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Hydrotalcite

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About HydrotalciteHide

Formula:
Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
Colour:
White, brownish
Lustre:
Waxy, Pearly
Hardness:
2
Specific Gravity:
2.03 - 2.09
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
First found by Prof. K. J. A. Theodor Scheerer (1813-1875) at Snarum, Buskerud, Norway. Named in 1842 by Carl Christian Hochstetter in allusion its high water content ('Hydro-') and to its resemblance to talc.
Is a member of the hydrotalcite group and hydrotalcite supergroup.

May be confused with meixnerite. Compare also quintinite.
"Manasseite" was discredited because it was recognised as a hexagonal polytype of hydrotalcite, Hydrotalcite-2H, by Mills et al. (2012).

Hydrotalcite from the type locality at Snarum, Norway, is dominated by the 3R polytype (Mills et al., 2016).

A regular interstratification of hydrotalcite and chrysotile is known as UM1995-40-SiO:AlHMg.


Classification of HydrotalciteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1842
5.DA.50

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
D : Carbonates with additional anions, with H2O
A : With medium-sized cations
16b.6.2.1

16b : HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
6 : AmBn(XO3)pZqxH2O & with (m+n):p = 8:1
11.7.4

11 : Carbonates
7 : Carbonates of Al

Pronounciation of HydrotalciteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of HydrotalciteHide

Waxy, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
White, brownish
Streak:
White
Hardness:
Cleavage:
Perfect
{0001}
Density:
2.03 - 2.09 g/cm3 (Measured)    2 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HydrotalciteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.511 - 1.531 nε = 1.495 - 1.529
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.016
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low

Chemical Properties of HydrotalciteHide

Formula:
Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O

Crystallography of HydrotalciteHide

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Hydrotalcite-2HHydrotalcite-3R
Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
Hexagonal Trigonal 
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
P63/mmc R3m
 R3 2/m
a = 3.1 Å, c = 15.32 Å
a = 6.13 Å, c = 46.15 Å
a:c = 1 : 4.942a:c = 1 : 7.529
V 127.50 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
V 1501.84 ų
 3

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.69 Å(100)
3.88 Å(70)
2.58 Å(20)
2.30 Å(20)
1.96 Å(20)
1.53 Å(20)
1.50 Å(20)

Type Occurrence of HydrotalciteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
As contorted, lamellar-to-fibrous white
masses of waxy or pearly lustre.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Neotypes is deposited at the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, Germany. Samples MFN_MIN_1998_2751 and MFN_MIN_1998_2758 ( labelled by Gustav Rose).
Geological Setting of Type Material:
A serpentine-magnesite body
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Reference:
Hochstetter, C. (1842) Untersuchungen über die Zusammentzung einiger Mineralien. Journal für Praktische Chemie, 27: 375-378

Synonyms of HydrotalciteHide

Other Language Names for HydrotalciteHide

Varieties of HydrotalciteHide

HoughiteA variety of hydrotalcite derived from the alteration of spinel.

