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Krausite

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About KrausiteHide

00382110014947175702938.jpg
Edward Henry Kraus
Formula:
KFe(SO4)2 · H2O
Colour:
Pale lemon yellow, yellowish green, gray; colourless to pale yellow in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Waxy, Earthy
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
2.84
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named by William F. Foshag in honor of Dr. Edward Henry Kraus [December 1, 1875 Syracuse, New York, USA - February 3, 1973 Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA], American mineralogist, University of Michigan.
This page provides mineralogical data about Krausite.


Classification of KrausiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.CC.05

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
29.5.1.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
5 : AB(XO4)2·xH2O
25.11.7

25 : Sulphates
11 : Sulphates of Fe and other metals

Physical Properties of KrausiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Waxy, Earthy
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Not vitreous
Colour:
Pale lemon yellow, yellowish green, gray; colourless to pale yellow in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {001}; Good on {100}
Density:
2.84 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.839 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of KrausiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.588 nβ = 1.650 nγ = 1.722
2V:
Measured: 75°
Birefringence:
0.034
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.134
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
relatively strong
Optical Extinction:
Z=b, Y^c = -35°
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Colourless
Y = Pale yellow
Z = Pale yellow
Comments:
2V large

Chemical Properties of KrausiteHide

Formula:
KFe(SO4)2 · H2O
IMA Formula:
KFe3+(SO4)2 · H2O

Crystallography of KrausiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/m
Setting:
P21/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.91 Å, b = 5.15 Å, c = 8.99 Å
β = 102.75°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.536 : 1 : 1.746
Unit Cell V:
357.19 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Commonly earthy to finely granular. Crystals may be short prismatic [001]; also equant to tabular {001}. Larger crystals tend to be rough and opaque, smaller ones brilliant and clear.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000141KrausiteGraeber E J, Morosin B, Rosenzweig A (1965) The crystal structure of krausite, KFe(SO4)2.H2O American Mineralogist 50 1929-193619650293
0001008KrausiteEffenberger H, Pertlik F, Zemann J (1986) Refinement of the crystal structure of krausite: a mineral with an interpolyhedral oxygen-oxygen contact shorter than the hydrogen bond American Mineralogist 71 202-20519860293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.69 Å(70)
4.40 Å(80)
4.26 Å(50)
3.69 Å(70)
3.09 Å(100)
2.77 Å(40)
2.58 Å(40)
2.55 Å(40)
Comments:
ICDD 18-1028

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Oxidation material on pyrite bearing dumps.

Type Occurrence of KrausiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Secondary mineral in sulfate bearing chert.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for KrausiteHide

German:Krausit
Simplified Chinese:钾铁矾
Spanish:Krausita

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
7 photos of Krausite associated with CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
5 photos of Krausite associated with RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
5 photos of Krausite associated with HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
3 photos of Krausite associated with Copper-bearing Melanterite(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
3 photos of Krausite associated with VoltaiteK2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
1 photo of Krausite associated with YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2
1 photo of Krausite associated with BaryteBaSO4
1 photo of Krausite associated with PyriteFeS2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.CC.CobaltoblöditeNa2Co(SO4)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.AndychristyitePbCu2+Te6+O5(H2O)Tric. 1 : P1
7.CC.Ammoniovoltaite(NH4)2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12(H2O)18Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.10TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.15KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CC.15MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.20Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso.
7.CC.20Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.20Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.20Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.20LanmuchangiteTl+Al(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.25VoltaiteK2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.25ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.25PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe3+2Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
7.CC.25Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.30KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.35FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3
7.CC.40GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.45LöweiteNa12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2OTrig.
7.CC.50BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.50NickelblöditeNa2(Ni,Mg)(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.50ChangoiteNa2Zn(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.55LeoniteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.55MereiteriteK2Fe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon.
7.CC.60Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.60CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.60Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.60Nickelboussingaultite(NH4)2Ni(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.60PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.65PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric. 1
7.CC.70LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric.
7.CC.75AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CC.80KonyaiteNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.85WattevilleiteNa2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.11.1NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
25.11.2SideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
25.11.3MetasideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.11.4FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3
25.11.5AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.11.6YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
25.11.8GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.11.9JarositeKFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.11.10VoltaiteK2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
25.11.11UngemachiteK3Na8Fe(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.11.12MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2OTrig.
25.11.13Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
25.11.14Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
25.11.15Clairite(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2OTric.
25.11.16Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.11.17Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso.
25.11.18Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
25.11.19BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m
25.11.21Slavíkite(H3O+)3Mg6Fe15(SO4)21(OH)18 · 98H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.11.23SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
25.11.24Millosevichite(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3Trig. 3 : R3
25.11.25AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.11.26HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
25.11.27Idrizite(Mg,Fe)(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3(OH)2 · 15H2O or near
25.11.28LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.11.29ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c

