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About KirschsteiniteHide

Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named in honor of Dr. Egon Baron von Kirschstein, German geologist and a pioneer in the geological exploration of the Virunga volcanic field in North Kivu, in what is now Zaire. He died in the events of World War I in East Africa.
Olivine Group. Kirschsteinite-Monticellite Series.

Not to uncommon in Fe-rich slags.
Also a significant accessory mineral in the angrite group of achondrites (meteorites).

Classification of KirschsteiniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
C : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in octahedral [6] coordination

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
3 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
22 : Silicates of Fe and Ca

Physical Properties of KirschsteiniteHide

5½ on Mohs scale
3.434 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.596 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of KirschsteiniteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.674 - 1.693 nβ = 1.694 - 1.734 nγ = 1.706 - 1.735
Measured: 51° (1), Calculated: 16° to 74°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.032 - 0.042
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v or r < v

Chemical Properties of KirschsteiniteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of KirschsteiniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.859 Å, b = 11.132 Å, c = 6.420 Å
a:b:c = 0.436 : 1 : 0.577
Unit Cell V:
347.26 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
2.949 Å(100)
2.680 Å(85)
2.604 Å(80)
3.658 Å(70)
1.830 Å(60)
2.414 Å(40)
5.569 Å(35)

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Calcareous skarn

Type Occurrence of KirschsteiniteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Royal Museum of Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium, RGM8037; Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Melilite-nephelinite lava
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Sahama, T.G., Hytönen, K. (1957) Kirschsteinite, a natural analogue to synthetic iron monticellite, from the Belgian Congo. Mineralogical Magazine: 31: 698-699.

Synonyms of KirschsteiniteHide

Other Language Names for KirschsteiniteHide

Simplified Chinese:钙铁橄榄石

Relationship of Kirschsteinite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AsimowiteFe2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Imma
Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
FayaliteFe2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
ForsteriteMg2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
LarniteCa2SiO4Mon. 2/m
Roepperite (of Brush)(Fe2+2,Mn,Zn)SiO4
TephroiteMn2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Melilite GroupCa2M(XSiO7)
Titanian Augite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Ti, Fe,Al,)(Si,Al)2O6
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Kirschsteinite associated with MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AC.AhrensiteSiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
9.AC.05FayaliteFe2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.05ForsteriteMg2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.05GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.05TephroiteMn2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.15BrunogeieriteGe4+Fe2+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
9.AC.15Ringwoodite(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AC.20ChesnokoviteNa2[SiO2(OH)2] · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ibca

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.22.1HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
14.22.3 Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
14.22.5TungusiteCa4Fe2Si6O15(OH)6Tric. 1 : P1
14.22.7IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.22.8Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Fe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
14.22.9AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Kirschsteinite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for KirschsteiniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Sahama, T.G., Hytönen, K. (1957) Kirschsteinite, a natural analogue to synthetic iron monticellite, from the Belgian Congo. Mineralogical Magazine: 31: 698-699.
Fleischer, M. (1958) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 43: 790-798.
Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (1970): 190: 932-935.
Folco, L., Mellini, M. (1997) Crystal chemistry of meteoritic kirschsteinite, European Journal of Mineralogy: 9: 969-973.
Wyderko, M., Mazanek, E. (1968) The mineralogical characteristics of calcium-iron olivines. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 955-961.
Mouri, T., Enami, M. (2008) Raman spectroscopic study of olivine-group minerals. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences: 103: 100-104.

