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Ilmenite

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About IlmeniteHide

Formula:
Fe2+TiO3
As a Commodity:
Colour:
Iron black or black
Lustre:
Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
5 - 6
Specific Gravity:
4.68 - 4.76
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1827 by Adolph Theodor Kupffer after its type locality in the Ilmen Mountains, Russia.
Dimorph of:

Classification of IlmeniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1827
4.CB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations
4.3.5.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
7.9.15

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti

Pronounciation of IlmeniteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of IlmeniteHide

Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Iron black or black
Streak:
Black to reddish brown
Hardness:
5 - 6 on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=566 - 698 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Parting:
On {0001}, {1011} due to twinning (?).
Fracture:
Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
4.68 - 4.76 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.789 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of IlmeniteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong in shades of gray
Bireflectance:
Strong O=pinkish brown E= dark brown
Colour in reflected light:
Greyish white with brown tint
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of IlmeniteHide

Formula:
Fe2+TiO3
IMA Formula:
Fe2+Ti4+O3
Common Impurities:
Mn,Mg,V

Chemical AnalysisHide

Oxide wt%:
 1
Nb2O50.16 %
Ta2O50.01 %
TiO252.63 %
FeO24.44 %
MnO22.15 %
MgO0.03 %
Total:99.42 %
Sample references:
IDLocalityReference
1Nippyo mine, Awano, Kanuma City, Tochigi, JapanFrank K. Mazdab collection (thin section FKM-190)

Crystallography of IlmeniteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3 - Rhombohedral
Space Group:
R3
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.08854(7) Å, c = 14.0924(3) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.769
Unit Cell V:
316.01 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
6
Morphology:
Commonly thick tabular {0001}. Sometimes in thin laminae; also acute rhombohedral. Compact massive; as embedded grains.
Twinning:
1. On {0001}; 2. On {1011}, lamellar.

Crystallographic forms of IlmeniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Ilmenite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Ilmenite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Ilmenite no.29 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of IlmeniteHide

Reference:
Kupffer, A.T. (1827) Ilmenit, ein neues fossil (Sammt neuen spielarten des zirkon und gadolinit) aus Sibirien; beschrieben. Archiv für die Gesammte Naturlehre: 10: 1-13.

Synonyms of IlmeniteHide

Other Language Names for IlmeniteHide

Varieties of IlmeniteHide

Cr-rich PicroilmeniteA cromium- and magnesium-rich variety of ilmenite, containing up to 8.6% Cr2O3 and up to 17.0% MgO.
Ferrian IlmeniteIlmenite containing up to 33% Fe2O3 in solid-solution in the rhombohedral series Fe2O3-FeTiO3.
GuadarramiteA supposed radioactive variety of ilmenite
HystatiteA ferrian variety of ilmenite. On material from Arendal.
IserineA supposed cubic form of ilmenite.
Originally described from Jizerská meadow (Iser meadow), Jizerské Mts (Iser Mts), Liberec Region, Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Czech Republic.
KibdelophaneA high Ti Ilmenite
Magnesian Chromian IlmeniteA Mg-Cr-bearing variety from DeBeers mine (kimberlites), associated, i.a., with hawthorneite.
Magnesian MenaccaniteA magnesian variety of ilmenite.
Magnesian ilmeniteA variety of ilmenite with some Mg replacing Fe2+.
MagnetoilmeniteA ferrian variety of ilmenite.
ManaccaniteA ferrian variety of Ilmenite. [Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]
Originally reported from Tregonwell Mill, Manaccan, Lizard Peninsula, Cornwall, England, UK.
ManganilmeniteA manganian variety of ilmenite.
Manganoan IlmeniteA manganese-bearing variety of ilmenite. The pure Mn end-member is pyrophanite.
PicrocrichtoniteA magnesian variety of ilmenite.
PicroilmeniteA Mg-rich variety of ilmenite.
PicrotitaniteA magnesian variety of ilmenite.
Silico-ilmenitePossibly a solid solution of silica in Ilmenite
WashingtoniteA ferrian variety of ilmenite.