Relationship of Hydrotalcite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
DesautelsiteMg6Mn3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
DroninoiteNi6Fe2+3(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Hydrotalcite-3RMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
IowaiteMg6Fe3+2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
MeixneriteMg6Al2(OH)16(OH)2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
PyroauriteMg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
ReevesiteNi6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2OTrig.
StichtiteMg6Cr3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
TakoviteNi6Al2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
UM1998-10-CO:CoHNiNi6Co2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
WoodalliteMg6Cr2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
17 photos of Hydrotalcite associated with LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
11 photos of Hydrotalcite associated with HematiteFe2O3
6 photos of Hydrotalcite associated with Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
6 photos of Hydrotalcite associated with PyroauriteMg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
4 photos of Hydrotalcite associated with NordstranditeAl(OH)3
4 photos of Hydrotalcite associated with MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4
4 photos of Hydrotalcite associated with Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
3 photos of Hydrotalcite associated with Phillipsite
3 photos of Hydrotalcite associated with BaryteBaSO4
3 photos of Hydrotalcite associated with CalciteCaCO3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.DA.AlexkhomyakoviteK6(Ca2Na)(CO3)5Cl·6H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
5.DA.05DypingiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5H2OMon.
5.DA.05GiorgiositeMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5-6H2O
5.DA.05HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
5.DA.05WidgiemoolthaliteNi5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5H2OMon.
5.DA.05UM1986-10-CO:ClHMgMnZn (also called Mineral F, Dunn, 1995)Mg5(Zn,Mn)3(CO3)2(OH,Cl)12 · H2O
5.DA.05UM1987-01-CO:HMgSMg4(CO3)2(OH)4 · 6H2O ?Mon.
5.DA.10ArtiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
5.DA.10IndigiriteMg2Al2(CO3)4(OH)2 · 15H2O
5.DA.10ChlorartiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)Cl · 2H2OTrig. 3m : R3c
5.DA.15OtwayiteNi2(CO3)(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
5.DA.15ZaratiteNi3(CO3)(OH)4 · 4H2O ?Iso.
5.DA.20KambaldaiteNaNi4(CO3)3(OH)3 · 3H2OHex.
5.DA.25CallaghaniteCu2Mg2(CO3)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon.
5.DA.30Claraite(Cu,Zn)15(CO3)4(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)14·7H2OTric.
5.DA.35HydroscarbroiteAl14(CO3)3(OH)36 · nH2OTric.
5.DA.35ScarbroiteAl5(CO3)(OH)13 · 5H2OHex.
5.DA.40CaresiteFe2+4Al2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2OTrig.
5.DA.40QuintiniteMg4Al2(OH)12(CO3) · 3H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P63 2 2
5.DA.40CharmariteMn2+4Al2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2O
5.DA.45Stichtite-2HMg6(Cr,Al)2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.DA.45BrugnatelliteMg6Fe3+(CO3)(OH)13 · 4H2OHex.
5.DA.45ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2 · 3H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
5.DA.45Hydrotalcite-2HMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.DA.45Pyroaurite-2HMg6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.DA.45ZaccagnaiteZn4Al2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2OHex.
5.DA.50ComblainiteNi4Co2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2OTrig.
5.DA.50DesautelsiteMg6Mn3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
5.DA.50PyroauriteMg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
5.DA.50ReevesiteNi6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2OTrig.
5.DA.50StichtiteMg6Cr3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
5.DA.50TakoviteNi6Al2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
5.DA.50UM1998-10-CO:CoHNiNi6Co2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
5.DA.55CoalingiteMg10Fe3+2(OH)24[CO3] · 2H2OTrig.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

16b.6.2.2StichtiteMg6Cr3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
16b.6.2.3PyroauriteMg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
16b.6.2.4DesautelsiteMg6Mn3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.7.1ScarbroiteAl5(CO3)(OH)13 · 5H2OHex.
11.7.2HydroscarbroiteAl14(CO3)3(OH)36 · nH2OTric.
11.7.3DawsoniteNaAlCO3(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Imma
11.7.5Hydrotalcite-2HMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
11.7.6IndigiriteMg2Al2(CO3)4(OH)2 · 15H2O
11.7.7AlumohydrocalciteCaAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
11.7.8Para-alumohydrocalciteCaAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · 6H2O
11.7.9TunisiteNaCa2Al4(CO3)4(OH)8ClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
11.7.10WermlanditeMg7Al2(OH)18[Ca(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3c1
11.7.11MontroyaliteSr4Al8(CO3)3(OH,F)26 · 10-11H2O
11.7.12DresseriteBaAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
11.7.13HydrodresseriteBaAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · 3H2OTric.
11.7.14StrontiodresseriteSrAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2OOrth.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HydrotalciteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Foshag (1920), U.S. National Museum, Proceedings: 58: 147.
Frondel, C. (1941), American Mineralogist: 26: 295.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 653-655.
Processi verbali della Società Toscana di scienze naturali in Pisa: 24: 92-105.
American Mineralogist (1967): 52: 1036-1047.
Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 58: 147-153.
Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 67: 409-419.
Journal of Physical Chemistry: 100: 8527-8534.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 544-551.
Mineralogical Magazine: 39: 377-389.
Mills, S.J., Christy, A.G., Genin, J.-M.R., Kameda, T., Colombo, F. (2012): Nomenclature of the hydrotalcite supergroup: natural layered double hydroxides. Mineralogical Magazine, 76, 1289-1336.
Mills, S.J., Christy, A.G., Schmitt, R.T. (2016): The creation of neotypes for hydrotalcite. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, 1023-1029.
Zhitova, E.S., Krivovichev, S.V., Pekov, I.V., Greenwell, H.C. (2019): Crystal chemistry of natural layered double hydroxides. 5. Single-crystal structure refinement of hydrotalcite, [Mg6Al2(OH)16](CO3)(H2O)4. Mineralogical Magazine 83, 269-280.

