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Hewettite

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About HewettiteHide

07963810015110896936061.jpg
D. Foster Hewett
Formula:
CaV6O16 · 9H2O
Colour:
Deep red; chocolate brown (upon exposure); red to orange in transmitted light
Lustre:
Adamantine, Silky
Specific Gravity:
2.51 - 2.61
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
Named in honor of Donnel Foster Hewett (June 24, 1881, Irwin, Pennsylvania - February 5, 1971), U.S. Geological Survey, who studied the mineralogy of Mina Ragra, Cerro de Pasco, Peru. He was primarily responsible for the discovery of that, the largest vanadium deposit in the world.
A secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of patronite (TL), or from the alteration of less-oxidized vanadium minerals.

May reversibly dehydrate to metahewettite.


Classification of HewettiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1914
4.HE.15

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
H : V[5,6] Vanadates
E : Phyllovanadates
47.3.1.1

47 : VANADIUM OXYSALTS
3 : Hydrated Normal Vanadium Oxysalts
21.2.4

21 : Vanadates (and vanadates with arsenate or phosphate)
2 : Vanadates of Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba

Physical Properties of HewettiteHide

Adamantine, Silky
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Deep red; chocolate brown (upon exposure); red to orange in transmitted light
Comment:
Extremely soft.
Density:
2.51 - 2.61 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.67 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HewettiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.770 nβ = 2.180 nγ = 2.350 - 2.400
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.580 - 0.630
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v distinct
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Y = Light yellow-orange
Z = c = Dark red
Comments:
2V medium

Chemical Properties of HewettiteHide

Formula:
CaV6O16 · 9H2O
IMA Formula:
CaV5+6O16 · 9H2O

Crystallography of HewettiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.29 Å, b = 3.59 Å, c = 11.174 Å
β = 97.24°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 3.423 : 1 : 3.113
Unit Cell V:
489.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
Crystals acicular and as fibers, elongated and intertwined parallel [010]; nodular aggregates, fracture fillings, and coatings.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
11.03 Å(100)
5.63 Å(12)
5.53 Å(35)
3.660 Å(14)
3.091 Å(20)
2.574 Å(12)
2.164 Å(25)

Type Occurrence of HewettiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA: #87459.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Very rich vanadium deposit in sedimentary rocks.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Reference:
Hillebrand, W.F., Merwin, H.E., Wright, F.E. (1914) Hewettite, metahewettite and pascoite, hydrous calcium vanadates. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society: 53: 31-54.

Other Language Names for HewettiteHide

German:Hewettit
Simplified Chinese:针钒钙石
Spanish:Hewettita
Traditional Chinese:針釩鈣石

Relationship of Hewettite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Barnesite(Na,Ca)V6O16 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
Grantsite(Na,Ca)2+x(V5+,V4+)6O16 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
Hendersonite(Ca,Sr)1.3V6O16 · 6H2OOrth.
MetahewettiteCaV6O16 · 3H2OMon. 2/m

