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Hydrobiotite

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About HydrobiotiteHide

Formula:
K(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
A 1:1 regular interstratification of Biotite and Vermiculite layers.


Classification of HydrobiotiteHide

Approved
Notes:
Renamed by the IMA
9.EC.60

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.2.2d.1

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
2 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers

Pronounciation of HydrobiotiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of HydrobiotiteHide

Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale

Optical Data of HydrobiotiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
Dispersion:
weak

Chemical Properties of HydrobiotiteHide

Formula:
K(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
IMA Formula:
K(Mg,Fe2+)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · nH2O
Common Impurities:
Ti,Cr,Mn,Ca,Sr,Ba,Na,Rb,F,P

Crystallography of HydrobiotiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic

Synonyms of HydrobiotiteHide

Other Language Names for HydrobiotiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Hydrobiotite associated with CorundumAl2O3
1 photo of Hydrobiotite associated with ChromiteFe2+Cr3+2O4
1 photo of Hydrobiotite associated with CalciteCaCO3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EC.05MinnesotaiteFe2+3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.05TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.05WillemseiteNi3Si4O10(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.9.EC.VoloshiniteRb(LiAl1.51.5)(Al0.5Si3.5)O10F2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.10FerripyrophylliteFe3+Si2O5(OH)Mon.
9.EC.10PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1
9.EC.15BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4
9.EC.15MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon.
9.EC.15ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15Tobelite(NH4,K)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15ChromceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon.
9.EC.15Ganterite(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20AnniteKFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Tric.
9.EC.20HendricksiteKZn3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20NorrishiteKLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20PreiswerkiteNaMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20SiderophylliteKFe2+2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.20FluorotetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20EastoniteKMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TetraferrianniteKFe2+3(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20FluoranniteKFe2+3(Si3Al)O10F2Mon.
9.EC.20ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20ShirozuliteKMn2+3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20SokolovaiteCsLi2Al(Si4O10)F2Mon.
9.EC.20AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20UM2004-49-SiO:AlCsFHKLi(Cs,K)(Al,Li)2.6((Si,Al)4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20Suhailite(NH4)Fe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20OrloviteKLi2Ti(Si4O10)OFMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.20OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.30MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.35Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35Kinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn2+,Al)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.35Ferrokinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH,F)2Mon.
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35FluorokinoshitaliteBaMg3(Al2Si2O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40Kurumsakite(Zn,Ni,Cu)8Al8V5+2Si5O35 · 27H2O (?)
9.EC.40Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.40Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
9.EC.45HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
9.EC.45SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
9.EC.45Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.45SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.50VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
9.EC.55Baileychlore(Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8Tric. 1
9.EC.55Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8Mon.
9.EC.55ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.55Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m
9.EC.55FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn2+3Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Nimite(Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8Mon.
9.EC.55Orthochamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55PennantiteMn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Tric.
9.EC.55SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8Mon.
9.EC.55DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.55BorocookeiteLi1+3xAl4-x(BSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.60AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.60Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2OOrth.
9.EC.60DozyiteMg7Al2(Al2Si4O15)(OH)12Mon.
9.EC.60Karpinskite(Ni,Mg)2Si2O5(OH)2 (?)
9.EC.60KulkeiteMg8Al(AlSi7O20)(OH)10Mon.
9.EC.60LunijianlaiteLi0.7Al6.2(AlSi7O20)(OH,O)10Mon.
9.EC.60Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.EC.60Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5Mon.
9.EC.60TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2OMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.60BrinrobertsiteNa0.3Al4(Si4O10)2(OH)4 · 3.5 H2OMon.
9.EC.65Macaulayite(Fe,Al)24Si4O43(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.70BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
9.EC.75Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe3+2(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.75Surite(Pb,Ca)3(Al,Fe2+,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(CO3)2(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.75Niksergievite(Ba,Ca)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(CO3)(OH)6 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.80KegelitePb8Al4(Si8O20)(SO4)2(CO3)4(OH)8Mon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

71.2.2d.2IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
71.2.2d.3VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2OMon. 2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HydrobiotiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brindley, G.W., Zalba, P.E., and Bethke, C.M. (1983): Hydrobiotite, a regular 1:1
interstratification of biotite and vermiculite layers. American Mineralogist 68, 420-425.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1986): 4: 163-169.