Internet Links for HydrotalciteHide

Localities for HydrotalciteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Darling Co.
      • Barraba
Turvey, C. C., Wilson, S. A., Hamilton, J. L., Tait, A. W., McCutcheon, J., Beinlich, A., ... & Southam, G. (2018). Hydrotalcites and hydrated Mg-carbonates as carbon sinks in serpentinite mineral wastes from the Woodsreef chrysotile mine, New South Wales, Australia: Controls on carbonate mineralogy and efficiency of CO2 air capture in mine tailings. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 79, 38-60.
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Trial Harbour district
Bottrill, R.S., Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Tasmania Bulletin 73, 254 pages.
  • Western Australia
    • Kalgoorlie-Boulder Shire
      • Kanowna Goldfield
Barnes, S. J., Wells, M. A., & Verrall, M. R. (2009). Effects of magmatic processes, serpentinization, and talc-carbonate alteration on sulfide mineralogy and ore textures in the Black Swan disseminated nickel sulfide deposit, Yilgarn Craton. Economic Geology, 104(4), 539-562.
    • Wiluna Shire
      • Mount Keith
Grguric, B.A. (2003) Minerals of the MKD5 nickel deposit, Mount Keith, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 9, No.2 pp.55-71.
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Leoben District
      • Kraubath an der Mur
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Südoststeiermark District
      • Bad Gleichenberg
        • Wilhelmsdorf
Alker, A., Golob, P., Postl, W. & Waltinger, H. (1981): Hydrotalkit, Nordstrandit und Motukoreait vom Stradner Kogel, südlich Gleichenberg, Steiermark. Mitt.-Bl. Abt. Mineral. Landesmuseum Joanneum 49, 1-13.; R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • Bad Radkersburg
        • Klöch
"Aus der Tiefe der Vulkane", Fritz-Jandl-Postl (2011)
      • Feldbach
        • Mühldorf
peter neschen collection; Postl, W., Taucher, J. & Moser, B. (1996): Neue Mineralfunde im oststeirischen Vulkangebiet. Mitt. Abt. Miner. Landesmuseum Joanneum, 60/61, 3-76.
Brazil
 
  • São Paulo
    • Cajati
[Hydrotalcite-2H] MinRec 15:261-270
Bulgaria
 
  • Yambol Province
    • Tundzha Obshtina
Marcus Vau Collection
Canada
 
  • Ontario
Grice, Joel D. (1989) Bancroft: the Mineral Capital of Canada. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages, 92-99; 162-165.
    • Hastings County
      • Elzevir Township
Ann P.Sabina (1987), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Hull-Maniwaki, Quebec; Ottawa-Peterborough, Ontario. GSC Misc. Report 41, p77
  • Québec
    • Chaudière-Appalaches
      • Les Appalaches RCM
        • Saint-Joseph-de-Coleraine
Royal Ontario Museum specimen M48712; Horváth Coll. XRD ID.
Gaudard (1993)
        • Thetford Mines
          • Black Lake
Canadian Museum of Nature collection
Sabina (1967)
    • Estrie
      • Les Sources RCM
        • Asbestos
GRICE, J.D. (1989) The Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos, Quebec: The Western World's Largest Asbestos Deposit. In: Famous Mineral Localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 115-123; 179-181.; HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E., SPERTINI, F. (2013) The Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Québec, Canada: A mineralogical review. Mineralogical Record, 44, 375-417.
    • Outaouais
      • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
        • Chelsea
Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 41
        • Wakefield
Sabina, A.P. (1987) Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Hull-Maniwaki, Quebec, Ottawa-Peterborough, Ontario. GSC Misc. Report 41, 34-35 p.
China
 
  • Jilin
    • Tonghua
      • Ji'an Co.
Zhaobin Su and Shaoying Jiang (1984): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 5(3), 102-108
  • Shaanxi
    • Hanzhong
      • Ningqiang County
Zhaobin Su and Shaoying Jiang (1984): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 5(3), 102-108
  • Sichuan
    • Ya'an
      • Shimian Co.
Shaoying Jiang, Guangrong Zhang, Hui'e Liang, and Weiqi Huang (1984): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 4(4), 296-302
Zhaobin Su and Shaoying Jiang (1984): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 5(3), 102-108
Zhaobin Su and Shaoying Jiang (1984): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 5(3), 102-108
Czech Republic
 