Common AssociatesHide

CarnotiteK2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
Corvusite(Na,K,Ca,Mg)2(V5+,V4+,Fe2+)8O20 · 6-10H2O
FervaniteFe3+4V5+4O16 · 5H2O
MetahewettiteCaV6O16 · 3H2O
Montroseite(V3+,Fe3+)O(OH)
NavajoiteFe3+V5+9O24 · 12H2O
RauviteCa(UO2)2(V10O28) · 16H2O
SteigeriteAl(VO4) · 3H2O
TyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5-8H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
3 photos of Hewettite associated with OpalSiO2 · nH2O
3 photos of Hewettite associated with TyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5-8H2O
2 photos of Hewettite associated with GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
1 photo of Hewettite associated with RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
1 photo of Hewettite associated with GoldquarryiteCuCd2Al3(PO4)4F2(H2O,F)2 · 10H2O
1 photo of Hewettite associated with BaryteBaSO4
1 photo of Hewettite associated with Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
1 photo of Hewettite associated with KazakhstaniteFe3+5V4+3V5+12O39(OH)9 · 9H2O
1 photo of Hewettite associated with FluelliteAl2(PO4)F2(OH) · 7H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.HE.05MelanovanaditeCa(V5+,V4+)4O10 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
4.HE.10ShcherbinaiteV5+2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
4.HE.15MetahewettiteCaV6O16 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
4.HE.20BarianditeAl0.6(V5+,V4+)8O20 · 9H2OMon.
4.HE.20Bokite(Al,Fe3+)1.3(V5+,V4+,Fe3+)8O20 · 7.4H2OMon.
4.HE.20Corvusite(Na,K,Ca,Mg)2(V5+,V4+,Fe2+)8O20 · 6-10H2OMon.
4.HE.20Fernandinite(Ca,K)(V5+,V4+,Fe2+)8O20 · 10H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
4.HE.20Straczekite(Ca,K,Ba)(V5+,V4+)8O20 · 3H2OMon.
4.HE.25HäggiteV3+V4+O2(OH)3Mon.
4.HE.30DoloresiteV4+3O4(OH)4Mon. 2/m
4.HE.35DuttoniteV4+O(OH)2Mon. 2/m
4.HE.40CavoiteCaV4+3O7Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

47.3.1.2MetahewettiteCaV6O16 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
47.3.1.3Barnesite(Na,Ca)V6O16 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
47.3.1.4Hendersonite(Ca,Sr)1.3V6O16 · 6H2OOrth.
47.3.1.5Grantsite(Na,Ca)2+x(V5+,V4+)6O16 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

21.2.1MetarossiteCa(V2O6) · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1
21.2.2RossiteCa(VO3)2•4H2OTric. 1 : P1
21.2.3MetahewettiteCaV6O16 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
21.2.5PintadoiteCa2(V2O7) · 9H2O
21.2.6Hendersonite(Ca,Sr)1.3V6O16 · 6H2OOrth.
21.2.7Fernandinite(Ca,K)(V5+,V4+,Fe2+)8O20 · 10H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
21.2.8PascoiteCa3(V10O28) · 17H2OMon. 2 : B2
21.2.9SherwooditeCa4.5(AlV4+2V5+12O40) · 28H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
21.2.10MelanovanaditeCa(V5+,V4+)4O10 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
21.2.11Grantsite(Na,Ca)2+x(V5+,V4+)6O16 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
21.2.12HummeriteK2Mg2(V10O28) · 16H2OTric.
21.2.13MetadelrioiteCaSr(V2O6)(OH)2Tric.
21.2.14DelrioiteCaSr(V2O6)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
21.2.15Straczekite(Ca,K,Ba)(V5+,V4+)8O20 · 3H2OMon.
21.2.16GamagariteBa2Fe3+(VO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Reversibly dehydrates to Metahewettite. Slightly soluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HewettiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hillebrand, W.F., Merwin, H.E., Wright, F.E. (1914) Hewettite, metahewettite and pascoite, hydrous calcium vanadates. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society: 53: 31-54.
Hillebrand, W.F., Merwin, H.E., Wright, F.E. (1914) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 54: 209.
Schaller (1937) U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 878: 118.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1060-1061.
Barnes, W.H., Qurashi, M.M. (1952) Unit cell and space group data for certain vanadium minerals. American Mineralogist: 37: 407-422.
Bayliss, P. (1982) X-ray powder data for hewettite. Mineralogical Magazine: 46: 503–504.
Evans, H.T., Jr. (1989) The crystal structure of hewettite. Canadian Mineralogist: 27: 181–188.
Evans, H.T., Jr., Hughes, J.M. (1990) Crystal chemistry of the natural vanadium bronzes. American Mineralogist: 75: 508-521.
Oka, Y., Yao, T., Sato, S., Yamamoto, N. (1998) Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structure of barium hewettite: Ba V6 O16.n(H2 O). Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 140: 219-225.
Frost, R.L., Erickson, K.L., Weier, M.L. (2004) Hydrogen bonding in selected vanadates: a Raman and infrared spectroscopy study. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: 60: 2419.

