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About LaitakariteHide

Aarne Laitakari
Galena white
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in honor of Aarne Vihtori Laitakari (12 December 1890 Helsinki, Finland - 6 February 1975 Helsinki, Finland), geologist, professor and director general of the Geological Survey of Finland.
A continuous solid-solution series with ikunolite, Bi4(S,Se)3, may exist.

Classification of LaitakariteHide

First Published:

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
D : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 3 :4 and 2:3
C : Variable M:S

6 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 4:3

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
7 : Sulphides etc. of V, As, Sb and Bi

Physical Properties of LaitakariteHide

With a high metallic lustre.
Galena white
Old surfaces are lead grey.
7.93 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Value represent the average of six determinations with a range of ± 0.08

Chemical Properties of LaitakariteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of LaitakariteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.22 Å, c = 39.93 Å
a:c = 1 : 9.462
Unit Cell V:
615.82 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Grains, size: 0.5-2 mm (TL, Orijärvi), may be graphically intergrown with fine-grained chalcopyrite.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0012737LaitakariteStasova M M (1968) The crystal structure of bismuthum selenide Bi4Se3 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR 4 28-3119680293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of LaitakariteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
As grains in thin < 2mm large ore-bearing veinlets.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Quartz-anthophyllite-cordierite rock.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Vorma, A. (1959) Laitakariitti Uusi Bi-Se-mineraali Orijärveltä. Geologi: 11(2): 11-11.

Synonyms of LaitakariteHide

Other Language Names for LaitakariteHide

Simplified Chinese:硫硒铋矿

Relationship of Laitakarite to other SpeciesHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
2 photos of Laitakarite associated with NevskiteBi(Se,S)
1 photo of Laitakarite associated with ChalcopyriteCuFeS2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.DC.05HedleyiteBi7Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05Joséite-BBi4Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
2.DC.05BaksaniteBi6Te2S3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)HideéiteBi4TeS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3méite-BBi4Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m,Se)3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m,Te,S)4Trig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.7.2DuranusiteAs4SOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
3.7.3DimorphiteAs4S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.4RealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m
3.7.5PararealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.6AlacrániteAs8S9Mon. 2/m : P2/b
3.7.8OrpimentAs2S3Mon. 2/m
3.7.10LaphamiteAs2Se3Mon. 2/m
3.7.11GetchelliteAsSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.12Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]Orth. mm2 : Pna21
3.7.13PääkköneniteSb2AsS2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.7.14StibniteSb2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.17BismuthiniteBi2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.19GuanajuatiteBi2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.26TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
3.7.27PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.28HedleyiteBi7Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.29TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.30JoséiteBi4TeS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.31Joséite-BBi4Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.40JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LaitakariteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Vorma, A. (1959) Laitakariitti Uusi Bi-Se-mineraali Orijärveltä. Geologi: 11(2): 11-11.
Fleischer, M. (1959) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 44: 906-910.
Vorma, A. (1960) Laitakarite a new Bi-Se-mineral. Bulletin de la Commission Géologique de Finlande: 188: 1-10.
Fleischer, M. (1962) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 47: 805-812.
Berry, L.G. (1963) The probable identity of laitakarite and selenjoseite. Canadian Mineralogist: 7: 677-679.
Fleischer, M. (1963) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 48: 1413-1421.
International Mineralogical Association (1967) Commission on new minerals and mineral names. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 131-136.
Stasova, M.M. (1968) The crystal structure of bismuthum selenide Bi4Se3. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR: 1968(1): 28-31.
Pringle, G.J., Thorpe, R.I. (1980) Bohdanowiczite, junoite and laitakarite from the Kidd Creek mine, Timmins, Ontario. The Canadian Mineralogist: 18: 353-360.
Bayliss, P. (1991) Crystal chemistry and crystallography of some minerals in the tetradymite group. American Mineralogist: 76: 257-265.
Grice, J.D., Ferraris, G. (2003) New minerals approved in 2002 and nomenclature modifications approved in 1998-2002 by the Commission on the New Minerals and Mineral Names, International Mineralogical Association. The Canadian Mineralogist: 41: 795-802.
Cook, N.J., Ciobanu, C.L., Wagner, T., Stanley, C.J. (2007) Minerals of the system Bi-Te-Se-S related to the tetradymite archetype: review of classification and compositional variation. Canadian Mineralogist: 45: 665-708.