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Litoměřice District
      • Třebenice
Houzar, S., & ŠRein, V. (2008). Asociace geikielitu s kasiteritem ve spinelovém mramoru z Třebenic na západní Moravě, Moldanubikum. Acta rerum naturalium, 4, 1-6.
  • Vysočina Region
    • Žďár nad Sázavou District
      • Věžná
Canadin Mineralogist, Vol 17, 1979, pp. 583-588.; Cerny, P., Hawthorne, F. C., Laflamme, J. H. G., & Hinthorne, J. (1979). Stibiobetafite, a new member of the pyrochlore group from Vezna, Czechoslovakia. Canadian Mineralogist, 17, 583-588.
Petr Pauliš (2001): Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Moravy a Slezska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora.
France
 
  • New Caledonia
    • Southern Province
      • Mont-Dore Commune
Monnin, C., Chavagnac, V., Boulart, C., Ménez, B., Gérard, M., Gérard, E., ... & Guentas-Dombrowski, L. (2014). Fluid chemistry of the low temperature hyperalkaline hydrothermal system of Prony Bay (New Caledonia). Biogeosciences, 11(20), 5687-5706.
  • Occitanie
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Prats-de-Mollo-la Preste (Prats de Molló-la Presta)
Goujou J-C., Guitard G., Berbain C. (2000), Le massif de Costabonne, 2464 m (Pyrénées-Orientales), Le Règne Minéral, n°32, pp: 5-12
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German); WALENTA, K. (1995): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara. 6. Folge, 1. Teil. - Lapis 20 (5), 33-38.
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Franconia
      • Haßberge
        • Maroldsweisach
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Oberschulenberg
No reference listed
    • Lüchow-Dannenberg
Mertineit, M.; Schramm, M. (2019) Lithium Occurrences in Brines from two German Salt Deposits (Upper Permian) and First Results of Leaching Experiments. Minerals 9, 766.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Ahrweiler
      • Brohltal
        • Brenk
Blass, G., Els, F., Über den Erstfund von Hydrotalkit-kristallen vom Schellkopf bei Brenk in der Vulkaneifel, MW 4/1993
    • Vulkaneifel
      • Birresborn
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag, München (2. Auflage), 1987
      • Daun
        • Üdersdorf
Hentschel, G., Die Minerale der Üdersdorfer Lava, Lapis, Weise Verlag, München, 11/1989
      • Hillesheim
        • Zilsdorf
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien des Arensberges bei Zilsdorf, Eifel, Der Aufschluß 29, 219-227, 1978
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Bärenstein
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001; http://www.mineralienatlas.de/forum/index.php?topic=25633.msg201613;topicseen#new (Thomas Witzke comment)
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
No reference listed
          • Sounion area
            • Sounion Mines
Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999)
Hungary
 
  • Fejér County
    • Kőszárhegy
Szakáll: Minerals of Szár Hill, 2004
  • Pest County
    • Szentendre District
      • Dunabogdány
Harangi, S. et al. (2009): Dunabogdány: Zeolites, laccolith, contact zone, Field Trip 2, 9th September 2009. MinPet2009 field trip booklet, 17 pp.
Iraq
 
  • Sulaymaniyah Governorate
    • Qala-Diz (Qala-Dizeh; Qala-Diza)
      • Hero
Al-Hermezi, H. M. (1985). Qandilite, a new spinel end-member, Mg 2 TiO 4, from the Qala-Dizeh region, NE Iraq. Mineralogical Magazine, 49(354), 739-744.
Israel
 
