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Hectorite

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About HectoriteHide

Classification of HectoriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959), Questionable
9.EC.45

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.3.1b.4

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
3 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
17.1.1

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
1 : Silicates with fluoride (not containing Al)

Physical Properties of HectoriteHide

Hardness:
1 - 2 on Mohs scale

Optical Data of HectoriteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.490 nβ = 1.500 nγ = 1.520
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.030
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of HectoriteHide

Formula:
Na0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
IMA Formula:
Na0.3(Mg,Li)3Si4O10(F,OH)2 · nH2O
Common Impurities:
Ti,Al,Fe,Ca,K,Cl

Crystallography of HectoriteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.25 Å, b = 9.18 Å, c = 16 Å
β = 99°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.572 : 1 : 1.743
Unit Cell V:
761.63 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of HectoriteHide

Synonyms of HectoriteHide

Other Language Names for HectoriteHide

Relationship of Hectorite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2OMon.
Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
Calcium-MontmorilloniteCa(Ca3,Al2)Si5O10(OH)8 or near
FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
PimeliteNi3Si4O10(OH)2·4H2OHex.
Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5Mon.
SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2OMon.
VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EC.05MinnesotaiteFe2+3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.05TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.05WillemseiteNi3Si4O10(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.9.EC.VoloshiniteRb(LiAl1.51.5)(Al0.5Si3.5)O10F2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.10FerripyrophylliteFe3+Si2O5(OH)Mon.
9.EC.10PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1
9.EC.15BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon.
9.EC.15ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15Tobelite(NH4,K)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15ChromceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon.
9.EC.15Ganterite(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20AnniteKFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Tric.
9.EC.20HendricksiteKZn3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20NorrishiteKLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20PreiswerkiteNaMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20SiderophylliteKFe2+2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.20FluorotetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20EastoniteKMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TetraferrianniteKFe2+3(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20FluoranniteKFe2+3(Si3Al)O10F2Mon.
9.EC.20ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20ShirozuliteKMn2+3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20SokolovaiteCsLi2Al(Si4O10)F2Mon.
9.EC.20AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20UM2004-49-SiO:AlCsFHKLi(Cs,K)(Al,Li)2.6((Si,Al)4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20Suhailite(NH4)Fe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20OrloviteKLi2Ti(Si4O10)OFMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.20OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.30MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.35Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35Kinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn2+,Al)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.35Ferrokinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH,F)2Mon.
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35FluorokinoshitaliteBaMg3(Al2Si2O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40Kurumsakite(Zn,Ni,Cu)8Al8V5+2Si5O35 · 27H2O (?)Orth.
9.EC.40Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.40Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
9.EC.45SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
9.EC.45Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.45SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.50VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
9.EC.55Baileychlore(Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8Tric. 1
9.EC.55Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8Mon.
9.EC.55ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.55Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m
9.EC.55FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn2+3Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8Orth.
9.EC.55Nimite(Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8Mon.
9.EC.55Orthochamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55PennantiteMn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Tric.
9.EC.55SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8Mon.
9.EC.55DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.55BorocookeiteLi1+3xAl4-x(BSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.60AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.60Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2OOrth.
9.EC.60DozyiteMg7Al2(Al2Si4O15)(OH)12Mon.
9.EC.60HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.60Karpinskite(Ni,Mg)2Si2O5(OH)2 (?)Mon.
9.EC.60KulkeiteMg8Al(AlSi7O20)(OH)10Mon.
9.EC.60LunijianlaiteLi0.7Al6.2(AlSi7O20)(OH,O)10Mon.
9.EC.60Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.EC.60Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5Mon.
9.EC.60TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2OMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.60BrinrobertsiteNa0.3Al4(Si4O10)2(OH)4 · 3.5 H2OMon.
9.EC.65Macaulayite(Fe,Al)24Si4O43(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.70BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
9.EC.75Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe3+2(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.75Surite(Pb,Ca)3(Al,Fe2+,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(CO3)2(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.75Niksergievite(Ba,Ca)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(CO3)(OH)6 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.80KegelitePb8Al4(Si8O20)(SO4)2(CO3)4(OH)8Mon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