Internet Links for LaitakariteHide

Localities for LaitakariteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Kanmantoo
Arbon, H. H. R. (2011). Bismuth distribution in the Cu-Au mineralisation of the Kanmantoo deposit, South Australia (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Western Australia
    • Boddington Shire
      • Boddington
Kalleske, N. L. (2010). Mineralogical and petrogenetic study of gold ore from the Boddington Gold Deposit, WA (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Oruro
    • Dalence Province
      • Santa Fé mining district
Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
  • Haskovo Province
    • Ivaylovgrad Municipality
      • Ivaylovgrad
T. Kerestedjian (1997) Argentonentlandite (Fe, Ni)8+хАg1-xS8 from Kamilski dol – a new mineral species for Bulgaria. Review of the Bulgarian Geological Society 58:15-18
  • Ontario
    • Cochrane District
      • Timmins area
        • Kidd Township
Canadian Mineralogist, 18, 353-360;; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484; Gemmell, T. P. (2013). Geology of the Kidd Creek Deep Orebodies–Mine D, Western Abitibi Subprovince, Canada. University of Ottawa (Canada).
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Rouyn-Noranda TE
Boucher, S. M. (2011). Ore petrology and alteration of the West Ansil volcanic-hosted Massive sulphide deposit of the Noranda mining camp, Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec. University of Ottawa (Canada).
  • Gansu
    • Jinchang
      • Jinchuan District
Minzhi Yang (2006): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 21(1), 1-9
Czech Republic
  • Olomouc Region
    • Jeseník District
      • Javorník
Sejkora J., Škoda R., Pauliš P. 2006: Selenium mineralization of the uranium deposit Zálesí, Rychlebské Hory Mts., Czech Republic. Mineralogia Polonica - Special Papers, vol. 28, 196-198
  • Oromia Region
    • Megado
A Geological Excursion To The Mesozoic Sediments Of The Abay Basin ( Blue Nile), Recent Volcanics Of The Ethiopian Main Rift And Basement Rocks Of The Adola Rea, Ethiopia. Mitt. Österr. Miner. Ges. 147 (2002)
Finland (TL)
  • Southwest Finland
    • Salo
      • Kisko
Geologi (1959) 3, 11 (in Finnish); Amer. Mineral. (1959) 44, 908 (abs); Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Göttingen District
      • Bad Lauterberg
Koch, H.-P. & Heider, K.-J. (2018): Die Selenid-Mineralisation der Grube "Frische Lutter" bei Bad Lauterbach, Harz. Der Aufschluss, 69, 1-21 (in German).
  • Hyogo Prefecture
    • Yabu City
      • Oya-cho
(Kato, A. (1973) Sakurai Koubutsu Hyohon, 13).; Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
  • Tochigi Prefecture
    • Nikko City
      • Ashio
Alfredo Petrov collection
  • Yamaguchi Prefecture
    • Iwakuni City
(Kikuchi et al (1980) Sanko-Gakkai Kou’en-Youshi, 81).
  • Marrakesh-Safi Region
    • Marrakech Prefecture
      • Marrakech
        • Draa Sfar deposit
Belkabir, A., Gibson, H.L., Marcoux, E., Lentz, D., and Rziki, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 280-306.
  • Souss-Massa Region
    • Tata Province
      • Azgour (Azegour)
Ilmen, S., Alansari, A., Bajddi, A., & Maacha, L. (2015). Cu–Au vein mineralization related to the Talat n’Imjjad shear zone (western High Atlas, Morocco): geological setting, ore mineralogy, and geochemical evolution. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8(7), 5039-5056.
North Macedonia
  • Radoviš Municipality
Serafimovski, T., Tasev, G., & Stefanova, V. (2013). Rare mineral phases related with major sulphide minerals in the Bučim porphyry copper deposit, R. Macedonia. Geologica Macedonica, 27(1), pp-43.; Serafimovski, T., Tasev, G., Strmić Palinkaš, S., Palinkaš, L.A. and Gjorgjiev, L. (2016): Porphyry Cu mineralization related to the small Tertiary volcanic intrusions in the Bučim ore deposit, Eastern Macedonia. Geologia Croatica 69, 101-119.
Serafimovski, T., Filev, K., Tasev, G., & Gjorgjiev, L. (2016). Three types of ore mineralization at the Vrshnik ore body, Buchim copper mine, Republic of Macedonia. 16th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference SGEM 2016, 2(1), 951-958.
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Jelenia Góra County
      • Gmina Stara Kamienica