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Lanterna Valley
            • Lanzada
              • Campo Moro Valley
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (2006) I minerali della media-alta Valtellina, delle Orobie valtellinesi e della Val Poschiavo. Aggiornamenti sulle altre località della provincia di Sondrio. Bettini, Sondrio, 255 pp.
  • Piedmont
    • Metropolitan City of Turin
      • Léssolo
        • Cálea
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • Trento Province (Trentino)
      • Ala
        • Pilcante
Giorgio Bortolozzi, visual identification; Bortolozzi, G., Boscardin, M., Rocchetti, I., Bersani, D. (2013): Cafetite e kassite della cava di Pilcante in Val d'Adige (Ala, Trento). Micro, 11, 1, 39-48.
        • San Valentino Valley
Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
      • Centa San Nicolò
        • Vigolana Mount
Guida ai minerali. F.Fabbri Ed., Milano 1973.
      • Terragnolo
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
        • Borcola Pass
Zordan A. (2014): Provincia di Vicenza. In: Zorzi F., Boscardin M. (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta sei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, 173-246.
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
  • Umbria
    • Perugia Province
      • Sigillo
        • Monte Cucco
D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
  • Veneto
    • Verona Province
      • Brentino Belluno
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
    • Vicenza Province
      • Arsiero
        • Riofreddo valley
          • Contrada Busati-Pasquali
Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
      • Cogollo del Cengio
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
      • Posina
        • Borcola Pass
Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • Pasubio Massif
          • Punta della Lucche
Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
          • Sogli Bianchi
Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
      • Schio
        • Tretto
          • Val Munari
            • Contrade Maglio-Pornaro
Boscardin, M., Da Meda, E., Zordan, A. (1988): I minerali di un nuovo giacimento di contatto presso Schio (VI) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 11, 2 (2-1988), 73-78; Boscardin, M., De Zen, L., Zordan, A. (1989): I minerali della Val Leogra e della Val d'Astico nel Vicentino. Cassa Rurale e Artigiana di Schio, Grafiche Marcolin, Schio, 140 pp.; Boscardin, M., Daleffe, A., Rocchetti, I., Zordan, A. (2011): Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni. Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato”, Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 183 pp.; Zordan, A. (2014): Provincia di Vicenza. In: Zorzi, F., Boscardin, M., (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta dei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, 173-246.
      • Tonezza del Cimone
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
      • Valdastico
Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
Japan
 
  • Aichi Prefecture
    • Shinshiro city
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
  • Kochi Prefecture
    • Kochi City
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
  • Kyoto Prefecture
    • Miyazu City
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
Jordan
 
  • Amman
Pitty, A. F., & Alexander, W. R. (2010). A natural analogue study of cement buffered, hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a repository host rock IV: an examination of the Khushaym Matruk (central Jordan) and Maqarin (northern Jordan) sites. NDA-RWMD Technical Report, NDA, Moors Row, UK.
  • Irbid
    • Maqarin area
http://www.natural-analogues.com/maqarin.htm; Khoury, H. N., Salameh, E., & Abdul-Jaber, Q. (1985). Characteristics of an unusual highly alkaline water from the Maqarin area, northern Jordan. Journal of Hydrology, 81(1), 79-91.
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Modum
Hochstetter (1842); Manasse (1915); Frondel (1941, table 1); Neumann (1985, p. 102); Raade (1996, pp. 45-46).
Frondel, C.(1941): Constitution and polymorphism of the pyroaurite and sjögrenite groups. American Mineralogist. 26, 295-315.
Wilke, H.-J. (1976): Mineral-Fundstellen Band 4: Skandinavien. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 370 pp.
  • Hordaland
    • Bergen
      • Arna
[Hydrotalcite-2H] Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68 p. 103
      • Fana
[Hydrotalcite-2H] Collection of Naturhistorisk Museum, Bergen, Norway; Selbekk R.S. (2010): Norges mineraler. En revidert utgave av Norges mineraler (Neumann 1985). Tapir-NGU-NHM. 552p (p.215)
      • Ytrebygda
[Hydrotalcite-2H] Knut Edvard Larsen collection MM # 2264
  • Telemark
    • Kragerø
      • Sannidal
        • Lona
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68. p. 98 and 102.
Oman
 
  • Ad Dakhiliyah
Chavagnac, V., Ceuleneer, G., Monnin, C., Lansac, B., Hoareau, G., & Boulart, C. (2013). Mineralogical assemblages forming at hyperalkaline warm springs hosted on ultramafic rocks: a case study of Oman and Ligurian ophiolites. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 14(7), 2474-2495.
  • Al Batinah North
Chavagnac, V., Ceuleneer, G., Monnin, C., Lansac, B., Hoareau, G., & Boulart, C. (2013). Mineralogical assemblages forming at hyperalkaline warm springs hosted on ultramafic rocks: a case study of Oman and Ligurian ophiolites. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 14(7), 2474-2495.
Poland
 
