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Hedleyite

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About HedleyiteHide

Formula:
Bi7Te3
Colour:
Tin white
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2
Specific Gravity:
8.91
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named by H.V. Warren and M.A. Peacock, M.A. in 1945 for the small town of Hedley, British Columbia, Canada, near the type locality.
Relatively common member of the tetradymite group (Ciobanu et al., 2009).

Tin white metallic plates with perfect basal cleavage, mm thick to cm in width. Crystals have hexagonal outline, often with trigonal growth features.
Impossible to visually identify. All species in the tetradymite group must be reliably analysed for positive identification.

One of many Bi-Te phases known. See also: UM1980-16-Te:Bi.


Classification of HedleyiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1945
2.DC.05

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
D : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 3 :4 and 2:3
C : Variable M:S
2.6.3.3

2 : SULFIDES
6 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 4:3
3.7.28

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
7 : Sulphides etc. of V, As, Sb and Bi

Pronounciation of HedleyiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of HedleyiteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Tin white
Comment:
tarnishes easily to iron black
Hardness:
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect Basal cleavage {0001}
Density:
8.91 g/cm3 (Measured)    8.93 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HedleyiteHide

Anisotropism:
Slight - light gray to dark gray
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=59.0%R2=61.8%
420nmR1=59.3%R2=62.5%
440nmR1=59.9%R2=63.3%
460nmR1=60.5%R2=64.0%
480nmR1=61.0%R2=64.6%
500nmR1=61.3%R2=65.0%
520nmR1=61.6%R2=65.7%
540nmR1=61.7%R2=66.2%
560nmR1=61.8%R2=66.7%
580nmR1=62.0%R2=67.3%
600nmR1=62.3%R2=67.7%
620nmR1=62.6%R2=68.1%
640nmR1=62.9%R2=68.5%
660nmR1=63.1%R2=68.6%
680nmR1=63.4%R2=68.7%
700nmR1=63.6%R2=68.9%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 68.9%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
White

Chemical Properties of HedleyiteHide

Formula:
Bi7Te3
Common Impurities:
Se,S

Chemical AnalysisHide

wt%
 1
Bi80.95 %
Te17.59 %
Total:98.54 %
Sample references:
IDLocalityReference
1Indre Gressdal, Vaddas-Rieppe ore field, Nordreisa, Troms og Finnmark, NorwayLindahl, I. (1975) Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, no 60. Hedleyite (Bi14Te6) from the Vaddas-Rieppe area, north Troms, Northern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 55: 283-290.

Crystallography of HedleyiteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3m
Setting:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.47 Å, c = 119.0 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 26.622
Unit Cell V:
2,059.17 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
6
Morphology:
Platy masses

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.25 Å(100)
2.36 Å(50)
2.23 Å(40)
1.621 Å(40)
1.480 Å(40)
1.984 Å(30)
1.849 Å(30)

Type Occurrence of HedleyiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada, M37250.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Polymetallic skarn (Hedley)
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for HedleyiteHide

German:Hedleyit
Simplified Chinese:赫碲铋矿
Spanish:Hedleyita

Relationship of Hedleyite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BaksaniteBi6Te2S3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
HitachiitePb5Bi2Te2S6Trig. 3m : P3m1
IngoditeBi2TeSTrig.
Joséite-BBi4Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
KawazuliteBi2Te2SeTrig.
ParaguanajuatiteBi2Se3Trig.
PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
SkippeniteBi2TeSe2Trig.
SulphotsumoiteBi3Te2STrig.
TellurantimonySb2Te3Trig.
TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3Trig.
TelluronevskiteBi3TeSe2Trig.
TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
VihorlatiteBi24Se17Te4Trig.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
4 photos of Hedleyite associated with Joséite-BBi4Te2S
2 photos of Hedleyite associated with GoldAu
2 photos of Hedleyite associated with GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
2 photos of Hedleyite associated with LöllingiteFeAs2
1 photo of Hedleyite associated with Electrum(Au,Ag)

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.DC.05IkunoliteBi4(S,Se)3Trig.
2.DC.05IngoditeBi2TeSTrig.
2.DC.05Joséite-BBi4Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05KawazuliteBi2Te2SeTrig.
2.DC.05LaitakariteBi4Se2STrig. 3m : R3m
2.DC.05NevskiteBi(Se,S)Trig.
2.DC.05ParaguanajuatiteBi2Se3Trig.
2.DC.05PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05SkippeniteBi2TeSe2Trig.
2.DC.05SulphotsumoiteBi3Te2STrig.
2.DC.05TellurantimonySb2Te3Trig.
2.DC.05TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3Trig.
2.DC.05TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
2.DC.05BaksaniteBi6Te2S3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.DC.05Joséite-CBi16Te3S9
2.DC.05ProtojoséiteBi3(Te,S)2Trig.
2.DC.05SztrókayiteBi3TeS2
2.DC.05VihorlatiteBi24Se17Te4Trig.
2.DC.05TelluronevskiteBi3TeSe2Trig.
2.DC.05UM1983-09-S:BiPbTePbBi3S2Te