Internet Links for HewettiteHide

Localities for HewettiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Jambyl Region
    • Talas Alatau Range (Talas Ala-Too Range)
Ankinovich, E.A, Bekenova, G.K., Shabanova, T.A., Zazubina, I.S., and Sandomirskaya, S.M. (1997): Mitryaevaite, Al10((PO4)8.7(SO3OH)1.3)10AlF3.3OH2O, a new mineral species from a Cambrian carbonaceous chert formation, Karatau Range and Zhabagly Mountains, Southern Kazakhstan. Canadian Mineralogist 35(6), 1415-1419.
  • Kyzylorda Region
    • Shieli
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Turkistan Region
    • Aksumbe
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Peru (TL)
 
  • Pasco
    • Pasco Province
      • Huayllay District
Hillebrand, Merwin, and Wright (1914) Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (1914): 53: 31-54; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1060.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Apache County
      • Cane Valley Mining District
        • Yazzie Mesa
          • Monument No. 2 channel
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 250; Weeks, A.D., et al (1955), Navajoite, a new vanadium oxide from AZ, Am.Min.: 40: 207-212; Witkind, I.J. & R.E. Thaden (1963), Geology and uranium-vanadium deposits of the Monument Valley area, Apache and Navajo Cos., AZ: 115, 116; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 78.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 155; Isachsen, et al (1955); Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 78.; Chenoweth, W. L. (1994). The Location and Production History of the Chimney No. 1 Uranium-Vanadium Mine, Apache County, Arizona. Arizona Geological Survey Contributed Report 94-B
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 250; Chenoweth, W.L. (1967), The uranium deposits of the Lukachukai Mountains, in New Mexico Geol. Soc. Guidebook 18th. Field Conf., Guidebook of Defiancee-Zuni-Mt. Taylor region, AZ & NM: 78-85.; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp195-201
        • Lukachukai Mining District
          • White Ash Peak
Scarborough, Robert B. (1981), Radioactive occurrences and uranium production in Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology Report for U.S. Department of Energy (Atomic Energy Commission), GJBX-143. RME-2071: 114.
      • Red Rock Mining District
        • Red Rock (Red Valley)
Scarborough, Robert B. (1981), Radioactive occurrences and uranium production in Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology Report for U.S. Department of Energy (Atomic Energy Commission), GJBX-143. RME-2071: 131.
    • Cochise County
Rob Bowell, lab tested
    • Navajo Co.
      • Mineral Mining District
        • Mystery Valley
          • Monument No. 1 channel (Channel No. 36)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 250; Witkind, Irving J. & Thaden (1963), USGS Bull. 1103, Geology & Uranium-Vanadium Deposits of the Monument Valley Area Apache and Navajo Counties, Arizona: 68, 135; Witkind, I.J. (1961), The uranium-vanadium ore deposit at the Monument No. 1-Mitten No. 2 mine, Monument Valley, Navajo Co., AZ, USGS Bull. 1107-C: 219-242; Evensen, C.G. & I.B. Gray (1958), Evaluation of uranium ore guides, Monument Valley, AZ & UT, Economic Geology: 53: 639-662; Holland, H.D., et al (1958), The use of leachable uranium in geochemical prospecting on the Colorado Plateau-II, The distribution of leachable uranium in surface samples in the vicinity of ore bodies, Econ.Geol.: 53: 190-209.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 250; Evensen, C.G. & I.B. Gray (1958), Evaluation of uranium ore guides, Monument Valley, AZ and UT, Econ.Geol.: 53: 639-662; Witkind, I.J. (1961), The uranium-vanadium ore deposit at the Monument No. 1-Mitten No. 2 mine, Monument Valley, Navajo Co., AZ, USGS Bull. 1107-C: 219-242; Holland, H.D., et al (1958), The use of leachable uranium in geochemical prospecting on the Colorado Plateau-II, The distribution of leachable uranium in surface samples in the vicinity of ore bodies, Econ.Geol.: 53: 190-209.
Scarborough, Robert B. (1981), Radioactive occurrences and uranium production in Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology Report for U.S. Department of Energy (Atomic Energy Commission), GJBX-143. RME-2071: 225.
  • Arkansas
    • Garland Co.