Internet Links for HydrobiotiteHide

Localities for HydrobiotiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Northern Territory
    • Central Desert Region
      • Alcoota Station
Crohn, P.W. & Moore, D.H., (1984) The Mud Tank Carbonatite, Strangways Range, central Australia. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 9:1:13-18. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Canberra.
  • Western Australia
    • Sandstone Shire
Simpson, E.S. (1948), Minerals of Western Australia, Vol 1, p 110
Austria
 
  • Lower Austria
    • Krems-Land District
      • Gföhl
        • Felling
Götzinger, M. A. (1987): Vermiculitvorkommen der Böhmischen Masse in Österreich und ihre Entstehung. Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges., 132, 135-156.
        • Rastbach
Database „Minerale NÖ“ (A. Thinschmidt and co-workers)
      • Lichtenau im Waldviertel
Götzinger, M. A. (1987): Vermiculitvorkommen der Böhmischen Masse in Österreich und ihre Entstehung. Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges., 132, 135-156.
  • Tyrol
    • Schwaz District
      • Mayrhofen
R. Dallinger & J. Gufler (2006): Der größte Euklaskristall der Alpen - Neufund im Zillertal. Lapis 31 (3), 28-31. (in German)
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
ZULINSKI, N. and LALONDE, A.E. (2007) Mineralogy of hydrothermal ferruginous clay associated with colorless aegirine and bitumen in an altered pegmatite pocket from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Québec, Canada. Abstracts with Program, 34th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, 23; reprinted in: Rocks & Minerals, 83(4), 346-347.
China
 
  • Fujian
    • Xiamen
      • Tong'an District
Mao Xingli and Yan Yipeng (1987): Journal of Fuzhou University, Natural Sciences Edition 15(3)
  • Gansu
    • Jiuquan
      • Subei Co.
        • Gongpoquan ore field
Gansu Province Metallurgical and Geological Exploration Team No. 4 (1978): Geology and Prospecting 14(8), 20-23
  • Hunan
    • Chenzhou
      • Yizhang Co.
        • Yaogangxian W-Sn ore field
Ottens, B. (2011): Mineralogical Record 42, 557-603
  • Jiangxi
    • Shangrao
      • Dexing Co.
        • Dexing Cu-Mo-Au ore field
          • Dexing copper mine
Kuanglin Yan (1978): Geology and Prospecting 14(4), 8-16
  • Xinjiang
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Lopnur Co. (Yuli Co.; Weili Co.)
Ran Hongyan, Wang Guanxing, and Cao Junchen (1999): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 19(3), 299-307
Egypt
 
  • Red Sea
    • Eastern Desert
      • Hafafit
Harraz, H. Z.; Hamdy, M. M. 2010. Interstratified vermiculite-mica in the gneiss-metapelite-serpentinite rocks at Hafafit area, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt: From metasomatism to weathering. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 58, Issue 2, p. 305-320.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Loire
      • La Chaise-Dieu
        • Cistrières
F.H Forestier "Les Péridotites Serpentinisées en France, Fascicule IV, Massif Central Médian : Bassin du Haut Allier", BRGM, 1964
      • Lavoûte-Chilhac
        • Saint-Cirgues
Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 359-371.
        • Villeneuve d'Allier
F.H. Forestier : "Les Péridotites Serpentinisées en France, Groupe I, Fascicule IV, Bassin du Haut Allier", BRGM, 1964
F.H. Forestier : "Les Péridotites Serpentinisées en France, Groupe I, Fascicule IV, Bassin du Haut Allier", BRGM, 1964
      • Lubilhac
P.G. Pélisson : "Etude Minéralogique et Métallogénique du District Filonien Polytype de Paulhaguet (Haute-Loire, Massif Central Français)", Doctorate Thesis, Orléans, France, 1989 ; F.H. Forestier : "Les Péridotites Serpentinisées de France", Fascicule IV, BRGM, 1964
      • Paulhaguet
        • Salzuit
      • Torsiac
        • Lanau
F.H. Forestier : "Les Péridotites Serpentinisées en France, Groupe I, Fascicule IV, Bassin du Haut Allier", BRGM, 1964
Georgia
 
