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Hammarite

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About HammariteHide

Formula:
Pb2Cu2Bi4S9
Colour:
steel-grey with red tint
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
3 - 4
Specific Gravity:
6.734
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
After the locality Gladhammar, Kalmar, Sweden.

Classification of HammariteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.HB.05a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
H : Sulfosalts of SnS archetype
B : With Cu, Ag, Fe, Sn and Pb
3.4.5.4

3 : SULFOSALTS
4 : ø = 3
5.7.7

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
7 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Pb and other metals

Physical Properties of HammariteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
steel-grey with red tint
Streak:
black
Hardness:
3 - 4 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
{010} good.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
6.734 g/cm3 (Measured)    7.05 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Chemical Properties of HammariteHide

Formula:
Pb2Cu2Bi4S9
IMA Formula:
Cu2Pb2Bi4S9

Crystallography of HammariteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:
a = 33.772 Å, b = 11.5857 Å, c = 4.01 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.915 : 1 : 0.346
Unit Cell V:
1,569.00 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Short prisms; needle-like.
Comment:
SG Pbnm or Pbn21

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Hydrothermal veins

Type Occurrence of HammariteHide

Other Language Names for HammariteHide

Common AssociatesHide

AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
BismuthiniteBi2S3
ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
PadĕraiteCu7[(Cu,Ag)0.33Pb1.33Bi11.33]S22
PekoitePbCuBi11S18
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
7 photos of Hammarite associated with FriedrichitePb5Cu5Bi7S18
3 photos of Hammarite associated with LindströmitePb3Cu3Bi7S15
3 photos of Hammarite associated with KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
3 photos of Hammarite associated with AikinitePbCuBiS3
2 photos of Hammarite associated with PyriteFeS2
1 photo of Hammarite associated with BismuthBi

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.HB.Carducciite(Ag2Sb2)Pb12(As,Sb)16S40Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HB.05aAikinitePbCuBiS3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.HB.05aFriedrichitePb5Cu5Bi7S18Orth. mm2
2.HB.05aGladitePbCuBi5S9Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.05cJaskólskiiteCuxPb2+x(Sb,Bi)2-xS5 (x ~ 0.15)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.05aKrupkaitePbCuBi3S6Orth.
2.HB.05aLindströmitePb3Cu3Bi7S15Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.05bMeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.05aPekoitePbCuBi11S18Orth.
2.HB.05aEmilitePb2.7Cu2.7Bi5.3S12Orth. mm2
2.HB.05UM2000-46-S:BiCuPbCu0.33Pb0.33Bi7.67S12
2.HB.05aSalzburgitePb1.6Cu1.6Bi6.4S12Orth. mm2
2.HB.05UM1990-54-Se:BiCuPbCuPb(Ni,Co)0.3Bi3Se6
2.HB.05aPaaritePb1.7Cu1.7Bi6.3S12Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.HB.10cEclarite(Cu,Fe)Pb9Bi12S28Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.HB.10bGiessenitePb27Cu2(Bi,Sb)19S57Mon. 2/m
2.HB.10bIzoklakeitePb27(Cu,Fe,Ag)2(Sb,Bi)19S57Orth.
2.HB.10aKobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.HB.10aTintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.HB.15BenavidesitePb4MnSb6S14Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HB.15JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HB.20dBerryiteCu3Ag2Pb3Bi7S16Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.HB.20bBuckhorniteAuPb2BiTe2S3Orth.
2.HB.20aNagyágite[Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.HB.20eWatkinsoniteCu2PbBi4(Se,S,Te)8Mon.
2.HB.20cMuseumite[Pb2(Pb,Sb)2S8][(Te,Au)2]Mon. 2
2.HB.20eLitochlebiteAg2PbBi4Se8Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

3.4.5.1AikinitePbCuBiS3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.4.5.2KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6Orth.
3.4.5.3GladitePbCuBi5S9Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.4.5.5FriedrichitePb5Cu5Bi7S18Orth. mm2
3.4.5.6PekoitePbCuBi11S18Orth.
3.4.5.7LindströmitePb3Cu3Bi7S15Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