Internet Links for KirschsteiniteHide

Localities for KirschsteiniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land
      • Sør Rondane Mountains
Yanai, K. (1994) Angrite Asuka-881371: Preliminary examination of a unique meteorite in the Japanese collection of Antarctic meteorites. Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites 7: 30-41 (March 1994) ; Mikouchi, T., Miyamoto, M. & McKay, G. A. (1996) Mineralogical study of Angrite Asuka-881371: Its possible relation to Angrite Lew87051. Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites 9:174-188. ; C. Floss, G. Crozaz, G. McKay, T. Mikouchi & M. Killgore (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
    • Transantarctic Mountains
      • Buckley Island quadrangle
        • Lewis Cliff
Crozaz, G., Lundberg, L. L. & McKay, G. (1988) Rare Earth Elements (REE) in the Unique Achondrite LEW 86010. Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XIX: p. 231. (March 1988)
McKay, G., Crozaz, G., Wagstaff, I., Yang, S. R. & Lundberg, L. (1990) A Petrographic, Electron Microprobe, Study of Mini-Angrite Lewis Cliff 87051: Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXI: p. 771. (Mar 1990) ; McKay, G., Le, L. & Wagstaff, J. (1991) Olivines in angrite LEW 87051: Phenos or xenos. In Lunar and Planetary Inst., Abstracts for the 54th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, p 151.
  • Buenos Aires Province
    • Coronel Suaréz
      • D'Orbigny
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=7714; Keil, K. (2012) Angrites, a small but diverse suite of ancient, silica-undersaturated volcanic-plutonic mafic meteorites, and the history of their parent asteroid: Chemie der Erde, geochemistry 71:191-218.; Hwang, S. L., Shen, P., Chu, H. T., Yui, T. F., Varela, M. E., & Iizuka, Y. (2016, March). Tsangpoite: The Unknown Calcium Silico Phosphate Phase in the Angrite D'Orbigny. In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 47, p. 1466).
  • Carinthia
    • Sankt Veit an der Glan District
      • Hüttenberg
        • Hüttenberg
          • Waitschach
Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
  • Pernambuco
    • Fernando de Noronha archipelago
      • Fernando de Noronha island
Kogarko, L., Kurat, G., & Ntaflos, T. (2001). Carbonate metasomatism of the oceanic mantle beneath Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 140(5), 577-587.
  • Rio de Janeiro
    • Angra dos Reis
      • Ilha Grande
Prinz, M., Keil, K., Hlava, P. F., Berkely, J. L., Gomes, C. B. & Curvello, W. S. (1977) Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra DOS Reis achondrite: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 35 (2): 317-330. (June 1977) ; Fittipaldo, M. M., Jones, R. H. & Shearer, C. K. (2003) Trace Element Distribution Between Olivine and Kirschsteinite in Angra Dos Reis: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXIV: abstract no.1229. (March 2003)
DR Congo
  • North Kivu
    • Nyiragongo Territory
Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55.; Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
Mineralogical Magazine (1958) 31 (2), 698-699.; Mineralogical Magazine 1957 31 : 698-699.
  • Centre-Val de Loire
    • Loir-et-Cher
Sara S. Russell, Richard C. Greenwood, A. J. Fahey, Gary R. Huss & Gerald J. Wasserburg (1994). An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. Meteoritics 29, #4, p. 525-526. (Jul 1994).
  • Telangana
    • Mahabubnagar district
Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 513-516
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Ferrara Province
      • Vigarano Mainarda
        • Vigarano Pieve
Lee, M.R., Hutchinson, R., and Graham, A.L. (1996) Aqueous alteration in the matrix of the Vigarano (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 31, 4, 477-483; Cosarinsky, M., Leshin, L.A., MacPherson, G.J., and Guan, Y. (2001) Fine-grained rims around calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions in the Vigarano and Allende CV chondrites: Petrography and oxygen isotopic composition. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 36, Supplement, page A44-A45; Maruyama, S., Tomioka, N. (2011) Ca-Al-Fe-rich inclusion in the Vigarano CV3 chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 46, 5, 690–700.
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
      • Rome
Melluso, L.; Conticelli, S.; de' Gennaro, R. (2010): Kirschsteinite in the Capo di Bove melilite leucitite lava. Mineralogical Magazine, 74, 887-902.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
Manasse A., Mellini M. (2002): Chemical and textural characterisation of medieval slags from the Massa Marittima smelting sites (Tuscany, Italy). J. Cultural Heritage, 3, 187-198.
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
          • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
Andrea MANASSE, Marcello MELLINI and Cecilia VITI (2001): The copper slags of the Capattoli Valley, Campiglia Marittima, Italy. European Journal of Mineralogy 13, 949-960.
  • Umbria
    • Terni Province
      • San Venanzo
Sharygin probeb; Sharygin, V. V., Pekov, I. V., Zubkova, N. V., Khomyakov, A. P., Stoppa, F., & Pushcharovsky, D. Y. (2013). Umbrianite, K7Na2Ca2 [Al3Si10O29] F2Cl2, a new mineral species from melilitolite of the Pian di Celle volcano, Umbria, Italy. European Journal of Mineralogy, 25(4), 655-669.; Stoppa, F., & Schiazza, M. (2014). Extreme chemical conditions of crystallisation of Umbrian Melilitolites and wealth of rare, late stage/hydrothermal minerals. Central European Journal of Geosciences, 6(4), 549-564.
  • Pavlodar Region
    • Pavlodar
