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About Hainite-(Y)Hide

Wine-yellow, honey-yellow; milk white, brownish, pale pink
Adamantine, Vitreous
Specific Gravity:
3.157-3.274 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
For the type locality, (Hohe) Hain Mtns, plus the "-(Y)" suffix due to the dominance of yttrium in the composition. It was first described by Josef Blumrich in 1893 under the name hainite [hainit]. The name was changed by IMA in 2016 to hainite-(Y) (IMA 16-A).
Chemically close to fogoite-(Y).

Long regarded as a doubtful species, said to be related to Rosenbuschite, but an independent species after all (Christiansen et al., 2003). The crystal structure of the type material has been determined by Giester et al. (2005).

Classification of Hainite-(Y)Hide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
Redefined by the IMA, Renamed by the IMA
First Published:
Approval History:
2016: Redefined. Name changed from hainite to hainite-(Y) (IMA 16-A).

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
E : Si2O7 groups, with additional anions; cations in octahedral [6] and greater coordination

56 : SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
2 : Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination

Physical Properties of Hainite-(Y)Hide

Adamantine, Vitreous
Wine-yellow, honey-yellow; milk white, brownish, pale pink
Light wine-yellow in thin section. Altered hainite-(Y9 shows a brown colour
Rather perfect, {010}; also faint on {100}
3.157-3.274(17) g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Hainite-(Y)Hide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.663(2) nβ = 1.664(2) nγ = 1.675(2)
Measured: 30° to 45°, Calculated: 33.7°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.012
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
relatively strong (r > v)
colorless (X), colorless to pale yellow (Y), wine-yellow (Z)
2V(meas.): large

Chemical Properties of Hainite-(Y)Hide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Chemical AnalysisHide

Oxide wt%:
SiO230.50 %
Al2O30.05 %
TiO28.16 %
ZrO23.96 %
HfO20.08 %
Nb2O51.23 %
Ta2O50.03 %
MnO0.73 %
FeO0.69 %
CaO29.64 %
SrO0.08 %
Na2O7.45 %
Y2O34.35 %
La2O30.63 %
Ce2O31.67 %
Nd2O30.71 %
Gd2O30.20 %
Dy2O30.98 %
Er2O30.59 %
Yb2O30.74 %
F7.81 %
O=F-3.29 %
Total:96.99 %
Sample references:
1Teineholmen, Barkevik area, Langesundsfjorden, Larvik, Vestfold, NorwayChristiansen, C.C. & Johnsen, O. (2003): Crystal chemistry of the Rosenbuschite group. Canadian Mineralogist. 41: 1203-1224

Crystallography of Hainite-(Y)Hide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.594 Å, b = 5.702 Å, c = 7.288 Å
α = 89.89(4)°, β = 101.09(4)°, γ = 101.17(4)°
a:b:c = 1.683 : 1 : 1.278
Unit Cell V:
383.55 ų
on {100}
parameters of the TL material: a=5.676(2), b=7.259(3), c=9.586(3), α=101.08(4), β=101.14(4), γ=90.27(4)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
2.961 Å(100)
3.073 Å(90)
1.896 Å(70)
3.961 Å(50)
2.628 Å(50)
2.493 Å(50)
1.822 Å(50)
TL material

Type Occurrence of Hainite-(Y)Hide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Crystals, less than 1 mm, needles and plates, [001] elongation; {010}, {100}, and {_110} faces present (TL material)
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Cavities and groundmass of phonolites (TL material); carbonatites
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Blumrich, J. (1893) Die Phonolithe des Friedländer Bezirkes in Nordböhmen, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 13: 6: 465-495

Synonyms of Hainite-(Y)Hide

Other Language Names for Hainite-(Y)Hide

Relationship of Hainite-(Y) to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Batievaite-(Y)Y2Ca2Ti(Si2O7)2(OH)2(H2O)4Tric. 1 : P1
Fogoite-(Y)Na3Ca2Y2Ti(Si2O7)2OF3Tric. 1 : P1
GötzeniteNaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3Tric. 1 : P1
GrenmariteNa4MnZr3(Si2O7)2O2F2Mon. 2/m : P2/b
KochiteNa3Ca2MnZrTi(Si2O7)2OF3Tric. 1 : P1
Mosandrite-(Ce)(Ca3REE)[(H2O)2Ca0.50.5]Ti(Si2O7)2(OH)2(H2O)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
Nacareniobsite-(Ce)NbNa3Ca3(Ce,REE )(Si2O7)2OF3Mon.
Rinkite-(Y)Na2Ca4YTi(Si2O7)2OF3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
RosenbuschiteNa6Ca6Zr3Ti(Si2O7)4O2F6Tric. 1 : P1
Roumaite(Ca,Na,REE,◻)7(Nb,Ti)[Si2O7]2OF3Mon. m : Bb