Fluorescence of KrausiteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Slowly decomposed by water leaving ferric oxide.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for KrausiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Foshag, W.F. (1931): Krausite, a new sulphate from California. American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360.
Graeber, E.J. & A. Rosenzweig (1965): The unit cell of Krausite. American Mineralogist: 50: 504-507.
Graeber, E.J., B. Morosin & A. Rosenzweig (1965): The crystal structure of Krausite, KFe(SO4)2•H2O: American Mineralogist: 50: 1929-1936.
American Mineralogist (1986): 71: 202-205.

Internet Links for KrausiteHide

Localities for KrausiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Jujuy Province
    • Santa Bárbara Department
      • Cerros de Santa Bárbara (Cerro Santa Bárbara)
        • El Palmar hot springs
http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/krausite.pdf.; Marquez-Zavalia, Maria Florencia, Lomniczi de Upton, Irene & Galliski, Miguel Angel (2001): Krausite in fumaroles from Santa Barbara mine, northwestern Argentina. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 2001, 378-384. ; Zavalia, Maria Florencia Marquez & Galliski, Miguel Angel (1995): Goldichite of fumarolic origin from the Santa Barbara mine, Jujuy, northwestern Argentina. Canadian Mineralogist 33, 1059-1062.
Canada
 
  • Saskatchewan
Shang, Y. (2000). Mineralogy, lithostratigraphy and geochemistry of North Ingebright Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada. PhD thesis University of Manitoba.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Cerritos Bayos
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter, Curator of Hamburg Mineralogical Museum, Germany; Kampf, A.R.; Mills, S.J.; Housley, R.M.; Williams, P.A.; Dini, M. (2012): Alcaparrosaite, K3Ti4+Fe3+(SO4)4O(H2O)2, a new hydrophobic Ti4+ sulfate from Alcaparrosa, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine 76, 851-861.
        • Chuquicamata District
          • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
Natural History Museum Vienna collection (Uwe Kolitsch SXRD on Arturo Molina material)
China
 
  • Xinjiang
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Yizhou District
Xu Ying-xia, Ding Kui-shou, Qin Ke-zhang, Miao Yu, Fang Tong-hui, Xu Xing-wang, and Sun He (2006): Geology in China 33(3), 605-616.
France
 
  • Occitanie
    • Gard
      • Le Vigan
        • Montdardier
Minéralogie de la mine des malines (Daniel Gol, Alain Martaud, Nicolas Meisser, Pascal Chollet) - Le regne minéral, H.S. XVI, pp 49-86.
- Gol, D, Martaud, A., Meisser, N. & Chollet, P. (2010): Minéralogie des Malines, Gard. Le Règne Minéral, HS XVI, 49-88.
Germany
 
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion mining district
          • Plaka
            • Plaka Mines
Dr. A. Godelitsas collection and analysis; Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
Branko Rieck Collection
          • Sounion
            • Cato Sounio mines
Branko Rieck Collection
Hungary
 