71.3.1b.1Sobotkite(K,Ca0.5)0.33(Mg0.66Al0.33)3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2 · 1-5H2OMon.
71.3.1b.2SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
71.3.1b.3SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
71.3.1b.5PimeliteNi3Si4O10(OH)2·4H2OHex.
71.3.1b.6Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
71.3.1b.7Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
71.3.1b.8ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.1.3AgrelliteNaCa2Si4O10FTric.
17.1.4Fluorapophyllite-(Na)NaCa4(Si8O20)F · 8H2OOrth.
17.1.5Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mnc
17.1.6Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2OTet.
17.1.7HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
17.1.8LeucophaniteNaCaBeSi2O6FOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
17.1.9NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.1.10Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.11Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
17.1.12ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.13CanasiteK3Na3Ca5Si12O30(OH)4Mon.
17.1.14Charoite(K,Sr)15-16(Ca,Na)32[Si6O11(O,OH)6]2[Si12O18(O,OH)12]2[Si17O25(O,OH)18]2(OH,F)4 · ~3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
17.1.15CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.16BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2OTric.
17.1.17ZeophylliteCa13Si10O28(OH)2F8 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
17.1.18Rowlandite-(Y)(Y,Ce)4Fe2+(Si2O7)2F2 (?)Tric.
17.1.19YuksporiteK4(Ca,Na)14(Sr,Ba)2(◻,Mn,Fe)(Ti,Nb)4(O,OH)4(Si6O17)2(Si2O7)3(H2O,OH)3Orth.
17.1.20Yftisite-(Y)(Y,Dy,Er)4(Ti,Sn)(SiO4)2O(F,OH)6
17.1.21Mosandrite-(Ce)(Ca3REE)[(H2O)2Ca0.50.5]Ti(Si2O7)2(OH)2(H2O)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.22Hiortdahlite(Na,Ca)2Ca4Zr(Mn,Ti,Fe)(Si2O7)2(F,O)4Tric.
17.1.23BurpaliteNa2CaZr(Si2O7)F2Mon.
17.1.24SeidozeriteNa4MnZr2Ti(Si2O7)2O2F2Mon.
17.1.25Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O
17.1.26ZircophylliteK2NaFe2+7Zr2(Si4O12)2O2(OH)4FTric.
17.1.27JinshajiangiteBaNaFe2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2FTric. 1 : P1
17.1.28RosenbuschiteNa6Ca6Zr3Ti(Si2O7)4O2F6Tric. 1 : P1
17.1.29NarsarsukiteNa4(Ti,Fe)2[Si8O20](O,OH,F)2Tet.
17.1.30SonoliteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Hectorite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for HectoriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Strese, V.H., Hofmann, U. (1941) Synthese von Magnesiumsilikat-Gelen mit zweidimensional regelmäßiger Struktur. Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie: 247: 65-94.
Fleischer, M. (1944) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 29: 73-74.
Oberlin, A., Mering, J. (1966) Observations sur l’hectorite (etude en microscopie et diffraction electroniques). Societe Francais de Mineralogie et Crystallographie Bulletin: 89: 29-40.
Chaussidon, J. (1970) Stretching frequencies of structural hydroxyls of hectorite and K-depleted phlogopite as influenced by interlayer cation and hydration. Clays and Clay Minerals: 18: 139-149.
Weiss, C.A., Altaner, S.P., Kirkpatrick, J. (1987) High-resolution 29Si NMR spectroscopy of 2:1 layer silicates: Correlations among chemical shift, structural distortions, and chemical variations. American Mineralogist: 72: 935-942.

Internet Links for HectoriteHide

Localities for HectoriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Brazil
 
  • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Parelhas
[MinRec 29:196]
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Morbihan
Chauris, L. (2014): Minéraux de Bretagne, Les Editions du Piat, 292.
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib
      • Okongava Ost Farm 72
Ashworth, L. (2014). Mineralised Pegmatites of the Damara Belt, Namibia: Fluid inclusion and geochemical characteristics with implications for post-collisional mineralisation (Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand).
- Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 411 pp. (in English) ; Ashworth, L. (2014). Mineralised Pegmatites of the Damara Belt, Namibia: Fluid inclusion and geochemical characteristics with implications for post-collisional mineralisation (Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand).
USA
 
  • Arizona
azminerals.com
      • Thompson Valley
        • Hillside
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 244; Eyde, T.H. (1986), Field trip to selected industrial mineral deposits of AZ, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 16: 316.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Amargosa Desert
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10188177.
    • Kern Co.
      • Boron
Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 165; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 439.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Cady Mountains
        • Hector
American Mineralogist (1936): 21: 238-244; Wright, L.A., et al (1953), Mines and mineral resources of San Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 49): 49(1-2): 157-161; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 440.
Wright, L.A., et al (1953), Mines and mineral resources of San Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 49): 49(1-2): 157-161; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 440.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Wright, L.A., et al (1953), Mines and mineral resources of San Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 49): 49(1-2): 157-161; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 440.
Ames, Lloyd L., Jr., et al (1958), A contribution on the Hector, California bentonite deposit: Economic Geology: 53: 28; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 151; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 377.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Las Vegas Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Muddy Mountains
        • Muddy Mountains Mining District
          • White Basin
U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Esmeralda Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Montana Mountains
        • Disaster Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Utah
    • Duchesne Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Juab Co.
      • Thomas Range
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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