5.7.1SeligmannitePbCuAsS3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
5.7.2BournonitePbCuSbS3Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
5.7.3MeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.4GladitePbCuBi5S9Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.5LindströmitePb3Cu3Bi7S15Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.6KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6Orth.
5.7.8FriedrichitePb5Cu5Bi7S18Orth. mm2
5.7.9AikinitePbCuBiS3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
5.7.10NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7Orth.
5.7.11JaskólskiiteCuxPb2+x(Sb,Bi)2-xS5 (x ~ 0.15)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.12TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
5.7.13KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
5.7.14ProuditeCuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.7.15NordströmiteCuPb3Bi7(Se4S10)Mon.
5.7.16WatkinsoniteCu2PbBi4(Se,S,Te)8Mon.
5.7.17PekoitePbCuBi11S18Orth.
5.7.18PetroviciteCu3HgPbBiSe5Orth.
5.7.19Eclarite(Cu,Fe)Pb9Bi12S28Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
5.7.20MarriteAgPbAsS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.21ArgentobaumhaueriteAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72Tric. 1 : P1
5.7.22AndoriteAgPbSb3S6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.23RamdohritePb5.9Fe0.1Mn0.1In0.1Cd0.2Ag2.8Sb10.8S24Mon. 2/m
5.7.24RoshchiniteAg19Pb10Sb51S96Orth.
5.7.25OurayiteAg3Pb4Bi5S13Orth.
5.7.26EskimoiteAg7Pb10Bi15S36Mon.
5.7.27FizélyiteAg5Pb14Sb21S48Mon. 2/m
5.7.28OwyheeiteAg3+xPb10-2xSb11+xS28, -0.13 < x > +0.20Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.29FreieslebeniteAgPbSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.30DiaphoriteAg3Pb2Sb3S8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.31SterryiteCu(Ag,Cu)3Pb19(Sb,As)22(As-As)S56Mon. 2/m
5.7.32VikingiteAg5Pb8Bi13S30Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.7.33ZoubekiteAgPb4Sb4S10Orth.
5.7.34SchirmeritePbAgBi3S6 - Pb3Ag1.5Bi3.5S9Orth.
5.7.36GustaviteAgPbBi3S6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.7.37KitaibeliteAg10PbBi30S51
5.7.38TreasuriteAg7Pb6Bi15S32Mon.
5.7.39BenjaminiteAg3Bi7S12Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.7.40Lengenbachite Ag4Cu2Pb18As12S39Tric.
5.7.41BerryiteCu3Ag2Pb3Bi7S16Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.7.42NeyiteAg2Cu6Pb25Bi26S68Mon.
5.7.43Larosite(Cu,Ag)21PbBiS13Orth.
5.7.44CupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.7.45PadĕraiteCu7[(Cu,Ag)0.33Pb1.33Bi11.33]S22Mon.
5.7.46RayitePb8(Ag,Tl)2Sb8S21Mon.
5.7.47RathiteAg2Pb12-xTlx/2As18+x/2S40Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.7.48HatchiteAgTlPbAs2S5Tric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HammariteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Johansson (1924), Ark. Kemi: 9(8): 11.
Foshag (1925), American Mineralogist: 10: 157.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 442.
American Mineralogist (1976): 61: 15-20.
Horiuchi, H. and Wuensch, B.J. (1976) The ordering scheme for metal atoms in the crystal structure of hammarite, Cu2Pb2Bi4S9. Canadian Mineralogist: 14: 536-539.
Pring, A. (1995) Annealing of synthetic hammarite, Cu2Pb2Bi4S9, and the nature of caton-ordering processes in the bismuthinite-aikinite series. American Mineralogist: 80: 1166-1173.

