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Kremersite

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About KremersiteHide

Formula:
(NH4,K)2[Fe3+Cl5(H2O)]
Colour:
Brown-red
Lustre:
Vitreous
Specific Gravity:
2
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
After German chemist Peter Kremers (1827-?).
Isostructural with:
Very deliquescent, survives only under favourable ambient conditions.

Usually as tiny crystals, sometimes fibrous. Relatively large, deep red crystals, up to ca. 3 mm in size, were found coalesced in a single block from a burning heap in Radlin, Poland.


Classification of KremersiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.CJ.10

3 : HALIDES
C : Complex halides
J : With MX6 complexes; M = Fe, Mn, Cu
11.4.1.2

11 : HALIDE COMPLEXES
4 : AmBX5·xH2O
8.11.7

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
11 : Halides of Fe and Ni

Physical Properties of KremersiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Brown-red
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {21-} and {011}.
Density:
2 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of KremersiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.715 nβ = 1.750 nγ = 1.800
2V:
Measured: 62° , Calculated: 82°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.085
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v or r < v

Chemical Properties of KremersiteHide

Formula:
(NH4,K)2[Fe3+Cl5(H2O)]
IMA Formula:
(NH4)2Fe3+Cl5 · H2O

Crystallography of KremersiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.8 Å, b = 13.65 Å, c = 7.02 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.718 : 1 : 0.514
Unit Cell V:
939.07 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals pseudooctahedral with {011} and {210} in equal development.
Twinning:
On [21_1] and [20_1] (artificial material)

Type Occurrence of KremersiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Active volcanic fumaroles.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of KremersiteHide

Other Language Names for KremersiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Kremersite associated with SassoliteH3BO3
1 photo of Kremersite associated with Therasiaite(NH4)3KNa2Fe2+Fe3+(SO4)3Cl5

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.CJ.05ChlormanganokaliteK4[MnCl6]Trig.
3.CJ.05RinneiteK3Na[FeCl6]Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
3.CJ.10ErythrosideriteK2[Fe3+Cl5(H2O)]Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.CJ.15MitscherlichiteK2CuCl4 · 2H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
3.CJ.20DouglasiteK2[Fe2+Cl4(OH2)2]Mon.
3.CJ.25Redikortsevite(NH4)MgCl3 · 6H2OOrth.
3.CJ.30Zirklerite(Fe,Mg,Ca)9Al4Cl18(OH)12 · 14H2O (?)Trig.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

11.4.1.1ErythrosideriteK2[Fe3+Cl5(H2O)]Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.11.1MolysiteFeCl3Hex.
8.11.2HydromolysiteFeCl3 · 6H2O
8.11.3RokühniteFeCl2 · 2H2OMon.
8.11.4DouglasiteK2[Fe2+Cl4(OH2)2]Mon.
8.11.5ErythrosideriteK2[Fe3+Cl5(H2O)]Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
8.11.6RinneiteK3Na[FeCl6]Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
8.11.8IowaiteMg6Fe3+2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
8.11.9NickelbischofiteNiCl2 · 6H2OMon.
8.11.10Lawrencite(Fe2+,Ni)Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Very deliquescent. Readily soluble in water. In (humid) air it will quickly turn into a deep-yellow solution, aggresive towards organics (e.g., paper, wood) and steel (Ł. Kruszewski's personal obs.)
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for KremersiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Kremers (1851) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 84: 79.
Kengott (1853) Ubersichte der Resultate mineralogischer Forschungen For the years 1850-51, Vienna: 9.
Johnson (1903) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: II: 93 (artif. mat.).
Lacroix (1907) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 30: 253.
Lacroix (1908) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 147: 162.
Slavik (1912) Ac. Sc. Bohéme, Bull.: 17: 5.
Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 135.
Bellanca (1948) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 17: 1.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume II: 101-103.
Kruszewski, Ł. (2012): Unique chloride assemblage of exhalative origin from burning coal-mining dump in Radlin (Rybnik Coal Area, S Poland). Mineralogia Papers: 40: 90-92

Internet Links for KremersiteHide

Localities for KremersiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Czech Republic
 
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Děčín District
Varilová, Z., Prikryl, R., & Cílek, V. (2011). Erratum to: Pravcice Rock Arch (Bohemian Switzerland National Park, Czech Republic) deterioration due to natural and anthropogenic weathering. Environmental Earth Sciences, 64(4), 1191.
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Cologne
      • Aachen
        • Alsdorf
Blaß, G. and Strehler, H. (1993): Mineralbildungen in einer durch Selbstentzündung brennenden Bergehalde des Aachener Steinkohlenreviers. Mineralien-Welt 4 (4), 35-42. (in German); Witzke, T., de Wit, F., Kolitsch, U. and Blaß, G. (2015): Mineralogy of the Burning Anna I Coal Mine Dump, Alsdorf, Germany. Chapter 7, pp. 203-240, in: Stracher, G. B., Prakash, A. and Sokol, E. V.: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Volume 3: Case Studies - Coal Fires, Elsevier, 786 pp.
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
      • Freital
XRD analysis (T. Witzke)
Italy (TL)
 
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 102; Lapis (1994): 5: 13-23, 58.
  • Sicily
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
          • Vulcano Island
Campostrini I. et al - Vulcano: ein aussergewohnlicher Fundpunkt von neuen und seltenen Mineralien - MineralienWelt 2010 - nr.3 - p.40-57
    • Metropolitan City of Catania
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 102; AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
Japan
 
  • Tokyo
    • Izu Archipelago
S. Matsubara (2002) "The Mineral Species of Japan" (Koubutsu Joho)
Poland
 
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Rybnik Co.
      • Gmina Czerwionka-Leszczyny
Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
    • Wodzisław Co.
      • Radlin
Łukasz Kruszewski (2012) Unique chloride assemblage of exhalative origin from burning coal-mining dump in Radlin (Rybnik Coal Area, S Poland). Mineralogical Society of Poland Special Papers 40
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Chelyabinsk coal basin
      • Kopeisk
Cesnokov, B., M. Kotrly, and T. Nisanbajev (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Tajikistan
 
  • Sughd
    • Zeravshan Range
      • Yagnob River
Nasdala, L., & Pekov, I. V. (1993). Ravatite, C14HIO, a new organic mineral species from Ravat, Tadzhikistan. Eur. J. Mineral, 5, 699-705.
USA
 
  • Ohio
    • Huron Co.
      • Huron River
Dr Pete Richards
 
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