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.6.3.BabkinitePb2Bi2(S,Se)3Trig.
2.6.3.1KochkaritePbBi4Te7Trig.
2.6.3.2AleksitePbBi2Te2S2Trig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.7.1PatróniteVS4Mon.
3.7.2DuranusiteAs4SOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
3.7.3DimorphiteAs4S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.4RealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m
3.7.5PararealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.6AlacrániteAs8S9Mon. 2/m : P2/b
3.7.7UzoniteAs4S5Mon.
3.7.8OrpimentAs2S3Mon. 2/m
3.7.9JeromiteAmor.
3.7.10LaphamiteAs2Se3Mon. 2/m
3.7.11GetchelliteAsSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.12Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]Orth. mm2 : Pna21
3.7.13PääkköneniteSb2AsS2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.7.14StibniteSb2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.15MetastibniteSb2S3Amor.
3.7.16TellurantimonySb2Te3Trig.
3.7.17BismuthiniteBi2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.18NevskiteBi(Se,S)Trig.
3.7.19GuanajuatiteBi2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.21IkunoliteBi4(S,Se)3Trig.
3.7.22LaitakariteBi4Se2STrig. 3m : R3m
3.7.23PoubaitePbBi2(Se,Te,S)4Trig.
3.7.24TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3Trig.
3.7.25SoučekitePbCuBi(S,Se)3Orth.
3.7.26TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
3.7.27PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.29TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.30JoséiteBi4TeS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.31Joséite-BBi4Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.32IngoditeBi2TeSTrig.
3.7.33SulphotsumoiteBi3Te2STrig.
3.7.34KawazuliteBi2Te2SeTrig.
3.7.36SkippeniteBi2TeSe2Trig.
3.7.37KochkaritePbBi4Te7Trig.
3.7.38RucklidgeitePbBi2Te4Trig.
3.7.39AleksitePbBi2Te2S2Trig.
3.7.40JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HedleyiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Warren, H.V., Peacock, M.A. (1945) Hedleyite, a new bismuth telluride from British Columbia, with notes on wehrlite and some bismuth-tellurium alloys. University of Toronto Studies, Geological Series: 49: 55-69.
Fleischer, M. (1945) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 30: 644-644.
Thompson, R.M. (1949) The telluride minerals and their occurrence in Canada. American Mineralogist: 34: 342-382.
Doklady of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Earth Science Sections: 230: 153-155.
Brown, A., Lewis, B. (1962) The systems bismuth-tellurium and antimony-tellurium and the synthesis of the minerals hedleyite and wehrlite. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids: 23: 1597-1604.
Fleischer, M. (1963) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 48: 433-437.
Zav'ylov, E.N., Begizov, V.D., Nechelyustov, G.N. (1976) New data on hedleyite. Doklady Acad. Nauk SSSR: 230: 1439-1441. (in Russian).
Criddle, A.J., Stanley, C.J., eds (1993) Quantitative data file for ore minerals, 3rd ed. Chapman & Hall, London, 227.
Cook, N.J., Ciobanu, C.L., Wagner, T., Stanley, C.J. (2007) Minerals of the system Bi-Te-Se-S related to the tetradymite archetype: review of classification and compositional variation. Canadian Mineralogist: 45: 665-708.
Ciobanu, C.L., Pring, A., Cook, N.J., Self, P., Jefferson, D., Dima, G.I., Melnikov, V. (2009) Chemical-structural modularity in the tetradymite group: A HRTEM study. American Mineralogist: 94: 517-534.
Cabral, A.R., Corrěa Neto, A.V. (2015) Empirical Bi8Te3 and Bi2Te from the São Sebastião gold deposit, Brazil: Implications for lode-gold mineralization in Minas Gerais. The Canadian Mineralogist: 53: 1061-1072.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., Nichols, M.C., Eds. Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, USA. http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/ (2016)

Internet Links for HedleyiteHide

Localities for HedleyiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Bathurst Co.
      • Browns Creek
Seccombe, Philip & Downes, Peter & Ashley, Paul & Brathwaite, Robert & R Green, Geoffrey & Murray, C.G. & Rubenach, Michael. (2005). World Skarn Deposits: Skarns of the Southwest Pacific. in Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume.
  • Northern Territory
    • Katherine
Hein, K. A. A. (1994). The structure and geochemistry of gold mineralisation in the Mt. Todd goldfield, Pine Creek Inlier, Northern Territory (Doctoral dissertation, University of Tasmania).
Hein, K. A. A. (1994). The structure and geochemistry of gold mineralisation in the Mt. Todd goldfield, Pine Creek Inlier, Northern Territory (Doctoral dissertation, University of Tasmania).
  • Victoria
    • East Gippsland Shire
      • Benambra
        • Morass Creek gorge
    • Mount Alexander Shire
Cristiana Ciobanu & Bill Birch 2008, Gold-Bismuth-Tellurium Mineralisation at Maldon, Victoria, Australia: A Classic Locality Revisited, Sixth Iinternational Conference, Mineralogy and Museums; Ciobanu, C. L., Birch, W. D., Cook, N. J., Pring, A., & Grundler, P. V. (2010). Petrogenetic significance of Au–Bi–Te–S associations: the example of Maldon, Central Victorian gold province, Australia. Lithos, 116(1), 1-17.
  • Western Australia
    • Boddington Shire
      • Boddington
Kalleske, N. L. (2010). Mineralogical and petrogenetic study of gold ore from the Boddington Gold Deposit, WA (Doctoral dissertation).
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Völkermarkt District
      • Eisenkappel-Vellach
        • Ebriach
Brandstätter, F. & Niedermayr, G. (2006): 1433: Eine bemerkenswerte Pyrrhotin-Vererzung, mit Spuren von Cobaltit und Hedleyit sowie mit reichlich Prehnit aus einem alten Stollen in Ebriach, W Eisenkappel, Kärnten. In: Niedermayr, G., Bernhard, F., Bojar, H.-P., Brandstätter, F., Fink, H., Gröbner, J., Hammer, V. M. F., Knobloch, G., Kolitsch, U., Leikauf, B., Postl, W., Sabor, M. and Walter, F. (2006): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LV. Carinthia II, Teil 1, 196./116. Jahrgang, 121-157. (in German)
  • Styria
    • Leoben District
      • Kammern im Liesingtal
        • Seiz
          • Wolfsgruben (Wolfgruben)
Auer, C. (2019): Die Mineralien der Wolfsgrube bei Seiz im Liesingtal. Der Steirische Mineralog, 34, 5-11.
  • Tyrol
    • Lienz District
      • Lienz
Auer, Ch. (2016): 1971) Anglesit, Aktinolith, Anorthit, "Apatit", Allanit-(Ce), Kassiterit, Elektrum, Ilmenit, Monazit-(Ce), Hedleyit, Segnitit, Titanit, Wismut ged. und Zirkon als Neufunde vom Lienzer Schlossberg, Osttirol. Pp. 217-218 in Walter, F. et al. (2016): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXV. Carinthia II, 206./126., 203-250.
Belgium
 