Internet Links for HammariteHide

Localities for HammariteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Northern Territory
    • Barkly Region
      • Tennant Creek
Huston, D.L., Bolger, C. and Cozens, G. (1993) A Comparison of mineral deposits at the Gecko and White Devil Deposits: implications for ore genesis in the Tennant Creek District, Northern Territory, Australia, Economic Geology, vol. 88, pp.1198-1223.
  • Queensland
    • Charters Towers Region
Wormald, Peter John (1993) Geology of the Mt. Leyshon gold deposit, Australia: a study of breccia pipe formation, facies and brecciation mechanisms. PhD thesis, James Cook University of North Queensland.
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Zell am See District
      • Mittersill
        • Mittersill Scheelite deposit
MinRec 33:352
Bulgaria
 
  • Burgas Province
    • Sozopol
Todorov, T. (1990): Copper-lead-bismuth sulfosalts of the aikinite-bismuthinite series in the Rossen ore field deposits. Doklady Bolgarskoi Akademii Nauk 43(1), 87-90.
  • Pazardzhik Province
Bogdanov, K., Tsonev, D., & Popov, K. (2004). Mineral Assemblages And Genesis Of The Cu-Au Epithermal Deposits In The Southern Part Of The Panaguyrishte Ore District, Bulgaria. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, 36:406-415
China
 
  • Henan
    • Sanmenxia
      • Lingbao City
YIN, C., LIU, J., ZHAI, D., & GUO, Y. (2019). New Discovery of Telluride and Bi‐Sulfosalt in the Dahu Quartz Vein‐Style Au‐Mo Deposit, Xiaoqinling Region, China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition), 93(1), 241-243.
        • Qinling Mine
Zhenkuan Luo, Kang Guan, and Manzhi Wang (1992): Geology and Prospecting 28(2), 31-35
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Chifeng City (Ulanhad League; Chifeng Prefecture)
      • Bairin Left Banner (Balin Zuoqi)
Dequan Zhang, Yunfen Lei, Taiyang Luo, Xiupo Bao, and Shengli Wang (1991): Mineral Deposits 10(3), 204-216
  • Shandong
    • Yantai
      • Zhaoyuan City
Yuan Zhang, Liandeng Liu, Jinggui Sun, Guohua Chen, Hongxi Zhang, Fuchuan Yan, and Kaichun Yang (2008): Journal of Jilin University, Earth Science Edition 38(1), 21-26
Czech Republic
 
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Krupka (Graupen)
      • Knöttel area (Knötel; Knödel; Knödlberg)
Lapis 23(4), 18-34 (1998)
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Siegen-Wittgenstein
        • Siegen
          • Eiserfeld
            • Kohlenbach Valley
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
          • Eisern
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
    • Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge
      • Dippoldiswalde
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Greece
 
  • Central Macedonia
    • Chalkidiki
      • Aristotelis
Voudouris, P., Spry, P. G., Mavrogonatos, C., & Sakellaris, G. A. (2010, April). Gold-bismuth-telluride-sulfide assemblages at the Stanos shear zone-related prospect, Chalkidiki, northern Greece. In 13th Quadrennial IAGOD symposium, Adelaide, South Australia (pp. 6-9).
  • East Macedonia and Thrace
    • Evros
      • Alexandroupoli
Voudouris, P., Spry, P. G., Melfos, V., Haase, K., Klemd, R., Mavrogonatos, C., ... & Alfieris, D. (2018). Gold deposits in Greece: Hypogene ore mineralogy as a guide for precious and critical metal exploration. In Proc. 1st Int. Electr. Conf. Mineral Science (p. 13).
Hungary
 
  • Fejér County
    • Pátka
collector: László Tóth, WDS: Norbert Zajzon; Zajzon N, Szakáll S, Kristály F, Mádai F (2014) Aikinite-bismuthinite series sulphosalts from Pátka, Velence Hills, Hungary. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 137
Ireland
 
  • Leinster
    • Co. Wicklow
      • Croghan Kinshela Mountain
        • Gold Mines River
Ixer, R. A., McArdle, P., & Stanley, C. J. (1990). Primary gold mineralization within metamorphosed iron ores, Southeast Ireland. Geol. Surv. Ire. Bull, 4, 221-6.
Italy
 
