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Hopeite

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About HopeiteHide

08723310014947490114343.jpg
Thomas C. Hope
Formula:
Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Colour:
Yellow, white, colourless, grey or brown; colourless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
3 - 3.1
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Member of:
Name:
Named by David Brewster in 1823 in honor of Thomas Charles Hope (21 July 1766, Edinburgh, Scotland – 13 June 1844, Edinburgh, Scotland) Professor of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh. Also a physician. He discovered the element strontium and determined that water's maximum density occurs at 4°C.
Dimorph of:
Two varieties are known, α-Hopeite and β-Hopeite (Spencer, 1908), which are distinguished by slightly different optical properties and thermal behaviour.
These two varieties differ by the orientation of one water molecule in the crystal structure (Herschke et al., 2004).

The phosphate analogue of arsenohopeite.


Classification of HopeiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.CA.30

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
A : With small and large/medium cations
40.3.4.1

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
3 : A3(XO4)2·xH2O
19.6.3

19 : Phosphates
6 : Phosphates of Zn

Physical Properties of HopeiteHide

Vitreous, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Lustre pearly on the {010} cleavage.
Colour:
Yellow, white, colourless, grey or brown; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
3½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {010}, perfect; on {100}, good; on {001}, poor.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
3 - 3.1 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.08 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HopeiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.572 - 1.574 nβ = 1.582 - 1.591 nγ = 1.590 - 1.592
2V:
Calculated: 26° to 82°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.018
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r < v, perceptible.

Chemical Properties of HopeiteHide

Formula:
Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O

Crystallography of HopeiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.597(3) Å, b = 18.318(8) Å, c = 5.031(1) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.579 : 1 : 0.275
Unit Cell V:
976.6 ų
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals tabular {010} to prismatic [001] and occurring individually or as tufted or divergent aggregates and crusts. Face development is frequently irregular. The crystals may simulate disphenoidal or hemimorphic symmetry. Reniform masses; compact.
Twinning:
None observed.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of HopeiteHide

Synonyms of HopeiteHide

Other Language Names for HopeiteHide

Relationship of Hopeite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
ArsenohopeiteZn3(AsO4)2 · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
DavidlloyditeZn3(AsO4)2·4H2O Tric. 1 : P1
NizamoffiteMn2+Zn2(PO4)2(H2O)4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcm
ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
Unnamed (Mg-analogue of Hopeite)Mg3(PO4)2 · 4H2O

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
15 photos of Hopeite associated with ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
7 photos of Hopeite associated with SmithsoniteZnCO3
7 photos of Hopeite associated with PhosphophylliteZn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2O
3 photos of Hopeite associated with TarbuttiteZn2(PO4)(OH)
2 photos of Hopeite associated with CopperCu
1 photo of Hopeite associated with HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
1 photo of Hopeite associated with ParascholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
1 photo of Hopeite associated with ScholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.CA.DavidlloyditeZn3(AsO4)2·4H2O Tric. 1 : P1
8.CA.ApexiteNaMg(PO4)·9H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CA.BrandãoiteBeAl2(PO4)2(OH)2(H2O)5Tric. 1 : P1
8.CA.05FransoletiteCa3Be2(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2OMon.
8.CA.05ParafransoletiteCa3Be2(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CA.10EhrleiteCa4Be3Zn2(PO4)6 · 9H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CA.15FaheyiteBe2Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)4 · 6H2OTrig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
8.CA.20GainesiteNa(Na,K)(Be,Li)Zr2(PO4)4 · 1.5-2H2OTet. 4mm : I41md
8.CA.20MccrillisiteNaCs(Be,Li)Zr2(PO4)4 · 1-2H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.CA.20SelwyniteNaK(Be,Al)Zr2(PO4)4 · 2H2OTet.
8.CA.25PahasapaiteLi8(Ca,Li,K)10.5Be24(PO4)24 · 38H2OIso. 2 3 : I2 3
8.CA.30ArsenohopeiteZn3(AsO4)2 · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
8.CA.35WarikahniteZn3(AsO4)2 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CA.40PhosphophylliteZn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.CA.45ParascholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2OMon.
8.CA.45ScholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcm
8.CA.50KeyiteCu2+3Zn4Cd2(AsO4)6 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
8.CA.55PushcharovskiteK0.6Cu18(AsO4)(HAsO4)10(H2AsO4)4(OH)9.6·18.6H2OTric.
8.CA.60ProsperiteCa2Zn4(AsO4)4 · H2OMon.
8.CA.65GengenbachiteKFe3+3(HPO4)4(H2PO4)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
8.CA.70ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