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
3 photos of Hainite-(Y) associated with TuperssuatsiaiteNa2(Fe3+,Mn2+)3Si8O20(OH)2 · 4H2O
2 photos of Hainite-(Y) associated with VilliaumiteNaF
2 photos of Hainite-(Y) associated with MakatiteNa2Si4O8(OH)2 · 4H2O
2 photos of Hainite-(Y) associated with MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
2 photos of Hainite-(Y) associated with Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
1 photo of Hainite-(Y) associated with NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
1 photo of Hainite-(Y) associated with Feldspar Group

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.BE.BetalomonosoviteNa64Ti4(Si2O7)2[PO3OH][PO2(OH)2]O2(OF)Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.Batievaite-(Y)Y2Ca2Ti(Si2O7)2(OH)2(H2O)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.Delhuyarite-(Ce)Ce4Mg(Fe3+,W)3□(Si2O7)2O6(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.XAsimowiteFe2+4O(Si2O7)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Imma
9.BE.05HennomartiniteSrMn3+2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
9.BE.05LawsoniteCaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
9.BE.05NoelbensoniteBaMn3+2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
9.BE.05ItoigawaiteSrAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
9.BE.07IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.BE.07ManganilvaiteCaFe2+Fe3+Mn2+(Si2O7)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.10SuoluniteCa2(H2Si2O7) · H2OOrth.
9.BE.12JaffeiteCa6(Si2O7)(OH)6Trig. 3 : P3
9.BE.15FresnoiteBa2Ti(Si2O7)OTet. 4mm : P4bm
9.BE.17CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.17Hiortdahlite(Na,Ca)2Ca4Zr(Mn,Ti,Fe)(Si2O7)2(F,O)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.17Janhaugite(Na,Ca)3(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(Ti,Zr,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BE.17Låvenite(Na,Ca)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.17NormanditeNaCa(Mn,Fe)(Ti,Nb,Zr)(Si2O7)OFMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.17WöhleriteNaCa2(Zr,Nb)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2 : P21
9.BE.17Hiortdahlite INa4Ca8Zr2(Nb,Mn,Ti,Fe,Mg,Al)2(Si2O7)4O3F5
9.BE.17MarianoiteNa2Ca4(Nb,Zr)2(Si2O7)2(O,F)4Mon. 2 : P21
9.BE.20Mosandrite-(Ce)(Ca3REE)[(H2O)2Ca0.50.5]Ti(Si2O7)2(OH)2(H2O)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.20Nacareniobsite-(Ce)NbNa3Ca3(Ce,REE )(Si2O7)2OF3Mon.
9.BE.22GötzeniteNaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.22RosenbuschiteNa6Ca6Zr3Ti(Si2O7)4O2F6Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.22KochiteNa3Ca2MnZrTi(Si2O7)2OF3Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.23DovyreniteCa6Zr(Si2O7)2(OH)4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.BE.25EricssoniteBaMn2+2Fe3+(Si2O7)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.25NabalamprophylliteNa3(Ba,Na)2Ti3(Si2O7)2O2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m
9.BE.25GrenmariteNa4MnZr3(Si2O7)2O2F2Mon. 2/m : P2/b
9.BE.25SchülleriteBa2Na(Mn,Ca)(Fe3+,Mg,Fe2+)2Ti2(Si2O7)2(O,F)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.25LileyiteBa2(Na,Fe,Ca)3MgTi2(Si2O7)2O2F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.25EmmerichiteBa2Na(Na,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Mg)Ti2(Si2O7)2O2F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.25Fluorbarytolamprophyllite(Ba,Sr)2[(Na,Fe2+)3(Ti,Mg)F2][Ti2(Si2O7)2O2]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.27MurmaniteNa2Ti2(Si2O7)O2 · 2H2OTric.
9.BE.30EpistoliteNa2(Nb,Ti)2(Si2O7)O2 · nH2OTric.
9.BE.32LomonosoviteNa5Ti2(Si2O7)(PO4)O2Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.37SoboleviteNa13Ca2Mn2Ti3(Si2O7)2(PO4)4O3F3Mon. m : Pb
9.BE.40InneliteNa2CaBa4Ti3(Si2O7)2(SO4)2O4Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.42YoshimuraiteBa2Mn2Ti(Si2O7)(PO4)O(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.47PolyphiteNa5(Na4Ca2)Ti2(Si2O7)(PO4)3O2F2Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.50BornemaniteNa6BaTi2Nb(Si2O7)2(PO4)O2(OH)F Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.50ShkatulkaliteNa5(Nb1−xTix)2(Ti1−yMn2+y)[Si2O7]2O2(OH)2·nH2O (x + y = 0.5; n <= 10)Mon. 2/m : P2/m
9.BE.55HejtmaniteBa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2Tric. 1
9.BE.55Bykovaite(Ba,Na,K)2(Na,Ti,Mn)4(Ti,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(H2O,F,OH)2 · 3.5H2OMon. 2/m
9.BE.55Nechelyustovite(Ba,Sr,K)2(Na,Ti,Mn)4(Ti,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(O,H2O,F)2 · 4.5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.60Delindeite(Na,K)2(Ba,Ca)2(Ti,Fe,Al)3(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2 · 2H2OMon.
9.BE.65BusseniteNa2Ba2Fe2+Ti(Si2O7)(CO3)(OH)3FTric. 1 : P1
9.BE.67JinshajiangiteBaNaFe2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2FTric. 1 : P1
9.BE.67PerraultiteBaNaMn2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2FMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.70Karnasurtite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Th)(Ti,Nb)(Al,Fe)(Si2O7)(OH)4 · 3H2OAmor.
9.BE.70Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe3+2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.70Chevkinite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca,Th)4(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe2+,Ti,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.70Polyakovite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)4(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr3+,Fe3+)2(Ti,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.70RengeiteSr4ZrTi4(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.70MatsubaraiteSr4Ti5(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.70Dingdaohengite-(Ce)(Ce,La)4Fe2+(Ti,Fe2+,Mg,Fe2+)2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.70Maoniupingite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,◻)(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Nb)4(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.70Perrierite-(La)(La,Ce,Ca)4(Fe,Mn2+,Mg)Fe3+2(Ti,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.70UM2008-53-SiO:SrTiZrSr4ZrTi4(Si2O7)2O8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.BE.70Hezuolinite(Sr,REE)4Zr(Ti,Fe3+)4(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.80KentrolitePb2Mn3+2(Si2O7)O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcm
9.BE.80MelanotekitePb2Fe3+2(Si2O7)O2Orth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 21
9.BE.87Stavelotite-(La)(La,Nd,Ca)3Mn2+3Cu(Mn3+,Fe3+,Mn4+)26(Si2O7)6O30Trig. 3 : P31
9.BE.90Biraite-(Ce)Ce2Fe2+(Si2O7)(CO3)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.92Cervandonite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Ti,Al)3O2(Si2O7)(As3+O3)(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.BE.95BatisiviteBaV3+8Ti6(Si2O7)O22Tric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Ti)(Si2O7)O2Mon.,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/båvenite(Na,Ca)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/böhleriteNaCa2(Zr,Nb)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2 : P21,Nb)4(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon.,Ca)2Ca4Zr(Mn,Ti,Fe)(Si2O7)2(F,O)4Tric. 1 : P1 1 : P1,Ca)3(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(Ti,Zr,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m · 8H2OTric.,Mn)(Nb,Ti)2[Si2O7](O,F)3 · 3.5H2OOrth.,Ca,H)2Nb2Si2O10(OH,F)2 · H2OOrth. · H2OOrth. · nH2OTet.