  • Piedmont
    • Metropolitan City of Turin
Ambrino, P., Brizio, P., Ciriotti, M.E., Finello, G., Marello, B. (2009). Minerali della pietra di Luserna. AMI. CD-ROM (in italian and in english)
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Nuxis
        • Tamara Mountain
Karup-Møller, S. (1977). Mineralogy of some Ag-(Cu)-Pb-Bi sulphide associations. Bulletin Geological Society Denmark, 26, 41-68.
Japan
 
  • Yamagata Prefecture
Izumino, Y., Nakashima, K., & Nagashima, M. (2014). Cuprobismutite group minerals (cuprobismutite, hodrušhite, kupčíkite and padĕraite), other Bi–sulfosalts and Bi–tellurides from the Obari mine, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 109(4), 177-190.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Akmola Region
Kovalev, K. R., Syzdykov, S. O., Kalinin, Y. A., Naumov, E. A., Baranov, V. V., Sukhorukov, V. P., ... & Zhimulev, F. I. (2018). The Raigorodok stockwork gold-sulfide-quartz deposit in the North Kazakhstan gold ore province. Russian Geology and Geophysics, 59(11), 1482-1496.
  • East Kazakhstan
    • Altai
      • Zyryanovsk complex
Mozgova, N. N., Nenasheva, S. N., Borodaev, Y. S., & Yudovskaya, M. A. (1994). Nuffieldite from the Maleevskoe massive sulfide deposit, Russia. Canadian Mineralogist, 32, 359-359.
  • Karaganda Region
    • Shet
      • Akchatau (Aqshatau; Akschatau; Akchataul; Akshatau)
Efimov A.V. Bismuthian mineralisation of tin and wolfram deposits, 1993; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
Myanmar
 
  • Mandalay Region
    • Kyaukse District
Aung Myo, Thu, Piestrzyński, A., & Foltyn, K. (2019) Mineralogical Characteristics of Cu-Ag from Kyaukse Sabe Taung Copper Deposit, Shan Plateau, Myanmar. CAGG-AGH 2019
Norway
 
  • Telemark
    • Tokke
      • Skafså
Larsen, A. O. & Topa, D. (2018) Bi-sulfosalts from Tokke, Telemark, Norway. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2018: 71-78
Larsen, A. O. & Topa, D. (2018) Bi-sulfosalts from Tokke, Telemark, Norway. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2018: 71-78
Peru
 
  • Huancavelica
    • Angaraes Province
Crowley, Jack A., Currier, Rock H., & Szenics, Terry (1997) Mines and Minerals of Peru. Mineralogical Record, Vol.28, No.4. 98p.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Kamienna Góra County
      • Gmina Kamienna Góra
        • Rędziny
Gołębiowska B., Pieczka A., Parafiniuk J. 2005: Minerals of the bismuthinite-aikinite series from Rędziny (Western Sudetes). Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 26, 165-168.
Romania
 
  • Bihor
    • Nucet
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Shimizu, M., Kato, A., Cioflica, G., Lupulescu, M., Shimizu, M. (1998): Friedrichite from Băița Bihor, Romania. Canadian Mineralogist 36, 861-868.
Shimizu, M., Kato, A., Cioflica, G., Lupulescu, M., Shimizu, M. (1998): Friedrichite from Băița Bihor, Romania. Canadian Mineralogist 36, 861-868.
  • Maramureș
    • Borşa (Baia Borşa; Borsa)
Nigel G. Cook : "Bismuth Sulphosalts from Hydrothermal Vein Deposits of Neogen Age, N.W. Romania, Mitt. Österr. Miner. Ges. , 143, 1998 / Lecture to the Austrian Mineralogical Society, 23rd June 1997, Salzburg.
Russia
 