40.3.4.2ArsenohopeiteZn3(AsO4)2 · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.6.1TarbuttiteZn2(PO4)(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
19.6.2SpenceriteZn4(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.6.4ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.6.5Veszelyite(Cu,Zn)2Zn(PO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.6.6Kipushite(Cu,Zn)5Zn(PO4)2(OH)6 · H2OMon.
19.6.7ScholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcm
19.6.8ParascholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2OMon.
19.6.9EhrleiteCa4Be3Zn2(PO4)6 · 9H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.6.10Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.6.11Aheylite(Fe2+,Zn)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.6.12JungiteCa2Zn4Fe3+8(PO4)9(OH)9 · 16H2OOrth.
19.6.13SchooneriteZnMn2+Fe2+2Fe3+(PO4)3(OH)2 · 9H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbam
19.6.14PhosphophylliteZn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Readily soluble in dilute HCl.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HopeiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brewster, D. (1822) New mineral from Aachen, near Altenberg. Edinburgh Philosophical Journal: 6: 184.
Brewster, D. (1823) Art. XXII.-Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. (Continued from Vol. VIII. p. 386). Edinburgh Philosophy Journal: 9: 186-186.
Brewster, D. (1826) Description of hopeite, a new mineral from Altenberg near Aix-la-Chapelle. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: 10: 107-111.
Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 2nd. Edition: 38 (as Prismatoidischer Zinkphyllit).
Haüy (cf. Des Cloizeaux) (1879) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 2: 133 (as Stilbite duovigésimale).
Spencer, L.J. (1908) On hopeite and other zinc phosphates and associated minerals from Broken Hill mines, North-Western Rhodesia. Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 1-38.
Buttgenbach (1909) Académie royale des sciences de Belgique, Brussels - Bull., no. 5: 567.
Ungemach (1910) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 132.
Walker, T.L. (1916) Hopeite from the H. B. Mine, Salmo, B.C.. Journal of the Washington Academy of Science: 6: 685.
Walker, T.L. (1916) University of Toronto Studies, Geology Series, no. 10 (1918).
Buttgenbach (1919) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 42: 93.
Buttgenbach (1921) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 42: M93
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 87.
Wolfe, C.W. (1940) Classification of minerals of the type A3(XO4)2·nH2O (concluded). American Mineralogist: 25: 787-809.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 734-737.
Mamedov, K.S., Gamidov, R.S., Belov, N.V. (1961) Crystal structure of hopeite, Zn3(PO4)2·4(H2O). Soviet Physics - Crystallography: 6: 91-94.
Liebau, F. (1962) Über die Struktur des Hopeits, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Chemie der Erde: 22: 430-432.
Liebau, F. (1965) Zur Kristallstruktur des Hopeits, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Acta Crystallographica: 18: 352-354.
Kawahara, A., Takano, Y., Takahashi, M. (1973) The structure of hopeite. Mineralogical Journal: 7: 289-297.
Hill, R.J., Jones, J.B. (1976) The crystal structure of hopeite. American Mineralogist: 61: 987-995.
Whitaker, A. (1978a) The crystal structure of hopeite, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Acta Crystallographica: B31: 2026-2035.
Whitaker, A. (1978b) The crystal structure of hopeite, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O: errata. Acta Crystallographica: B34: 2385-2386.
Haussuehl, S., Middendorf, B., Doerffel, M. (1991) Structure and properties of hopeites (MgxZn1-x)3(PO4)2·4(H2O). Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 93: 9-16.
Pawlig, O., Trettin, R. (1999) Synthesis and characterization of alpha-hopeite, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Materials Research Bulletin: 34: 1959-1966.
Herschke, L., Enkelmann, V., Lieberwirth, I., Wegner, G. (2004) The role of hydrogen bonding in the crystal structures of zinc phosphate hydrates. Chemistry - A European Journal: 10: 2795-2803.
Frost, R.L. (2004) An infrared and Raman spectroscopic study of natural zinc phosphates. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: 60: 1439-1445.
Parhi, P., Manivannan, V., Kohli, S., McCurdy, P. (2008) Room temperature metathetic synthesis and characterization of alpha-hopeite, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Materials Research Bulletin: 43: 1836-1841.