  • Wallonia
    • Liège
      • Eupen
        • Ternell
Weis, D., Dejonghe, L., Herbosch, A. (1980) Les associations des minéraux opaques et semi-opaques de la roche ignée de la Helle. Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique, 103, 15–23.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Bolivia
 
  • La Paz
    • Larecaja Province
      • Sorata
Smithsonian specimen 85382 (1975)
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Mariana
      • Passagem de Mariana district
Oberthür, T. and Weiser, T. W. (2008): Gold-bismuth-telluride-sulphide assemblages at the Viceroy Mine, Harare-Bindura-Shamva greenstone belt, Zimbabwe. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 953-970. [contains also data on Passagem de Mariana Mine]
  • Pará
    • Carajás mineral province
      • Parauapebas
Grainger, C.J., Groves, D.I., Tallarico, F.H.B., and Fletcher, I.R. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 451-489.
Bulgaria
 
  • Montana Province
Dimitrova, D. et al. (2006): Bulgar. Acad. Sci. Annual Report No. 12, 19-32
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Nelson Mining Division
William (Bill) R. Howard (2007) Structural setting and geochemical correlations in bismuth (sulfo) telluride-native gold–bearing veins, CLY Group, British Columbia, Canada: A reduced intrusion-related gold system. Geologian tutkimuskeskus, Opas 53 – Geological Survey of Finland, Guide 53, pp 45-50; http://aris.empr.gov.bc.ca/ArisReports/29864.PDF; Cook, N., Ciobanu, C., & Howard, W. (2007). Bi-tellurides in gold veins BiTel Knoll (CLY prospect) southeastern British Columbia, Canada.
    • New Westminster Mining Division
      • Hope
Manor, M.J., Scoates, J.S., Nixon,G.T., and Ames, D.E., 2014. Platinum-group mineralogy of the Giant Mascot Ni-CuPGE deposit, Hope, B.C. In: Geological Fieldwork 2013, British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, British Columbia Geological Survey Paper 2014-1, pp. 141-156.
    • Omineca Mining Division
      • Lindquist Lake
Roberts, J. (2017). Telluride mineralogy at the Deer Horn Au-Ag-Te-(Bi-Pb-W) deposit, Lindquist Peak, west-central British Columbia: implications for the generation of tellurides (MS dissertation, University of British Columbia).
    • Osoyoos Mining Division
      • Hedley
WARREN, H.V. & PEACOCK, M.A. (1945): Hedleyite, a new bismuth telluride from British Columbia, with notes on wehrlite and some bismuthBtellurium alloys. University of Toronto Studies, Geological Series 49, 55-69. Abstract American Mineralogist 30, 644; G E Ray, G. L. Dawson, R Simpson (1983) The Geology And Controls Of Skakn Mineralization In The Hedley Gold Camp Southern British Columbia* (92W8, 82315) British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. Geological Fieldwork, 1986, Paper 1987-1; MINFILE No 092HSE060; G.E. Ray and G.L. Dawson, (1994) The Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Hedley Gold Skarn District, Southern B.C. BC Geological Survey Bulletin 87:
Econ Geol (1992) 87:1541-1565; G E Ray, G. L. Dawson, R Simpson (1983) The Geology And Controls Of Skakn Mineralization In The Hedley Gold Camp Southern British Columbia* (92W8, 82315) British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. Geological Fieldwork, 1986, Paper 1987-1; MINFILE No 092HSE038; G.E. Ray and G.L. Dawson, (1994) The Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Hedley Gold Skarn District, Southern B.C. BC Geological Survey Bulletin 87:
Dana's New Mineralogy; THOMPSON, R.M. (1951) Mineral occurrences in Western Canada. American Mineralogist 36, 504-509.; Dawson, Garnet Linn. GEOLOGICAL SE flING OF TIlE HEDLEY GOLD SKARN CAMP WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO THE FRENCH MINE, SOUTH-CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA. Diss. University of British Columbia, 1994.
    • Skeena Mining Division
      • Iskut River
        • Sulphurets District
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
Econ Geol (1985) 80:1297-1327
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Val d'Or
Sabina (2003) 186.
  • Yukon
    • Whitehorse mining district
      • Kluane District
Traill, R. J., 1970, A Catalogue of Canadian Minerals
China
 
