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Hanawaltite

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Formula:
(Hg2+2)3Hg2+(Cl,OH)2O3
Colour:
Black to very dark brown-black
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
4
Specific Gravity:
9.51 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named by Andrew C. Roberts, Joel D. Grice, Robert A. Gault, Alan J. Criddle, Richard C. Erd in 1996 in honor of Joseph Donald Hanawalt (6 July 1902, Royersford, Pennsylvania, USA – 26 June 1987), for his early work in X-ray powder diffraction. He was a metallurgist and an authority on magnesium. He was affiliated with 3M and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. He developed what would be known as the Hanawalt X-ray Diffraction Method, and was awarded 30 patents and numerous awards.
This page provides mineralogical data about Hanawaltite.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of HanawaltiteHide

Approved
First Published:
1996
3.DD.15

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
D : With Hg
10.5.13.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
5 : Am(O,OH)pXq

Physical Properties of HanawaltiteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Black to very dark brown-black
Streak:
Dark reddish black
Hardness:
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
{001}
Density:
9.51 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HanawaltiteHide

Type:
Biaxial
Anisotropism:
Bright metallic blue.
Bireflectance:
Moderate to strong.
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=26.2%R2=37.6%
420nmR1=25.2%R2=34.8%
440nmR1=24.2%R2=32.5%
460nmR1=23.3%R2=30.6%
480nmR1=22.4%R2=29.0%
500nmR1=21.8%R2=27.7%
520nmR1=21.2%R2=26.7%
540nmR1=20.8%R2=25.9%
560nmR1=20.5%R2=25.2%
580nmR1=20.3%R2=24.6%
600nmR1=20.1%R2=24.1%
620nmR1=20.0%R2=23.7%
640nmR1=20.2%R2=23.3%
660nmR1=20.3%R2=23.1%
680nmR1=20.2%R2=22.9%
700nmR1=20.0%R2=22.8%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 37.6%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
Gray
Internal Reflections:
May have red-orange internal reflections
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Bright bluish white to grayish white

Chemical Properties of HanawaltiteHide

Formula:
(Hg2+2)3Hg2+(Cl,OH)2O3
IMA Formula:
Hg1+6Hg2+O3Cl2
Idealised Formula:
(Hg+2)3Hg2+Cl2O3

Crystallography of HanawaltiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.790(3) Å, b = 13.881(4) Å, c = 6.450(2) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.849 : 1 : 0.465
Unit Cell V:
1,055.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Subhedral to anhedral crystals, platy to bladed, striated k || [001].

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.053 Å(100)
5.25 Å(80)
2.954 Å(70)
3.164 Å(60)
2.681 Å(50)
2.411 Å(50)
4.35 Å(40)

Type Occurrence of HanawaltiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Canadian Geological Survey, Ottawa, Canada, 67396.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Alteration product of cinnabar, in a mercury deposit in silicate-carbonate rock hydrothermally altered from serpentinite.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of HanawaltiteHide

Other Language Names for HanawaltiteHide

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DD.05Eglestonite(Hg2+2)3OCl3(OH)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
3.DD.05Kadyrelite(Hg2+2)3OBr3(OH)Iso.
3.DD.10Poyarkovite(Hg2+2)3Cl2O2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
3.DD.20Terlinguaite(Hg2+2)Hg2+2Cl2O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.DD.25PinchiteHg2+5Cl2O4Orth.
3.DD.30Gianellaite[(NHg2)2](SO4)(H2O)xIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
3.DD.30Mosesite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4,MoO4) · H2OIso.
3.DD.35Kleinite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4) · nH2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DD.40Tedhadleyite(Hg+2)5Hg2+I2(Cl,Br)2O4Tric.
3.DD.45Vasilyevite(Hg+2)10I3Br2Cl(CO3)O6Tric. 1 : P1
3.DD.50Aurivilliusite(Hg+2)0.5Hg2+(I,Br,Cl)OMon. 2/m : B2/b
3.DD.55TerlinguacreekiteHg2+3Cl2O2Orth.
3.DD.60Kelyanite(Hg+2)6Sb3+BrCl2O6Mon.
3.DD.65ComancheiteHg2+55N3–24(NH2,OH)4(Cl,Br)34Orth.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Decrepitates on exposure to sunlight, photoreducing to mercury.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Avoid exposure to light.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HanawaltiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Roberts, A.C., Grice, J.D., Gault, R.A., Criddle, A.J., Erd, R.C. (1996) Hanawaltite, Hg1+6Hg2+[Cl,(OH)]2O3 - A new mineral from the Clear Creek claim, San Benito County, California: Description and crystal structure. Powder Diffraction: 11: 45-50.
Jambor, J.L., Kovalenker, V.A., Puziewics, J., Roberts, A.C. (1996) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 81: 1282-1286.
Mandarino, J.A. (1996) Abstracts of New Mineral Descriptions. Mineralogical Record: 27: 463-464.
Grice, J.D. (1999) Redetermination of the crystal structure of hanawaltite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 775-778.

Internet Links for HanawaltiteHide

Localities for HanawaltiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
USA (TL)
 
  • California
    • San Benito Co.
      • New Idria Mining District
        • Goat Mountain
Mineralogical Record: 27: 463; Canadian Mineralogist: 34: 61-72.
 
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