Relationship of Ilmenite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Akimotoite(Mg,Fe2+)SiO3Trig.
Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
Hemleyite(Fe2+0.48Mg0.37Ca0.04Na0.04Mn2+0.03Al0.03Cr3+0.01)sum=1.00Si1.00O3Trig. 3 : R3
PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
Unnamed (Fe-Cr Oxide)FeCrO3Trig. 3 : R3
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
80 photos of Ilmenite associated with RutileTiO2
65 photos of Ilmenite associated with AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
62 photos of Ilmenite associated with QuartzSiO2
54 photos of Ilmenite associated with HematiteFe2O3
32 photos of Ilmenite associated with MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4
21 photos of Ilmenite associated with EnstatiteMg2Si2O6
20 photos of Ilmenite associated with TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
18 photos of Ilmenite associated with FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
18 photos of Ilmenite associated with Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
15 photos of Ilmenite associated with AnataseTiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.CB.05BrizziiteNaSb5+O3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05CorundumAl2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05EskolaiteCr2O3Trig.
4.CB.05GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05HematiteFe2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.05KarelianiteV3+2O3Trig.
4.CB.05MelanostibiteMn2+(Sb5+,Fe3+)O3Trig.
4.CB.05PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05Akimotoite(Mg,Fe2+)SiO3Trig.
4.CB.05Unnamed (Auroantimonate)AuSbO3
4.CB.05UM1998-11-O-AuHSbAu+2Sb3+O2(OH)
4.CB.05TistariteTi3+2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.10AvicenniteTl2O3Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Ia3
4.CB.10BixbyiteMn3+2O3Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Ia3
4.CB.15Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CB.15PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S[(Zn,Al,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+,Ti)8O15(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S[(Zn,Mg)7(Al,Fe3+,Ti)16O31(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S[(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S[(Mg,Fe2+,Zn)4(Al,Ti,Fe3+)10O19(OH)]2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S[(Mg,Fe2+)3[Al7(Ti,Fe3+)]O15(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S[(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.CB.25PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9Hex.
4.CB.25KleberiteFeTi6O11(OH)5Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.30BerdesinskiiteV3+2TiO5Mon.
4.CB.30OxyvaniteV3+2V4+O5Mon. 2/m : B2/b
4.CB.35Olkhonskite(Cr,V)2Ti3O9Mon.
4.CB.35SchreyeriteV3+2Ti3O9Mon.
4.CB.40KamiokiteFe2Mo3O8Hex.
4.CB.40NolaniteV3+8Fe3+2O14(OH)2Hex.
4.CB.40RinmaniteZn2Sb2Mg2Fe4O14(OH)2Hex. 6 : P63
4.CB.40IseiteMn2Mo3O8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.40MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.45ClaudetiteAs2O3Mon. 2/m
4.CB.45StibioclaudetiteAsSbO3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
4.CB.50ArsenoliteAs2O3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.CB.50SenarmontiteSb2O3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.CB.55ValentiniteSb2O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pccn
4.CB.60BismiteBi2O3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.65SphaerobismoiteBi2O3Tet.
4.CB.70SilléniteBi12SiO20Iso. 2 3 : I2 3
4.CB.75KyzylkumiteV3+Ti2O5(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.80TietaiyangiteFe3+4Fe2+TiO9Hex.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

4.3.5.2GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.3.5.3PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.3.5.4Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.3.5.5MelanostibiteMn2+(Sb5+,Fe3+)O3Trig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.9.1HongquiiteTiO
7.9.2RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.9.3AnataseTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.6PerovskiteCaTiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.9.7KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2Orth.
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m
7.9.9CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6Mon.
7.9.11HiboniteCaAl12O19Hex.
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6Amor.
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.14Jacobsite-QT(Mn2+)M(Fe3+2)O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.17UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.9.18PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9Hex.
7.9.19FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16Mon.
7.9.20KennedyiteFe2TiO5
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.22Högbomite(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10Hex.
7.9.23Qandilite(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
7.9.24CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.9.25Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38Trig.
7.9.26Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
7.9.27PrideriteK(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16Tet.
7.9.28Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13Mon.
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16Tet. 4/m : I4/m
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Weakly magnetic
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Ilmenite in petrologyHide