  • Anhui
    • Tongling
      • Shizishan ore field
Yunsheng Ren, Liandeng Liu, Jiwu Zhang, and Guohua Chen (2005): Gold 26(5), 9-12
Yunsheng Ren, Liandeng Liu, Jiwu Zhang, and Guohua Chen (2005): Gold 26(5), 9-12; Yunsheng Ren, Liandeng Liu, Guohua Chen, and Lianggen Liu (2007): Geology and Prospecting 43(3), 60-64
Xiangping Gu, Watanabe, M., Hoshino, K., and Shibata, Y. (2001): Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 289–309; Jambor, J.L., Grew, E.S., and Roberts, A.C. (2002): American Mineralogist 87, 181-184.
  • Guangdong
    • Chaozhou
      • Raoping Co.
Zhenru Zhang, Xianchang Luo, Rongmei Chen, Xingzhen Yu, Sixue Yang, Yingchen Ren, Jiuwu Zeng, and Weijun Sun (1987): Geology and Prospecting 23(6), 38-40
    • Shanwei
      • Lufeng Co.
Furong Huang (1998): Acta Geoscientia Sinica 19(1), 50-58; Furong Huang (2001): Geology of Chemical Minerals 25(1), 8-10
    • Shaoguan
      • Qujiang District
Ye, L., Liu, T., Yang, Y., Gao, W., Pan, Z., & Bao, T. (2014). Petrogenesis of bismuth minerals in the Dabaoshan Pb–Zn polymetallic massive sulfide deposit, northern Guangdong Province, China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 82, 1-9.
  • Hainan
    • Ledong Co.
Bin Shu, Ping'an Wang, Faxian Dong, and Zhongjian Li (2006): Geological Bulletin of China 25(6), 745-755
  • Hebei
    • Shijiazhuang
      • Lingshou Co.
        • Shihu-Tuling gold field
Peng Qiming and Xu Hong (1994): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 13(1), 55-60.
  • Henan
    • Nanyang
      • Tongbai County
Vikent'ev, I. V., Sidorova, N. V., Vikent'eva, O. V., Su, S. G., Luo, Z. H., & Bortnikov, N. S. (2015, June). Tellurides in the Laowan gold deposit (East China): New evidence for a magmatic source of hydrothermal fluids. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 462, No. 2, p. 581). Springer Science & Business Media.
    • Sanmenxia
      • Lingbao City
        • Qinling Mine
Zhenkuan Luo, Kang Guan, Manzhi Wang, and Chuantai Wang (1999): Guizhou Geology 5(3), 69-74
  • Jiangxi
    • Ganzhou
      • Anyuan Co.
Zhenru Zhang, Xianchang Luo, Rongmei Chen, Xingzhen Yu, Sixue Yang, Yingchen Ren, Jiuwu Zeng, and Weijun Sun (1987): Geology and Prospecting 23(6), 38-40
      • Yudu Co.
Zhenru Zhang, Xianchang Luo, Rongmei Chen, Xingzhen Yu, Sixue Yang, Yingchen Ren, Jiuwu Zeng, and Weijun Sun (1987): Geology and Prospecting 23(6), 38-40
  • Jilin
    • Yanbian Chaoxianzu
      • Hunchun City
        • Xiaoxinancha
Chil-Sup So, Bai-Lu Jin, Seong-Taek Yun, Chul-Ho Heo, and Seung-Jun Youm (2002): Economic and Environmental Geology 35(3), 211-220.
  • Liaoning
    • Chaoyang
      • Jianping County
Liyan Zhang (1985): Geology and Prospecting 21(8), 34-39
    • Huludao
      • Suizhong County
Peng Qiming and Xu Hong (1994): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 13(1), 55-60.
  • Yunnan
    • Honghe
      • Jinping County
Wang, C., and Zhou, M.-F. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41(8), 771-783
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Příbram District
      • Hvožďany
Zachariáš, J., Pudilová, M., Žák, K., Morávek, P., Litochleb, J., Váňa, T., Pertold, Z. (1997) P-T conditions, fluid inclusions and O, C, S isotope characteristics of gold-bearing mineralizations within the Central Bohemian Metallogenic Zone. - Acta Univ. Carolinae – Geologica, 41 (3-4), pp. 167–178.
      • Psí hory gold mining district
        • Mokrsko
Jiří Zachariáš, Petr Morávek, Petr Gadas, Jaroslava Pertoldová (2014): The Mokrsko-West gold deposit, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic: Mineralogy, deposit setting and classification. Ore Geology Reviews 58, 238-263.
  • Olomouc Region
    • Jeseník District
Fojt, B., Hauk, J., Kotrba, Z.: Mineralogie zlata a doprovodných minerálů ze Zlatého chlumu u Jeseníku. Věstník ÚÚG, 1988, 63, 2.
  • Plzeň Region
    • Klatovy District
      • Sušice
Vavřín, I.: Nové poznatky o selenidech Českého masívu. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 82-89.
Dominican Republic
 
  • Monseñor Nouel Province
    • Maimón
Colomer, J. M., Andreu, E., Torró, L., Proenza, J. A., Melgarejo, J. A., Chavez, C., ... & Lewis, J. F. (2013). Mineralogy, textures and new sulphur isotope data of the Cerro de Maimón VMS deposit ores, Dominican Republic. In Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial SGA Meeting (Vol. 2, pp. 518-521).; Torró, L., Proenza, J. A., Melgarejo, J. C., Alfonso, P., de Pablo, J. F., Colomer, J. M., ... & Chávez, C. (2016). Mineralogy, geochemistry and sulfur isotope characterization of Cerro de Maimón (Dominican Republic), San Fernando and Antonio (Cuba) Lower Cretaceous VMS deposits: formation during subduction initiation of the Proto-Caribbean lithosphere within a fore-arc. Ore Geology Reviews, 72, 794-817.
Finland
 
