Les Sources RCM
        • Asbestos
HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. and SPERTINI, F. (2013) The Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Québec, Canada: A mineralogical review. Mineralogical Record, 44, 375-417.
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Příbram District
RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
  • Moravian-Silesian Region
    • Karviná District
      • Orlová
        • ČSA Mine
Jirásek J., Matýsek D., Osovský M., Sivek M.: Almandine-rich layers in the clastic sediments of the Saddle Member (Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2016, 24, 2, 205-216.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Loire
      • La Pacaudière
        • Le Crozet
Vernay, R. (1997): Le Crozet (Loire, France). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, no. 1, 9-22
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
      • Carnoët
        • Menez-Plom
P. Le Roch collection
    • Finistère
      • Poullaouen
Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
      • Nentershausen
        • Süß
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Cologne
      • Euskirchen
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • The Ruhr
      • Essen
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
      • Marl
        • Marl-Hüls
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Rhein-Lahn-Kreis
      • Bad Ems
        • Braubach
Schnorrer, G. (1993): Mineralogische Notizen VI. Aufschluss, 44, 44-58.
Greece (TL)
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
Köchlin, R. (1887): Ueber Phosgenit und ein muthmasslich neues Mineral vom Laurion. Annalen des K.K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums, 2, 185-190
Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine, 12, 102-110; Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1988): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis 13 (2), 11-14; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996): Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags.; Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
          • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
Fritz Schreiber collection (SXRD-analysed by Uwe Kolitsch)
          • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
          • Oxygon area
No reference listed
          • Panormos area
No reference listed
          • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch); Fritz Schreiber Collection
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Tourkolimanon area
No reference listed
          • Vrissaki area
Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French).; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Israel
 
  • Negev
    • Makhtesh Ramon area (Ramon crater area)
Itamar, A. (1993): Hydrothermal alteration of quartz syenite in Shen Ramon, Israel: mineralogy, petrography and economic evaluation. Proc. Quadrenn. IAGOD Symp., 8th, 823-834.
Italy
 
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
      • Anzio
Marco Bonifazi Collection
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Genoa
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
  • Lombardy
    • Lecco Province
      • Primaluna
        • Cortabbio
Luigi Possenti Collection
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
          • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
        • Sassetta
          • Canina Valley
Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
      • Piombino
Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N. (1992): I minerali delle scorie ferrifere etrusche di Baratti (Livorno). Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 99, 43-77; Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N., Bartoli, M.L., Chiappino, L. (1992): Baratti (LI): una nuova località mineralogica italiana analoga al Laurion. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 15, 2 (2-1992), 67-75 [2a parte]; Cerutti, G., Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20, 4, 13-18 and 50.
Mozambique
 
  • Nampula Province
Hurai, V. (2015) Fluid inclusions in apatite indicate low-temperature, metasomatic-infiltration origin of the Evate carbonatite deposit (Mozambique). European Current Research On Fluid Inclusions (ECROFI-XXIII), Leeds - UK, 27 - 29 June, 2015, Extended Abstracts’ Volume
Norway
 
  • Nordland
    • Tysfjord
Husdal, T. (2019) Nyfunn av mineraler fra Tysfjord-pegmatittene, Nordland. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2019: 31-46
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
        • Argent
Minerals of South Africa
Tunisia
 
  • Mahdia
    • Mahdia
Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
Turkmenistan
 
  • Balkan
    • Cheleken Peninsula
Lebedev, L.M., Nikitina, J.B. (1983): The Cheleken ore forming system. Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow (in Russian.)
UK
 
  • England
    • Bristol
      • Westbury on Trym
BMS Database
    • Cornwall
      • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
      • Feock
        • Penpol
Chollet Pascal collection
      • Porthleven
Russell, A. and Hutchinson, A. (1927) On laurionite and associated minerals from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 21, n° 116, 221-228.; Dines, H.G. (1956) The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 241-242.
      • St Hilary
Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
    • County Durham
      • Bollihope District
Norman Wilson collection
      • Castleside
Norman Wilson collection.
    • Somerset
      • Mendip
        • Cranmore
Turner, R.W. and Rumsey, M.S. (2010): Mineral Relationships in the Mendip Hills. Journal of the Russell Society, vol 13, pp 3-46.
  • Wales
    • Ceredigion
      • Ceulanymaesmawr
        • Talybont
          • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
UKJMM
USA
 
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Silver Lake Mining District
        • Soda Mts
          • Baker
            • Otto Mountain
Collected by Chuck Adan. EDS confirmed by Bob Housley.
  • Minnesota
    • St. Louis Co.
      • Ely-Hoyt Lakes Area
McSwiggen, P. L. (1999) Platinum-palladium group minerals, gold, silver, and cobalt in the Minnamax copper-nickel sulfide deposit, Duluth Complex, northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Geological Survey Report of Investigations 54
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Vietnam
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2011)
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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