  • Altai Krai
Mozgova, N. N., Nenasheva, S. N., Borodaev, Y. S., & Yudovskaya, M. A. (1994). Nuffieldite from the Maleevskoe massive sulfide deposit, Russia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 32(2), 359-364.
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Beryozovsky
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
      • Dzhida Basin
        • Zakamensk
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Chitinskaya Oblast
Eremin, O. V., Epova, E. S., Yurgenson, G. A., & Smirnova, O. K. (2014). Prognosis of Geoecological Consequences of Development of Deposits of the Bom-Gorkhon Tungsten Deposit (Transbaikalia). Chemistry for Sustainable Development, 22(2), 123-129.
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
Ďuďa R.,Kotuľak P., Káňa R., 1993: Bergbau und Mineralien von Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz), Slowakei. Emser Hefte, 14, 3, 1-70, Haltern
    • Brezno District
Pršek J.,2004: Štruktúra a kryštálochémia sulfosolí zo sulfidických mineralizácii Západnych Karpát (Kandid. Diz.práca).Archív Katedry miner. a petrografie Prírodoved. Fak. UK,Bratislava, 135 s.
        • Sokolova dolina Valley
Jaroslav PRŠEK and Martin Chovan (2001) Hydrothermal Carbonate and Sulphide Mineralization in the Late Paleozoic Phyllites (Bacúch, Nízke Tatry Mts.) Geolines 13:27-
    • Žarnovica District
      • Hodruša-Hámre (Hodritsch)
Jeleň, S., Pršek, J., Kovalenker, V. A., Topa, D., Sejkora, J., Števko, M., & Ozdín, D. (2012). Bismuth Sulfosalts Of The Cuprobismutite, Pavonite And Aikinite Series From The Rozália Mine, Hodruša–Hámre, Slovakia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 50(2), 325-340.
  • Košice Region
    • Rožňava Co.
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
    • Spišská Nová Ves District
Pršek J.,2004: Štruktžúra a kryštalochémia sulfosolí zo sulfidických mineralizácií Západných Karpát (Kandid. dizert. práca),Manuskript, archív Kated. miner. a petrológie PFUK Bratislava, 135 p.
  • Žilina Region
    • Liptovský Mikuláš District
Ozdin D., Chovan M., 1999: New mineralogical and paragenetic knowledge about siderite veins in the vicinity of Vyšná Boca, Nízke Tatry Mts. Slov. Geol. Magazine, Bratislava, 5, 4, 255-271
Ozdín D. (2003): Mineralógia a genéza sideritovej mineralizácie Ďumbierskych Tatier. Dissertation thesis, Comenius University, 194 p.
Sweden (TL)
 
  • Kalmar County
    • Västervik
Arkiv Kemi, Min.Geol.(1924) 9/8, 11
Switzerland
 
  • Valais
    • Östlich Raron
      • Grengiols
        • Chummibort
Cuchet, S., van der Burgt, A. und Meisser, N. (2005): Chummibort, eine neue Fundstelle für Arsenmineralien im Binntal. Schweizer Strahler, Nr. 2, 19-29. (in German/French)
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Highland
      • Loch Shin
Lowry, D., Stephens, W. E., Herd, D. A., & Stanley, C. J. (1994). Bismuth sulphosalts within quartz veining hosted by the Loch Shin monzogranite, Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(390), 39-48.
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Fairbanks North Star Borough
      • Fairbanks Mining District
Walsh, D. E., & Rao, P. D. (1991). Gravity recoverable gold from− 13 mm crushed ore, Ester Dome, Alaska. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, 8(4), 179-183.
  • Colorado
    • Clear Creek Co.
      • Alice Mining District (Yankee Mining District; Lincoln Mining District)
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Summit Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Toquima Range
        • Round Mountain Mining District
[MinRec 22:181]
  • New Mexico
    • Doña Ana Co.
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Uzbekistan
 
  • Tashkent
    • Okhangaron District
Kovalenker, V. A., Safonov, Y. G., Naumov, V. B., & Rusinov, V. L. (1997). The Epithermal Gold-Telluride Kochbulak Deposit. Geology of Ore Deposits C/C of Geologiia Rudnykh Mestorozhdenii, 39, 107-128.
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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