  • North Karelia
Hytönen,K. (1999): Suomen Mineraalit. Geologian tutkimuskeskus. Erillisjulkaisu, Jyväskylä, 399 pp (p.346)
Kojonen, Kari, Johanson, Bo and Pakkanen, Lassi (1991). Kelokorven malmiaiheiden malmimineragia ja petrografia. GTK raportti M 19/4244/-91/2/42
http://www.gsf.fi/explor/gold/kivisuo.htm
Geological Survey of Finland 2008. Pampalo(Ward)-Gold Database.
Geological Survey of Finland 2008. Rämepuro-Gold Database.
No reference listed
  • North Ostrobothnia
    • Haapavesi
Kojonen, Kari, Johanson, Bo, Sipilä, Esko 1991. The Kiimala gold deposit in Haapavesi, Western Finland. in: Geological Survey of Finland, Current Research 1989-1990. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 12, 75-79, 1991
    • Kuusamo
Geological Survey of Finland 2008. Kouvervaara - Gold Database
    • Raahe
Geological Survey of Finland 2008. Laivakangas-N - Gold Database
  • Pirkanmaa
    • Lempäälä
Kuikka, Antti (2014) Pirkkalan alueen kultaesiintymien malmimineralogia. Summary: Ore mineralogy of the gold deposits in the Pirkkala area Volyymi: 212, Julkaisusarja: Tutkimusraportti - Report of Investigation. Geologin Tutkimuskeskus.
  • Satakunta
    • Huittinen
http://www.gsf.fi/explor/gold/jokisivu.htm; Eilu, P. (2003). Exploration for orogenic gold deposits. Fennoscandian Exploration and Mining 2003. Rovaniemi, Finland
    • Ulvila
      • Kullaa
Niilo Kärkkäinen, Tapio Lehto, Lasse Pakkanen and Petri Rosenberg (2012). Exploration and the mineralogy of gold in the Kullaa area, Southern Finland. In: Geological Survey of Fpnland Special Paper 52 edited by Sari Grönholm and Niilo Kärkkäinen.
  • Southern Savonia
    • Rantasalmi
Kojonen,Kari 2008. Au-Ag tellurides-selenides in Finland. International Geological Congress, Oslo August 6-14th. Abstract; Kontoniemi, O., Johanson, B., Kojonen, K., & Pakkanen, L. (1991). Ore mineralogy of the Osikonmäki gold deposit, Rantasalmi, southeastern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper, 12, 81-89.
  • Southwest Finland
    • Somero
Kärkkäinen, N., Koistinen, E. & Jokinen, T. 2007. Tutkimustyöselostus malmitutkimuksista Tammelan kunnan Riukan, kaivosrek.nro 7483/1, ja Pursion, kaivosrek.nro 7482/1, valtauksilla. Geological Survey of Finland, Report M06/2024/2007/10/69.
Georgia
 
  • Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti
    • Svaneti District
Kekelia, S., Kekelia, M., Gagnidze, N., Popkhadze, N., Mshvenieradze, I., Lobzhanidze, K., & Kharazishvili, G. (2017). Svaneti Gold Occurence (Kirar-Abakuri Ore Knot) and its Genesis. Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci, 11(2).
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion mining district
          • Plaka
            • Plaka Mines
Rieck, B., Kolitsch, U., Voudouris, P., Giester, G., Tzeferis, P. (2020): Lavrion, Griechenland: Weitere Neufunde aus dem berühmten Bergbaurevier. Mineralien-Welt 31(3), 6-21 (in German).
India
 
  • Karnataka
    • Kolar District
Mishra, B., and Panigrahi, M.K. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 173-181.
Italy
 
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • South Tyrol
      • Ortles-Cevedale Group
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
Japan
 
  • Gunma Prefecture
    • Midori City
      • Seta
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsankoubutsu Gojuonhairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou, p 80.
  • Ibaraki Prefecture
    • Kasama City
      • Iwama
Haruna, Makoto et al. (2002) Mineralogical and oxygen isotope constraints on the origin of the contact-metamorphosed bedded manganese deposit at Nagasawa, Japan. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 1069-1089.
  • Nagano Prefecture
    • Chino City
Satoshi Matsubara, Ritsuro Miyawaki, Kazumi Yokoyama, Masako Shigeoka, Akira Harada, Takashi Yamada, Kazuko Kawashima, Koichi Shimizu, Hiroshi Miyajima (2010) Bi-Te minerals from the Mukaidani mine, Chino City, Nagano Prefecture, Japan. (Meeting of the Mineralogical Society of Japan)
  • Oita Prefecture
    • Saiki City
      • Kiura mine (Shin-Kiura mine; Kiura emery mine)
Uehara, S., et al (2014) MInerals from Kyushu and Yamaguchi. (Fukuoka Mineral Club, 355 pages); Josef Vajdak specimens.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Akmola Region
Kovalev, K. R., Syzdykov, S. O., Kalinin, Y. A., Naumov, E. A., Baranov, V. V., Sukhorukov, V. P., ... & Zhimulev, F. I. (2018). The Raigorodok stockwork gold-sulfide-quartz deposit in the North Kazakhstan gold ore province. Russian Geology and Geophysics, 59(11), 1482-1496.
  • East Kazakhstan
    • Ridder
Baibatsha, A., Dyussembayeva, K., & Kassenova, A. (2015). Microparagenetic Associations of Gold in Ore-Forming Minerals from Deposits of Different Geological and Industrial Types of Kazakhstan. In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) (pp. 1-8). Springer International Publishing.; Baibatsha, A., Dyussembayeva, K., & Kassenova, A. (2015). Microparagenetic Associations of Gold in Ore-Forming Minerals from Deposits of Different Geological and Industrial Types of Kazakhstan. In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) (pp. 1-8). Springer, Cham.
Morocco
 