Other InformationHide

Fluoresces under electron beam.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hainite-(Y)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Blumrich, J. (1893) Die Phonolithe des Friedländer Bezirkes in Nordböhmen, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 13: 6: 465-495.
Rastsvetaeva, R.K., Pushcharovsky, D.Y, and Atencio, D. (1995) Crystal structure of giannetite. Crystallography Reports 40(4): 574-578.
Johan, Z. and Cech, F. (1989) New data on hainite, Na2Ca4(Ti,Zr,Mn,Fe,Nb,Ta)1.500.50)(Si2O7)2F4 and its crystallochemical relationship with götzenite, Na2Ca5Ti(Si2O7)2F4. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences: Série II: 308: 1237-1242 (in French).
Atencio, D., Coutinho, J.M.V., Ulbrich, M.N.C., Vlach, S.R.F., Rastsvetaeva, R.K., and Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (1999) Hainite from Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 91-98.
Christiansen, C.C., Johnsen, O., and Makovicky, E. (2003) Crystal chemistry of the rosenbuschite group. The Canadian Mineralogist: 41: 1203-1224.
Giester, G., Pertlik, F., and Ulrych, J. (2005) Die Kristallstruktur des Minerals Hainit. Mitteilung der Österreichischen Mineralologischen Gesellschaft: 151: 45. (in German) [Poster abstract]
Sokolova, E. (2006) From structure topology to chemical composition. I. Structural hierarchy and stereochemistry in titanium disilicate minerals. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44: 1273.
Lyalina, L., Zolotarev Jr, A., Selivanova, E., Savchenko, Y., Zozulya, D., Krivovichev, S., and Mikhailova, Y. (2015) Structural characterization and composition of Y-rich hainite from Sakharjok nepheline syenite pegmatite (Kola Peninsula, Russia). Mineralogy and Petrology: 1-9.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C., Eds. (2016) Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, USA. (2016)
Sokolova, E. and Camara, F. (2017) The seidozerite supergroup of TS-block minerals: nomenclature and classification, with change of the following names: rinkite to rinkite-(Ce), mosandrite to mosandrite-(Ce), hainite to hainite-(Y) and innelite-1T to innelite-1A. Mineralogical Magazine: 81 (in press).