  • Kvemo Kartli
    • Bolnisi District
Gugushvili, V. I., Akhvlediani, R., Natsvlishvili, M., & Hart, I. (2002). Two stages of gold mineralization within Sakdrisi deposit (Bolnisi Mining District, Georgia). Geologica Carpathica Special Issue, 53, 1-5.
Hungary
 
  • Baranya County
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
India
 
  • Jharkhand
    • East (Purbi) Singhbhum District
S. G. Tenainkai, A. G. Ugarkar, M. V. Koti and A. Mookherjee (1991) Copper-bearing clay minerals of the oxidized zone of the Rakha-Chapri Block, Singhbhum Copper Belt, India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Earth and Planetary Sciences, 100, 13-30.
Italy
 
  • Lazio
    • Viterbo Province
      • Làtera volcano
        • Onano
M.E. Ciriotti (2006) EPMA probed
Japan
 
  • Fukui
Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
  • Yamanashi
Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
Mexico
 
  • Hidalgo
    • Zimapán Municipality
      • Zimapán
Panczner(1987): 93-396.
Pacific Ocean
 
  • Marcus-Wake ridge
Fengyou Chu, Daqian Hu, and Jie Yao (2006): Global Geology 26(3), 245-253
  • Sea of Japan
Astakhova, N. V., & Kolesnik, O. N. (2014). Ore mineralization in volcanic rocks from the submarine rises of the Sea of Japan. Geochemistry International, 52(2), 144-161.
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Igor Pekov and Anatoly Kasatkin analytical data (2011)
http://webmineral.ru/deposits/item.php?id=841
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Brezno Co.
      • Čierny Balog
Ozdín, D., Varga, P., Gajdoš, J. (2017) Mineralogická charakteristika alpskej paragenézy s epidotom a záhnedou na lokalite Čierny Balog – Tlstý Javor (Veporikum Západných Karpát). Esemestník: 6(2), 79-90. (In Slovak with English abstract).
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo
    • Phalaborwa
      • Loolekop
Gunnar Färber
Spain
 
  • Galicia
    • A Coruña (La Coruña)
      • Santiago de Compostela
        • Aríns
Pascual, E; Estévez, A. (1981) Estudio geológico del yacimiento de Fornás (Santiago). Cuaderno do Laboratorio Xeolóxico de Laxe 2 (vol II):191-211
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 254.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Cottonwood Canyon Mining District
        • Apache Junction area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 254.
      • San Manuel Mining District
        • San Manuel
          • San Manuel Mine (Apex Lead & Vanadium Mining Corp Mine; Quarelli group)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 215; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654; Schwartz, G.M. (1947), Hydrothermal alteration in the 'porphyry copper' deposits, Econ.Geol.: 42, 319-352; Creasey, S.C. (1959), Some phase relations in the hydrothermally altered rocks of porphyry copper deposits, Econ.Geol.: 54: 351-373.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 215, 254; Schwartz, G.M. (1958), Alteration of biotite under mesothermal conditions, Econ.Geol.: 53: 164-177; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654; Creasey, S.C, (1959), Some phase relations in the hydrothermally altered rocks of porphyry copper deposits, Econ.Geol.: 54: 351-373; .
  • Colorado
    • Saguache Co.
      • Bonanza Mining District (Kerber Creek Mining District; Blake Mining District)
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
  • Montana
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Libby Mining District (Snowshoe Mining District)
        • Libby
American Mineralogist, Volume 88, pages 1955–1969, 2003
    • Ravalli Co.
      • Mineral Point Mining District
        • Alta
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240; Chris Tucker and John Betts specimens.; Gobla, M. J. (2012) Montana Mineral Locality Index. Rocks and Minerals 87:208-240.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • New York Mts
        • Crescent Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Vicksburg Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Dana,E.S,1892,A System of Mineralogy,6th edition,pg.667
    • Macon Co.
      • Cowee Valley
        • Ellijay Mining District
          • Franklin
            • Corundum Hill
Genth,F.A,1891,The Minerals of North Carolina
Eckert, J. O., Jr., 1984, Stratigraphy, structure, and metamorphism in the east half of the Wayah Bald quadrangle, North Carolina: ...
  • South Carolina
    • Laurens Co.
  • Tennessee
www.orth.ftw.nres.usda.gov/osd/dat/J/Jeffrey.html
  • Virginia
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Henry Co.
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Warren Co.
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
 
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