  • Souss-Massa Region
    • Tata Province
      • Azgour (Azegour)
Ilmen, S., Alansari, A., Baidada, B., Maacha, L., & Bajddi, A. (2016). Minerals of the Ag–Bi–Cu–Pb–S system from the Amensif carbonate-replacement deposit (western High Atlas, Morocco). Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 161, 85-97.
Myanmar
 
  • Shan State
    • Taunggyi District
      • Kalaw Township
        • Shwe Min Bon deposit
Sint, N. N., Yonezu, K., Tindell, T., Aye, M. T., Win, H., Imai, A., & Watanabe, K. (2019). Geology and Skarn Cu–Bi–Au Mineralization at Shwe Min Bon Area, Kalaw Township, Southern Shan State, Myanmar. Resource Geology, 69(1), 85-106.
Sint, N. N., Yonezu, K., Tindell, T., Aye, M. T., Win, H., Imai, A., & Watanabe, K. (2019). Geology and Skarn Cu–Bi–Au Mineralization at Shwe Min Bon Area, Kalaw Township, Southern Shan State, Myanmar. Resource Geology, 69(1), 85-106.
Norway
 
  • Troms og Finnmark
    • Nordreisa
Lindahl, I. (1975): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, no 60. Hedleyite (Bi14Te6) from the Vaddas-Rieppe area, north Troms, Northern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 55: 283-290.
Lindahl, I. (1975): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, no 60. Hedleyite (Bi14Te6) from the Vaddas-Rieppe area, north Troms, Northern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 55: 283-290.
Lindahl, I. (1975): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, no 60. Hedleyite (Bi14Te6) from the Vaddas-Rieppe area, north Troms, Northern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 55: 283-290.
Lindahl, I. (1975): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, no 60. Hedleyite (Bi14Te6) from the Vaddas-Rieppe area, north Troms, Northern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 55: 283-290.
Lindahl, I. (1975): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, no 60. Hedleyite (Bi14Te6) from the Vaddas-Rieppe area, north Troms, Northern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 55: 283-290.
Pacific Ocean
 
  • East Pacific Rise
    • Juan de Fuca Ridge complex
      • Southern Gorda Ridge
Eos Trans. AGU, 81 (48), Fall Meet. Suppl., 2000
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Ząbkowice Śląskie County
      • Gmina Bardo
        • Bardo
Mikulski, S. Z. (2005, January). The telluride mineralization event (s) within the late-variscan gold deposits in the western Sudetes (NE part of the Bohemian massif, SW Poland). In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1415-1418). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Portugal
 
  • Vila Real
    • Boticas
      • Bobadela
Mercedes Fuertes-Fuente, Antonia Cepedal, Alexandre Lima, Armanda Dória, Maria dos Anjos Ribeiro, Alexandra Guedes (2016): The Au-bearing vein system of the Limarinho deposit (northern Portugal): Genetic constraints from Bi-chalcogenides and Bi–Pb–Ag sulfosalts, fluid inclusions and stable isotopes. Ore Geology Reviews 72, 213-231.
Romania
 
  • Caraş-Severin
    • Banat Mountains
Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., & Bogdanov, K. (2002) Trace mineralogy of the Upper Cretaceous banatitic Magmatic and metallogenetic Belt, SE Europe. In 11th Quadrennial IAGOD symposium–Geocongress 2002, Windhoek, Namibia, July 2002. CD Volume of extended abstracts.
        • Ocna de Fier (Vaskö-Moraviţa; Vaskö-Moravicza; Eisenstein)
Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 65(3), pp. 351–372
Russia
 
  • Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
    • Okhotsk-Chukotka belt
Sidorov, V. A., Volkov, A. V., Wolfson, A. A., & Sidorov, A. A. (2007, November). Au-Bi-Te mineralization of the Kontaktovyi stock in Northeast Russia. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 417, No. 1, pp. 1164-1168). Nauka/Interperiodica.
  • Khabarovsk Krai
Alekseev, V. I., & Marin, Y. B. (2015). Composition and evolution of accessory mineralization of Li–F granites in the Far East as indicators of their ore potential. Geology of Ore Deposits, 57(8), 635-644.
    • Komsomolski ore District
Gonevchuk, V. G., Gonevchuk, G. A., Korostelev, P. G., Semenyak, B. I., & Seltmann, R. (2010). Tin deposits of the Sikhote–Alin and adjacent areas (Russian Far East) and their magmatic association. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 777-802.
  • Murmansk Oblast
Чернявский, А. В., Волошин, А. В., & Войтеховский, Ю. Л. (2013). ЗОЛОТОРУДНЫЕ ПРОЯВЛЕНИЯ ПАНАРЕЧЕНСКОЙ ВУЛКАНО-ТЕКТОНИЧЕСКОЙ СТРУКТУРЫ, КОЛЬСКИЙ РЕГИОН: ТИПЫ МИНЕРАЛИЗАЦИИ. МАТЕРИАЛЫ МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЙ КОНФЕРЕЦИИ, 197.; Chernyavsky, А. V., Voytekhovsky, Y. L., Voloshin, А. V., & Savchenko, Е. E. (2012). Ore minerals of the Panarechka epithermal low-sulphide Au-Ag deposit. In Proceedings of the MSTU (Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 330-335).
  • Primorsky Krai
    • Arminsky ore district
      • Vostok
Handbook of Mineralogy; Soloviev, S. G., & Krivoshchekov, N. N. (2011). Vostok-2 gold-base-metal-tungsten skarn deposit, Central Sikhote-Alin, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 53(6), 478-500.; Gvozdev, V. I. (2001) The Arminsky Ore District. pp87-97 in Khanchuk, A.I., Gonevchuk, G.A. & Seltmann, R. (Eds) Metallogeny of the Pacific Northwest (Russian Far East): Tectonics, Magmatism and Metallogeny of Active Continental Margins. IAGOD Guidebook series 11, Dalnauka Publishing House, Vladivostok 2004, 176 p
    • Dalnegorsk Urban District
[MinRec 32:8]
Simanenko, L.F. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 290-303; Simanenko, L. F. (2007). Modes of trace element occurrence in galena from the Partizansky base metal-skarn deposit, Primorye. Russian Journal of Pacific Geology, 1(2), 144-152.
    • Krasnoarmeysky District
Alekseev, V. I., & Marin, Y. B. (2015). Composition and evolution of accessory mineralization of Li–F granites in the Far East as indicators of their ore potential. Geology of Ore Deposits, 57(8), 635-644.
    • Malinovsky cluster
Gvozdev, V.I., Dobroshevsky, K.N., Vakh, A.S. et al. (2016): Malinovka deposit—A new type of gold mineralization in Primorye, Russia: Geology, mineralogy, and genesis. Russ. J. of Pac. Geol. 10, 34-49.
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Ladoga Region
Ivashchenko, V. I., Valkama, M., Sundblad, K., Golubev, A. I., & Alekseev, V. Y. (2011, September). New data on mineralogy and metallogeny of scarns in the Pitkyaranta ore region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 440, No. 1, pp. 1307-1311). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica
V. I. Ivashchenko, O. B. Lavrov, K. Sundblad and A. N. Toritsin (2007) Au-Ag-Bi-Te-Se vein mineralization at Roikonkoski, Karelia, northern Lake Ladoga region. Geological Survey of Finland, Guide 53 pp 51-56
    • Prääsä District
Ivashchenko, V. I., Bushmin, S. A., Ruchyev, A. M., Kornakov, A. S., Bogomolov, E. S., Savva, E. V., ... & Frolov, P. V. (2018, June). First Evidence of the Archean Age of Orogenic Gold of the Russian Part of the Karelian Craton (Fennoscandian Shield): Sm–Nd Mineral Isochron for Gold-Bearing Metasomatites of the Novye Peski Deposit. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 480, No. 2, pp. 804-809). Pleiades Publishing.
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Tenkeli Au-W-Sn district
Gamyanin, G. N.; Bortnikov, N. S.; Zhdanov, Yu. Ya.; Zayakina, N. V.; Mokhov, A. V.; Popova, S. K.; Suknev, V. S. (2007): New Pb-​As-​bearing eulytite from the Galechnoe ore deposit, eastern Yakutia, Russia. Doklady Earth Sciences 413, 300-303.
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Vershino-Darasunskiy
      • Darasun mine (Darasun Au deposit)
Krivitskaya, N. N., Bryzgalov, I. A., & Spiridonov, E. M. (2008, June). Jonassonite AuBi 5 S 4: The first find in Transbaikalia. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 420, No. 1, pp. 576-579). MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica.
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica District
      • Úhorná
Pršek, J., & Peterec, D. (2008). Bi-Se-Te mineralization from Úhorná (Spišsko Gemerské Rudohorie Mts., Słovakia): A preliminary report. Mineralogia, 39(3), 87-103.
Spain
 
  • Asturias
    • Salas
Cepedal, A., M. Fuertes-Fuente, A. Martín-Izard, S. González-Nistal, and L. Rodríguez-Pevida (2006), Tellurides, selenides and Bi-mineral assemblages from the Río Narcea Gold Belt, Asturias, Spain: genetic implications in Cu–Au and Au skarns. Mineralogy and Petrology: 87: 277–304.
  • Galicia
    • A Coruña (La Coruña)
      • Malpica
Minero, G. (2014) Tellurides, sulfides and sulfosalts in the mineral paragenesis of the Corcoesto orogenic gold deposit, NW Spain. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 92
Sweden
 
  • Dalarna County
    • Säter
No reference listed
  • Västerbotten County
    • Skellefteå
      • Skellefte mining district
        • Boliden
Kjell Gatedal
        • Sandfors
No reference listed
T. Wikström, thesis from Stockholm University
Switzerland
 
  • Valais
    • Saint-Maurice
      • Evionnaz
        • Salanfe
MEISSER, N. et DELLA VALLE, G. (1993): Hedleyite, Bi7Te3, and Joseite-B, Bi4Te2S, from Salanfe skarn, Aiguilles-Rouge massif, Switzerland. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 73, 149-150. ; Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
Tajikistan
 