  • Heves County
    • Mátraszentimre
collector: Gábor Koller, XRD: Ferenc Kristály, EDS: Sándor Szakáll; Szakáll-Kristály-2018
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples
http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/krausite.pdf.
      • Pozzuoli
- Russo, M., Campostrini, I., Demartin, F. (2017): I minerali di origine fumarolica dei Campi Flegrei: Solfatara di Pozzuoli (Napoli) e dintorni. Micro, 15, 122-192.
- Russo, M., Campostrini, I., Demartin, F. (2017): I minerali di origine fumarolica dei Campi Flegrei: Solfatara di Pozzuoli (Napoli) e dintorni. Micro, 15, 122-192.
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol; - Russo, M., Campostrini, I., Demartin, F. (2017): I minerali di origine fumarolica dei Campi Flegrei: Solfatara di Pozzuoli (Napoli) e dintorni. Micro, 15, 122-192.
  • Sicily
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
          • Vulcano Island
            • Porto Levante
              • Faraglioni di Levante (Grotte dei Faraglioni; Grotte del Faraglione; "Grotte de Faraglione")
                • Faraglione Nico (Faraglione Piccolo; Faragghiune Nicu)
Campostrini I. et al - Vulcano: ein aussergewohnlicher Fundpunkt von neuen und seltenen Mineralien - MineralienWelt 2010 - nr.3 - p.40-57
  • Tuscany
    • Lucca Province
      • Stazzema
        • Sant'Anna di Stazzema
Biagioni C, Bindi L, Mauro D, Hålenius U. (2019) Crystal Chemistry of Sulfates from the Apuan Alps (Tuscany, Italy). V. Scordariite, K8(Fe3+0.67□0.33)[Fe3+3O(SO4)6(H2O)3]2(H2O)11: A New Metavoltine-Related Mineral. Minerals. 9(11):702.
      • Vergemoli
        • Fornovolasco
Mauro D. (2016): Studio cristallochimico di alcuni solfati di ferro della mineralizzazione a pirite tallifera di Fornovolasco (Alpi Apuane). Tesi magistrale, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Unviersità di Pisa, 137 pp.
Mexico
 
  • Durango
    • Cuencamé Municipality
      • Velardeña District
        • Velardeña
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 463; Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols.; Am Min (1931), 16:352-360
Peru
 
  • Ayacucho
    • Lucanas Province
      • Huac-huas (Huacuas)
Hyršl, J. (2010): Ein Neufund fantastischer Sulfate in der Mina Javier. Mineralien-Welt 21 (3), 68-71 (in German). ; Roth, P. and Meisser, N. (2012) Goldichit: Ausgezeichnete Kristalle aur Peru. Lapis, 37, #5, 37.; Frost, R. L., Gobac, Ž. Ž., López, A., Xi, Y., Scholz, R., Lana, C., & Lima, R. M. F. (2014). Characterization of the sulphate mineral coquimbite, a secondary iron sulphate from Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru–Using infrared, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1063, 251-258.
Poland
 
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Wodzisław County
      • Radlin
Kruszewski, Ł., Sierny, W. (2019): Radlin coal fire heap: thiosulfate- and dithionate-bearing alkaline mineralization; Cu, Fe, As, and P mineralization; and second worldwide occurrence of tsaregorodtsevite. Miner. - Spec. Pap.: 49: 54
Romania
 
  • Maramureș
    • Băiuț
Ł. Kruszewski & M. Cegiełka PXRD data Ł. Kruszewski pXRF data
USA
 
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 616.
        • Calico District (Daggett District; Calico-Daggett area)
          • Calico
Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 14-15; part 2, No. 4: 12, 13; Graeber, E.J. and Rosenzweig, A. (1965) The unit cell of krausite. American Mineralogist: 50: 504-507; Graeber, E.J., Morosin, B., and Rosenzweig, A. (1965) The crystal structure of krausite, KFe(SO4)2 •H2O. American Mineralogist: 50: 1929-1936; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 265, 273, 278; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael Mining District (San Rafael Swell)
        • Calf Mesa
In the collection of Brent Thorne
    • Wayne Co.
http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/krausite.pdf.
 
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