Internet Links for HopeiteHide

Localities for HopeiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
        • Broken Hill
          • Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine)
Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • South Flinders Ranges
        • Martins Well
SA Geodata Database - Mineral Deposit Details Deposit Number: 3220
Bahamas
 
  • San Salvador District
    • San Salvador Island
Onac B.P., Sumrall J., Mylroie J.E., Kearns J. (2009): Cave minerals of San Salvador Island, Bahamas. The University of South Florida karst studies series, 1, 70 pp.
Belgium (TL)
 
  • Wallonia
    • Liège
      • Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet mining district (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet mining district)
        • Kelmis (La Calamine)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 736; MJ 7 (1973), 289; Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV.
      • Visé
Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí
    • Cornelio Saavedra Province
      • Machacamarca mining district (Colavi mining district)
        • Canutillos subdistrict
          • Huayllani
Anthony Kampf analysis, Alfredo Petrov specimen.
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Nelson Mining Division
      • Salmo
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 734 & 753, 933.; Paradis, S., Keevil, H., Simandl, G. J., & Raudsepp, M. (2015). Carbonate-hosted nonsulphide Zn–Pb mineralization of southern British Columbia, Canada. Mineralium Deposita, 50(8), 923-951.
Paradis, S., Keevil, H., Simandl, G. J., & Raudsepp, M. (2015). Carbonate-hosted nonsulphide Zn–Pb mineralization of southern British Columbia, Canada. Mineralium Deposita, 50(8), 923-951.
    • Revelstoke Mining Division
Richard Gunter Collection
China
 
  • Guizhou
    • Bijie
      • Weining County
        • Huize Zn-Pb-(Ag) ore field
Runsheng Han, Congqiang Liu, Zhilong Huang, Jin Chen, Deyun Ma, Li Lei, and Gengsheng Ma (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31(1-4), 360-383.
  • Yunnan
    • Qujing
      • Huize County
        • Huize Zn-Pb-(Ag) ore field
Runsheng Han, Congqiang Liu, Zhilong Huang, Jin Chen, Deyun Ma, Li Lei, and Gengsheng Ma (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31(1-4), 360-383.
Runsheng Han, Congqiang Liu, Zhilong Huang, Jin Chen, Deyun Ma, Li Lei, and Gengsheng Ma (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31(1-4), 360-383.
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Neustadt an der Waldnaab
        • Pleystein
Dill, H.G., Weber, B. (2009), Pleystein-City on Pegmatite, 4th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Recife, Brazil.
        • Waidhaus
          • Hagendorf
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
http://www.berthold-weber.de/h_miner.htm
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Oberschulenberg
Lapis, 11 (1), 9-18+42
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Cologne
      • Aachen
        • Stolberg
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
          • Büsbach
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Rhein-Lahn-Kreis
      • Bad Ems
        • Frücht
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Nigeria
 
  • Plateau
    • Azara
Oyeladun, A W (2015) Characterization of Azara Copper Ore Deposit, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. MS Thesis Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Portugal
 
  • Guarda
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Catalonia
    • Tarragona
      • Priorat
        • Bellmunt del Priorat
Joan Abella i Creus (2008): Minerals I Mines De La Conca De Bellmunt Del Priorat.
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area
      • Kaiyuh Mining District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
  • Arizona
    • Graham Co.
      • Aravaipa Mining District
        • Santa Teresa Mountains
          • Aravaipa
            • Landsman Camp (Landsman group)
Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 4.
  • California
    • San Diego County
      • Pala Mining District
        • Pala
          • Chief Mountain
Mineralogical Record (2002): 33(5): 388.
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Kampf, A. R., Falster, A. U., Simmons, W. B., & Whitmore, R. W. (2013). Nizamoffite, Mn2+ Zn2 (PO4) 2 (H2O) 4, the Mn analogue of hopeite from the Palermo No. 1 pegmatite, North Groton, New Hampshire. American Mineralogist, 98(10), 1893-1898.
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer Mining District
        • Fourmile
Rocks & Minerals: 75(3): 156-169.
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone Mining District
        • Glendale
Rocks & Minerals: 60: 116.
Zambia
 
  • Central Province
    • Kabwe District
      • Kabwe (Broken Hill)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 736, 870.
 
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