Internet Links for Hainite-(Y)Hide

Localities for Hainite-(Y)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Minas Gerais
Atencio, D., Coutinho, J. M. V., Ulbrich, M. N. C., Vlach, S. R. F., Rastsvetaeva, R. K., & Pushcharovsky, D. Y. (1999). Hainite from Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37, 91-98. ; Andrezza Azzi, Daniel Atencio, Marcelo Andrade, Reynaldo Contreira (2018) Crystal-chemistry of Y-poor hainite-(Y) from Poços de Caldas alkaline complex, Minas Gerais, Brazil. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 226
      • Poços de Caldas
ATENCIO, D., COUTINHO, J.M.C., ULBRICH, M.N.C., VLACH, S.R.F., RASTVETAEVA, R.K. & PUSHCHAROVSKY, D.Yu. (1999) Hainite from Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist, 37, 91-98.
Atencio et al (1999) Canadian Mineralogist 37, 91-98
Czech Republic (TL)
  • Liberec Region
    • Jizerské Mtn (Iser Mtn)
Johan, Z. & Cech, F. (1989): New data on hainite, Na2Ca4((Ti,Zr,Mn,Fe,Nb,Ta)1.500.50)(Si2O7)2F4 and its crystallochemical relationship with götzenite, Na2Ca5Ti(Si2O7)2F4. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Série II, 308, 1237-1242 (in French).; Blumrich, J. (1893): Die Phonolithe des Friedländer Bezirkes in Nordböhmen, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Vol. 13, No 6, 465-495
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Most District
      • Želenice
Pazdernik, P.: Compositional variations in the sodalite-bearing nephelinite phonolite from Želenický vrch Hill, North Bohemia. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1997, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 65-79.
  • Kujalleq
    • Narsaq
Lyalina, L., Zolotarev Jr, A., Selivanova, E., Savchenko, Y., Zozulya, D., Krivovichev, S., & Mikhailova, Y. (2015). Structural characterization and composition of Y-rich hainite from Sakharjok nepheline syenite pegmatite (Kola Peninsula, Russia). Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-9.
  • Campania
    • Naples
Melluso, L., Morra, V., Guarino, V., de’Gennaro, R., Franciosi, L., & Grifa, C. (2014). The crystallization of shoshonitic to peralkaline trachyphonolitic magmas in a H 2 O–Cl–F-rich environment at Ischia (Italy), with implications for the feeder system of the Campania Plain volcanoes. Lithos, 210, 242-259
  • Jabal al Gharbi District
    • Gharyan (Gharian)
Lustrino, M., Cucciniello, C., Melluso, L., Tassinari, C. C., dè Gennaro, R., & Serracino, M. (2012). Petrogenesis of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the NW sector of the Gharyan volcanic field, Libya. Lithos, 155, 218-235.
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Zagora Province
Berger, J., Ennih, N., Mercier, J. C., Liégeois, J. P., & Demaiffe, D. (2009). The role of fractional crystallization and late-stage peralkaline melt segregation in the mineralogical evolution of Cenozoic nephelinites/phonolites from Saghro (SE Morocco). Mineralogical magazine, 73(1), 59-82.
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Langesundsfjorden
Christiansen, C.C. & Johnsen, O. (2003): Crystal chemistry of the Rosenbuschite group. Canadian Mineralogist. 41: 1203-1224
Christiansen, C.C. & Johnsen, O. (2003): Crystal chemistry of the Rosenbuschite group. Canadian Mineralogist. 41: 1203-1224; Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240p
Andersen, T., Erambert, M., Larsen, A.O. & Selbekk, R.S. (2012): Petrology of nepheline syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Rift, Norway: Zr and Ti mineral assemblages in miaskitic and agpaitic pegmatites in the Larvik Plutonic Complex. Mineralogia Polonica. 43 (2), 3- 34
  • Murmansk Oblast
Lyalina, L., Zolotarev Jr, A., Selivanova, E., Savchenko, Y., Zozulya, D., Krivovichev, S., & Mikhailova, Y. (2015). Structural characterization and composition of Y-rich hainite from Sakharjok nepheline syenite pegmatite (Kola Peninsula, Russia). Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-9.
矿物 and/or 产地  
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