  • Sughd
    • Zeravshan Range
      • Pendzhikent (Penjikent; Panjakent)
        • Chinorsai intrusion
Novgorodova, M.I., Generalov, M.Ye., Gorshkov, A.I., Sivtsov, A.V., Uspenskiy, Ye.I (1991) Association of native gold with bismuthyl carbonates and tellurates. Izvestiya Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol.: 4: 102-108 (in Russian); in: Jambor, J.L., Grew, E.S. (1993): New mineral Names. :merican Mineralogist: 78: 234
      • Yagnob River
D.I.Belakovskiy data
Belakovski D.I.. Die Mineralien der brennenden Kohlefloze von Ravat in Tadshikistan, Lapis, 1990, N 12 p.21-26. (in German); Belakovski D.I.. Die Mineralien der brennenden Kohlefloze von Ravat in Tadshikistan, Lapis, 1990, N 12 p.21-26. (in German)
UK
 
  • England
    • Cumbria
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous Mineral Localities: Pyromorphite Group Minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
      • Eden
        • Mungrisdale
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd
      • Dolgellau Gold Belt
        • Bontddu
BMS Database
Ukraine
 
  • Odessa Oblast
    • Dnister-Bug domain
      • Savran-Sinistovska ore zone
Ciobanu, C. L., Cook, N. J., Pring, A., Brugger, J., Danyushevsky, L. V., & Shimizu, M. (2009). ‘Invisible gold’in bismuth chalcogenides. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(7), 1970-1999.; Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., Wagner, T., & Stanley, C. J. (2007). Minerals of the system Bi–Te–Se–S related to the tetradymite archetype: review of classification and compositional variation. The Canadian Mineralogist, 45(4), 665-708.
  • Rivne Oblast
Shumlyanskyy, L., Svyatoslav Galiy and Konstantin Kogut (2000) Noble metal mineralizations in the Prutivka dolerite massif, north-west region of the Ukrainian shield pp41-44 in Weihed, P. & Martinsson, O. (Eds.), 2000: Abstract volume & Field trip guidebook, 2nd annual GEODE-Fennoscandian shield field workshop on Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean greenstone belts and VMS districts in the Fennoscandian Shield 28 August to 1 September, 2000, Gällivare-Kiruna, Sweden. Luleå University of Technology, Research Report 2000:6.
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Fairbanks North Star Borough
      • Fairbanks Mining District
Raymond, L. M. (2018). Gold and base metal mineralization of the Dolphin intrusion-related gold deposit, Fairbanks Mining District, Alaska. University of Alaska Fairbanks.
    • Southeast Fairbanks Census Area
      • Goodpaster Mining District
Rombach, C. S., Newberry, R. J., Goldfarb, R. J., & Smith, M. (2002, October). Geochronology and Mineralization of the Liese Zones, Pogo Deposit, Alaska. In 2002 Denver Annual Meeting.
Illig, Peter (2015) Amphibole Au -Cu Skarn and Massive Sulfide Replacement at the Peak Deposit,Eastern Interior,Alaska
  • Nevada
    • Lander Co.
      • McCoy Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Washington
    • Okanogan Co.
      • Myer Creek Mining District
        • Buckhorn Mountain
          • Southwest Zone and Gold Bowl (Crown Jewel) Zone
http://www.pnwfm.org/newsletters/PNWFM_newsletter_0409.pdf
Uzbekistan
 
  • Navoiy
    • Central Kyzylkum Region
      • Zarafshan
        • Muruntau ore field
Koneev, R.I., Turesebekov, A.H., Ignatikov, E.N., Vasilevsky, B.B., and Rakhimov, R.R. (2005), In: Jingwen Mao and Bierlein, F.P. (Eds.): Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Vol. 1, 1403-1406; Rustam Koneev, Evgeniy Ignatikov, Arpay Turesebekov, Umid Aripov, Rustam Khalmatov, Obidjon Kodirov, Miraziz Usmanov (2005) Gold ore deposits of Uzbekistan: Geochemistry and nanomineralogy of tellurium and selenium. IGCP Project 486, 2005 Field Workshop, Kiten, Bulgaria, 14-19 September 2005
  • Samarqand
    • North Nuratau Mountains
      • Zarmitan
Torsten Graupner, Samuel Niedermann, Dieter Rhede, Ulf Kempe, Reimar Seltmann, C. Terry Williams and Reiner Klemd (2010): Multiple sources for mineralizing fluids in the Charmitan gold(-tungsten) mineralization (Uzbekistan). Mineralium Deposita 45, 667-682. ; Rustam Koneev, Evgeniy Ignatikov, Arpay Turesebekov, Umid Aripov, Rustam Khalmatov, Obidjon Kodirov, Miraziz Usmanov (2005) Gold ore deposits of Uzbekistan: Geochemistry and nanomineralogy of tellurium and selenium. IGCP Project 486, 2005 Field Workshop, Kiten, Bulgaria, 14-19 September 2005; Eshimov, T. E. & Khamrabaeva, Z. I. (1987): Bismuth ore mineralization of Zarmitan. Uzbekiston Geologiya Zhurnali 1987 (4), 78-82 (in Russian).
  • Sirdaryo
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Zimbabwe
 
  • Harare
Oberthür, T. and Weiser, T. W. (2008): Gold-bismuth-telluride-sulphide assemblages at the Viceroy Mine, Harare-Bindura-Shamva greenstone belt, Zimbabwe. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 953-970.
 
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