Krot, A. N., Brearley, A. J., Biryukov, V. V., Ulyanov, A. A., Keil, K., Swindle, T. D. & Mittlefehldt, D. W. (1997). Dark inclusions in the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka - Evidence for various degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. Lunar and Planetary Science XXVIII, pdf#1346, 769-770. (March 1997)
  • Chihuahua
    • Chihuahua Municipality
      • Avalos
Espejel-Garcia, D., Wenglas-Lara, G., Villalobos-Aragon, A., & Espejel-Garcia, V. V. (2012, December). Geochemical characterization and leaching behavior of slags: by-product materials from an old lead smelter in Chihuahua, Mexico. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
    • Pueblito de Allende
  • Töv Aimag
    • Choir-Nyalga basin
Peretyazhko, I. S., Savina, E. A., Khromova, E. A., Karmanov, N. S., & Ivanov, A. V. (2018) Unique Clinkers and Paralavas from a New Nyalga Combustion Metamorphic Complex in Central Mongolia: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Genesis. Petrology, 26(2), 181-211.; Peretyazhko, I. S., Savina, E. A., Khrоmova, E. A., & Mills, S. (2017) Minerals of the rhönite-kuratite series in paralavas from a new combustion metamorphic complex in the Choir–Nyalga basin (Central Mongolia): composition, mineral assemblages and formation conditions. Mineralogical Magazine, 81(4), 949-974.
Peretyazhko, I. S., Savina, E. A., Khromova, E. A., Karmanov, N. S., & Ivanov, A. V. (2018) Unique Clinkers and Paralavas from a New Nyalga Combustion Metamorphic Complex in Central Mongolia: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Genesis. Petrology, 26(2), 181-211.
Peretyazhko, I. S., Savina, E. A., Khromova, E. A., Karmanov, N. S., & Ivanov, A. V. (2018) Unique Clinkers and Paralavas from a New Nyalga Combustion Metamorphic Complex in Central Mongolia: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Genesis. Petrology, 26(2), 181-211.
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Er Rachidia Province
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=44983; Connolly, Jr., H. C. et al., (2007) Meteoritical Bulletin, no. 92, 2007 September: MAPS 42 (9), 1647-1694. (Sept 2007) ; Connolly Jr., H. C. et al. (2007) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 92, 2007 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 4 (9): 1647-1694. (Sept 2007); Kuehner, S. M. & Irving, A. J. (2007) Primary Ferric Iron-Bearing Rhönite in Plutonic Igneous Angrite NWA 4590: Implications for Redox Conditions on the Angrite Parent Body. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract #P41A-0219. (Dec 2007)
  • Oshikoto Region
    • Tsumeb
Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein
      • Kombat
Sid Williams data
North Africa
  • Sahara Desert
Grossman, J. N. & Zipfel, J. (2000). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 84, 2000 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35(9,Supplement): A199-A225.; Floss, C., Crozaz, G., McKay, G., Mikouchi, T. & Killgore, M. (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
Northwest Africa Meteorites
Russell, S. S. & 6 others (2003) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 87, 2003 July: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 38 (7, Suppl.): A189–A248. ; Jambon, A., Barrat, J. A., Boudouma, O., Fonteilles, M., Badia, D., Göpel, C. & Bohn, M. (2005) Mineralogy and petrology of the angrite Northwest Africa 1296. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40 (3) :361–375. (March 2005).
http:www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=17405 -NWA1670@MetBullDatabase; Jambon A., Boudouma, O., Fonteilles, M., Le Guillou, C., Badia D. & Barrat, J. A. (2008) Petrology and mineralogy of the angrite Northwest Africa 1670. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 43:1783–1795. (Nov 2008).
Agee, C. B., Miley, H. M., Ziegler, K. & Spilde, M. N. (2015) Northwest Africa 8535: Unique Dunitic Angrite. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XLVI, LPI Contribution No. 1832, pdf.2681. (Mar 2015).
  • Lesser Poland Voivodeship
    • Olkusz Co.
Ref.: Kucha H., Jędrzejczyk B. 1995: Primary minerals of mining and metallurgical Zn-Pb dumps at Bukowno, Poland, and their stability during weathering. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 26, No 2, 75-99
  • Silesian Voivodeship
Warchulski, R., Gawęda, A., Kądziołka-Gaweł, M., & Szopa, K. (2015) Composition and element mobilization in pyrometallurgical slags from the Orzeł Biały smelting plant in the Bytom–Piekary Śląskie area, Poland. Mineralogical Magazine, 79(2), 459-484.
    • Świętochłowice City Co.
Zainoun K., Puziewicz J. & Bril H. 2003: Primary Pb-Zn-bearing phases in pyrometallurgical slag from Świętochłowice (Upper Silesia, Poland). Mineralogiacal Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 33, 189-191
  • Caraş-Severin
    • Banat Mountains
      • Oraviţa Skarns
Marincea, S., Dumitras, D. G., Ghinet, C., & Bilal, E. (2014, September). Superposed parageneses in the gehlenite-bearing, high-temperature skarns from Oraviţa (Banat, Romania). In IMA2014.
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Lake Baikal area
B Otter collection: Konev, A. A., Ushchapovskaya, Z.F. and Lebedeva V. S.(1970): First find of magnesian kirschsteinite in the USSR. Dokl. Acad. Sci.USSR, Earth Sci. Sect.,190, 136-138
South Africa
  • Northern Cape
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
      • Persberg ore district
        • Pajsberg
M.E. Ciriotti (2005) Probed
  • Montana
    • Butte-Silver Bow (Butte; Silver Bow Co.)
      • Butte Mining District (Summit Valley Mining District)
Kaplan, Jenna(2016) "Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of slag in Lower Area One, Butte, Montana."
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
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