References for IlmeniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Kupffer, A.T. (1827) Ilmenit, ein neues fossil (Sammt neuen spielarten des zirkon und gadolinit) aus Sibirien; beschrieben. Archiv für die Gesammte Naturlehre: 10: 1-13.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 534-541.
Buddington, A.F. and Lindsley, D.H. (1964) Iron-titanium oxide minerals and synthetic equivalents. Journal of Petrology, vol. 5, n° 2, 310-357.
Neumann, E.-R. (1974) The distribution of Mn2+ and Fe2+ between ilmenites and magnetites in igneous rocks. American Journal of Science: 274: 1074-1088.
Ishihara, S. (1977) The magnetite-series and ilmenite-series granitic rocks. Mining Geology: 27: 293-305.
Grew, E.S. (1980) Sillimanite and ilmenite from high-grade metamorphic rocks of Antarctica and other areas. Journal of Petrology: 21: 39-68.
D’arco, P., Maury, R.C. (1981) Comparative geothermometry of some magnetite–ilmenite–orthopyroxene–clinopyroxene associations from volcanic rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist: 19: 461-467.
Arculus, R.J., Dawson, J.B., Mitchell, R.H., Gust, D.A., Holmes, R.D. (1984) Oxidation states of the upper mantle recorded by megacryst ilmenite in kimberlite and type A and B spinel Iherzolites. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 85: 85-94.
Wechsler, B.A., Prewitt, C.T. (1984) Crystal structure of ilmenite (FeTiO3) at high temperature and at high pressure. American Mineralogist: 69: 176–185.
Cawthorn, R.G., Groves, D.I., Marchant, T. (1985) Magnesian ilmenite: clue to high-Mg parental magma of the Insizwa complex, Tranksei. The Canadian Mineralogist: 23: 609-618.
Cassidy, K.F., Groves, D.I., Binns, R.A. (1988) Manganoan ilmenite formed during regional metamorphism of Archean mafic and ultramafic rocks from Western Australia. The Canadian Mineralogist: 26: 999-1012.
Cawthorn, R.G., Maske, S., De Wet, M., Groves, D.I., Cassidy, K.F. (1988) Contrasting magma types in the Mount Ayliff intrusioin (Insizwa complex), Transkei: evidence from ilmenite compositions. The Canadian Mineralogist: 26: 145-160.
Mineralogical Journal (Japan) (1989): 14: 179.
Whitney, D.L., Hirschmann, M., Miller, M.G. (1993) Zincian ilmenite – ecandrewsite from a pelitic schist, Death Valley, California, and the paragenesis of (Zn,Fe)TiO3 solid solution in metamorphic rocks. The Canadian Mineralogist: 31: 425-436.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., Nichols, M.C. (1995) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume II. Silica, Silicates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 904pp., 2 volumes: 264.
Jiang, S.Y., Palmer, M.R., Slack, J.F. (1996) Mn-rich ilmenite from the Sullivan Pb–Zn–Ag deposit, British Columbia. The Canadian Mineralogist: 34: 29-36.
Chakhmouradian, A.R., Mitchell, R.H. (1999) Niobian ilmenite, hydroxylapatite and sulfatian monazite: alternative hosts for incompatible elements in calcite kimberlite from Internatsional'naya, Yakutia. The Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 1177-1189.
Nishio-Hamane, D., Zhang, M., Yagi, T., Ma, Y. (2012) High-pressure and high-temperature phase transitions in FeTiO3 and a new dense FeTi3O7 structure. American Mineralogist: 97: 568-572.

Internet Links for IlmeniteHide

Localities for IlmeniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

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