  • Lesser Poland Voivodeship
    • Kraków Co.
      • Gmina Krzeszowice
        • Dębnik-Dubie area
Muszyński M., Wyszomirski P. 1998: Przeobrażenia kontaktowe węglanowych skał dewonu w okolicach Dubia koło Krakowa. Geologia 24, 3, 200-217
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Zawiercie Co.
Koszowska E., Salata D. 2001: Minerals of the hydrotalcite group in metasomatically altered carbonate rocks from Zawiercie, S Poland. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 32, no 1, 69-84
Romania
 
  • Mehedinti
    • Almas Mountains
Minerals of Carpathians
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Verkhny Ufaley
      • Ufaley District (Ufalei District)
Talovina, I.V., Lazarenkov, V.G., and Vorontsova, N.I. (2003): Lithology and Mineral Resources 38(5), 403-415.
    • Zlatoust
      • Kusinsk Fe-Ti-V-deposit
[Hydrotalcite-2H] Joe Cilen
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Zheleznogorsk (Korshunikha)
Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.; Mazurov et al (2007) Geology of Ore Deposits, 49, 271–284.
  • Murmansk Oblast
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/khib.htm
[Hydrotalcite-2H] Subbotin, R. P. L. V. V., & Pakhomovsky, Y. A. (1998). A new type of scandium mineralization in phoscorites and carbonatites of the Kovdor massif, Russia. Canadian Mineralogist 36:971-980.
[Hydrotalcite-2H] http://maurice.strahlen.org/kola/kovdor.htm
http://maurice.strahlen.org/kola/kovdor.htm; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
American Mineralogist 49:1501
    • Aldan Shield
      • Aldan
Schreyer et al (1998), Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 133: 382-388.
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Asbest
Dana 7:I:654.; Antonov A.A. [Антонов А.А.] (2003): Mineralogy of rodingites of the Bazhenovsk ultrabasic massif [Минералогия родингитов Баженовского гипербазитого массива]. Nauka, Sankt-Peterburg, 129 pp. (in Russian).
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo
    • Phalaborwa
      • Loolekop
Minerals of South Africa; Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Spain
 
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Ciudad Real
      • Campo de Calatrava volcanoes
        • Almagro
Calvo, M., Viñals, J., Sanz, A. and Martí, J. (2013). Zeolites and asociated minerals in the vacuoles of some of the Campo de calatrava volcanoes - Ciudad Real, Spain. Mineral Up,3, 54-69
Sweden
 
  • Örebro County
    • Ljusnarsberg
      • Kopparberg
        • Kaveltorp Mines
No reference listed
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183. ; K:Gatedal
No reference listed
Tajikistan
 
  • Gorno-Badakhshan
    • Pyandzh River Valley
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Turkey
 
  • Burdur Province
    • Doganbaba
American Mineralogist, Volume 61, pages 825-830, 1976
UK
 
  • England
    • Bath and North East Somerset
      • East Harptree
BMS Database
USA
 
  • California
    • Fresno Co.
      • New Idria Mining District
        • Wright Mountain
Mumpton, F.A. Jaffe, H.W., and Thompson, C.S. (1965) Coalingite, a new mineral from the New Idria serpentinite, Fresno and San Benito counties, California. American Mineralogist: 50: 1893-1913; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 198.
    • Riverside Co.
      • Crestmore
[micromounts@yahoogroups.com]
    • San Benito Co.
American Mineralogist 1965: 50: 1893-1913.
        • Idria (New Idria)
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 199.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Dunn, P.J.: Min.Rec.:10:160-165 (1979); Dunn(1995):Pt4:621.
      • Vernon Township
No reference listed
  • New York
Ford, 1932. Dana's Textbook of Mineralogy, 4th ed.
[Hydrotalcite-2H] John H. Betts (2009) "The minerals of New York City", Rocks & Minerals, 84, 204-240.
    • Orange Co.
      • Town of Warwick
[Hydrotalcite-2H] Frondel (1941)
    • Putnam Co.
      • Town of Southeast
        • Brewster
(Manchester, 1931) (Trainer, 1938) (Whitlock, 1903).
Ford, 1932. Dana's Textbook of Mineralogy, 4th ed.
  • Vermont
    • Orleans & Lamoille Cos.
      • Lowell & Eden
Levitan, Denise et al. (2009): Mineralogy of mine waste at the Vermont Asbestos Group mine, Belvidere Mountain, Vermont. American Mineralogist 94(7):1063-1066.
  • Washington
    • Stevens Co.
      • Chewelah Mining District
        • Chewelah
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975
 
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