Mochnacka, K., Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Mayer, W., & Pieczka, A. (2015). Ore mineralization related to geological evolution of the Karkonosze–Izera Massif (the Sudetes, Poland)—Towards a model. Ore Geology Reviews, 64, 215-238.
    • Kamienna Góra County
      • Gmina Kamienna Góra
        • Czarnów
Mochnacka, K., Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Mayer, W., & Pieczka, A. (2015). Ore mineralization related to geological evolution of the Karkonosze–Izera Massif (the Sudetes, Poland)—Towards a model. Ore Geology Reviews, 64, 215-238.
  • Beja
    • Castro Verde
      • Santa Bárbara de Padrões
Gaspar, O.C. (2002): Mineralogy and sulfide mineral chemistry of the Neves–Corvo Ores, Portugal: insight into their genesis. Canadian Mineralogist 40, 611-636.
  • Bihor
    • Highiş Massif
Ciobanu, C. L., Cook, N. J., Damian, F., & Damian, G. (2006). Gold scavenged by bismuth melts: An example from Alpine shear-remobilizates in the Highiş Massif, Romania. Mineralogy and Petrology, 87(3-4), 351-384.
  • Magadan Oblast
    • Kolyma River Basin
      • Ducat District
        • Omsukchan
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Ladoga Region
      • Pitkyaranta mining district (Pitkäranta mining district)
Ivashchenko, V. I., Valkama, M., Sundblad, K., Golubev, A. I., & Alekseev, V. Y. (2011, September). New data on mineralogy and metallogeny of scarns in the Pitkyaranta ore region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 440, No. 1, pp. 1307-1311). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica
V. I. Ivashchenko, O. B. Lavrov, K. Sundblad and A. N. Toritsin (2007) Au-Ag-Bi-Te-Se vein mineralization at Roikonkoski, Karelia, northern Lake Ladoga region. Geological Survey of Finland, Guide 53 pp 51-56
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
      • Severo-Baykalsky District
        • Dovyren Highlands
Galuskin, E. V. et al. (2007): Dovyrenite Ca6Zr[Si2O7]2(OH)4 – A New Mineral From Skarned Carbonate Xenoliths In Basic-Ultrabasic Rocks Of The Ioko-Dovyren Massif, Northern Baikal Region, Russia. Mineralogia Polonica, 38, 15-27
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Rimavská Sobota District
      • Hnúšťa
Ragan,M., Caňo,F., 1991: Prvé údaje o dvoch nových sulfosoliach (CuPbSbBi a AgPbBiSb) so selénom zmastencového ložiska Hnúšťa. Min.Slovaca, 23,1,36
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica District
      • Úhorná
Pršek, J., & Peterec, D. (2008). Bi-Se-Te mineralization from Úhorná (Spišsko Gemerské Rudohorie Mts., Słovakia): A preliminary report. Mineralogia, 39(3), 87-103.
  • Andalusia
    • Huelva
      • Alosno
        • Tharsis
          • Tharsis Mines
Tornos, F., González Clavijo, E., and Spiro, B. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 150-169.
  • Galicia
    • A Coruña
      • Malpica
Gouanvic, Y. (1985). Métallogènese du gisement à W-Sn de Monteneme (NW Galice, Espagne). Cuadernos do Laboratorio Xeolóxico de Laxe, 9, 149-160
  • Dalarna County
    • Falun
The Canadian Mineralogist vol . 37,p p. 1313-1315 (1999); American Mineralogist (1980) 65, pp. 789-796
  • Västerbotten County
    • Skellefteå
      • Skellefte mining district
        • Boliden
Jonsson, E. (1993): Om den s.k. selenokobelliten från Boliden. Berg & Mineral. 3 (no. 6), p.22; Wagner, T., & Jonsson, E. (2001). Mineralogy of sulfosalt-rich vein-type ores, Boliden massive sulfide deposit, Skellefte district, northern Sweden. The Canadian Mineralogist, 39(3), 855-872.
  • Valais
    • Saint-Maurice
      • Salvan
        • Les Marécottes
Am Min 88:4 pp 676-685
  • England
    • Cumbria
      • South Lakeland
        • Coniston
BMS Database; Stanley, C. J., & Vaughan, D. J. (1982). Mineralization in the Bonser vein, Coniston, English Lake District: mineral assemblages, paragenesis, and formation conditions. Mineralogical Magazine, 46(340), 343-350.
  • Tashkent
    • Chatkal-Kuraminskii Range
Kovalenker, V.A., Geinke, V.R. (1984): A new Cu-Sn-Bi-Se type of mineralization in the Kuramin subzone of central Tien Shan. Izvest. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. geol.: 5: 91-104 (in Russian); in: Dunn, P.J., Fleischer, F., Langley, R.H., Shigley, J.E., Zilczer, J.A. (1985): New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 70: 880
    • Okhangaron District
Kovalenker, V. et al New Data on Minerals (2003): 38: 45-56
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