      • Wilson Springs (Potash Sulfur Springs)
        • Union Carbide Mine
American Mineralogist (1979), 64:713-720; Mineralogical Magazine 1984 48 : 289-293
R&M 70:3 pp 154-170
  • Colorado
    • Mesa Co.
      • Gateway
Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Marty, J., Hughes, J.M. (2016): Mesaite, CaMn2+5(V2O7)3·12H2O, a new vanadate mineral from the Packrat mine, near Gateway, Mesa County, Colorado, USA. Mineralogical Magazine: 80: (in press)
      • Uravan Mining District
        • Calamity Mesa
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • Montrose Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Gypsum Valley
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
      • Uravan Mining District
        • Bull Canyon
          • Greagor Group
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Collected by and in the collection of Brent Thorne.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Am Min (1964) 49:1511-1526
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
        • Paradox Valley
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; USGS Bull 1042F
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
USGS Prof Paper 320
Dana 7:I:602.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
USGS Prof Paper 320
    • San Miguel Co.
      • Slick Rock Mining District
Kampf, A. R., Plášil, J., Nash, B. P., & Marty, J. (2019). Ammoniomathesiusite, a new uranyl sulfate–vanadate mineral from the Burro mine, San Miguel County, Colorado, USA. Mineralogical Magazine, 83(1), 115-121.
In the collection of Alex Earl
Kampf, A.R., Hughes, J.M., Marty, J., Gunter, M.E., Nash, B. (2011): Rakovanite, Na3{H3[V10O28]}·15H2O, a new member of the pascoite family with a protonated decavanadate polyanion. Canadian Mineralogist: 49: 595-604.
      • Uravan Mining District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 295.
  • Nevada
    • Eureka Co.
      • Carlin Trend
        • Maggie Creek Mining Subdistrict
MinRec 26(5):449-469; Canadian Mineralogist: 42(3): 741-752.
      • Gibellini Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Fish Creek Range
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Lynn Mining District
        • Elko
Mineralogical Record 26:467
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Online Documents OF06-19 - Nevada Uranium and Thorium Occurrences
  • New Mexico
    • Cibola Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.; Am Min (1964) 49:1511-1526
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
    • McKinley Co.
Alfredo Petrov specimen
    • San Juan Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. Rev. Ed., 1996
        • Eastside mines
NMBGMR Open-file Report - 466
  • Oregon
Rob Lavinsky
  • South Dakota
    • Fall River Co.
R&M 75:3 pp 156-169; USGS Bull 1063D; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp345-349
        • Craven Canyon
SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael Mining District (San Rafael Swell)
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 992, 1056; UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp285-297
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Grand Co.
      • La Sal Mts
        • North Mountain
          • La Sal Mining District
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Am Min 16:273-277
Collected by Michael Cline & Michael Shannon
Collected by Michael Cline
        • The Poison Strip
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • San Juan Co.
Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp263-279
      • La Sal Mts
        • La Sal Mining District (Paradox Valley Mining District)
          • La Sal
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
          • Lion Canyon
Kampf A R, Hughes J M, Marty J, Nash B (2012) Postite, Mg(H2O)6Al2(OH)2(H2O)8(V10O28)·13H2O, a new mineral species from the La Sal Mining District, Utah: Crystal structure and descriptive mineralogy. The Canadian Mineralogist 50, 45-53
      • La Sal Quadrangle
Canadian Mineralogist (2001) 39, pp. 1691-1700
      • Paradox Valley
        • Paradox Valley Mining District
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Wyoming
    • Campbell Co.
Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp371-374.
    • Crook Co.
      • Northern Black Hills Mining District
USGS Bull 1082J
 
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