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Grunerite

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About GruneriteHide

05447580014946383308409.jpg
Emmanuel L. Gruner
Formula:
☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Grunerite is defined as a monoclinic amphibole belong to the magnesium-iron-manganese amphibole subgroup.

It is defined with Fe2+ as the dominant element both in the B and C positions.
Colour:
nd
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
5 - 6
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1853 by Gustav Adolph Kenngott in honor of Emmanuel Ludwig (Louis) Gruner [May 11, 1809 Ittigen, Switzerland - March 26, 1883 Beaucaire, France], professor of chemistry at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne and later chief mining engineer of Poitiers Department following as director of the School of Mines at Saint-Etienne. He became department head of metallurgy of Ecole des Mines in Paris and held several additional posts in government mining offices. Gruner was the first to chemically analyze the mineral which now bears his name.

Some early authors incorrectly spelled the name 'grünerite'.
Amphibole Group. Mg-Fe-Mn-Li Clino-Amphibole Subgroup.

Forms a series with cummingtonite.

The original description of the mineral in 1847 incorrectly determined it to be a pyroxene.



Classification of GruneriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1847
9.DE.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles
14.21.8

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
21 : Silicates of Fe and Mg

Physical Properties of GruneriteHide

Vitreous
Colour:
nd
Streak:
nd
Hardness:
5 - 6 on Mohs scale

Optical Data of GruneriteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.663 - 1.686 nβ = 1.680 - 1.709 nγ = 1.696 - 1.729
2V:
Measured: 90° to 70°, Calculated: 84° to 86°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.033 - 0.043
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v

Chemical Properties of GruneriteHide

Formula:
☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2

Grunerite is defined as a monoclinic amphibole belong to the magnesium-iron-manganese amphibole subgroup.

It is defined with Fe2+ as the dominant element both in the B and C positions.
IMA Formula:
◻Fe2+2Fe2+5Si8O22(OH)2

Crystallography of GruneriteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Setting:
C2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.5642(7) Å, b = 18.393(2) Å, c = 5.3388(3) Å
β = 101.892(3)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.52 : 1 : 0.29
Unit Cell V:
919.01 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Common mineral in medium- to high-grade metamorphosed iron formations. Also occurs as a product of contact metamorphism, and in some blueschist facies metaquartzites.

Type Occurrence of GruneriteHide

Synonyms of GruneriteHide

Other Language Names for GruneriteHide

German:Grunerit
Simplified Chinese:铁闪石
Spanish:Grunerita

Varieties of GruneriteHide

AmositeA fibrous variety of Grunerite. The name has also been used to refer to other asbestiform amphibole materials, such as Cummingtonite.

Relationship of Grunerite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Anthophyllite Root Name☐{X2}{Z5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
Gedrite Root Name☐{X2+2}{Z2+3Z3+2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Orth.
Sodic-ferro-anthophyllite{Na}{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Orth.
Sodic-ferrogedrite{Na}{Fe2+2}{Fe2+3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2Orth.
Sodicanthophyllite{Na}{Mg2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Orth.
Sodicgedrite{Na}{Mg2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2Orth.
Suenoite Root Name☐{X2}{Z5}(Si8O22)(OH)2

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
13 photos of Grunerite associated with MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4
4 photos of Grunerite associated with QuartzSiO2
3 photos of Grunerite associated with SpeculariteFe2O3
1 photo of Grunerite associated with PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
1 photo of Grunerite associated with Proto-ferro-suenoite☐{Mn2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
1 photo of Grunerite associated with FayaliteFe2+2SiO4
1 photo of Grunerite associated with AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
1 photo of Grunerite associated with AnniteKFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
1 photo of Grunerite associated with SideriteFeCO3
1 photo of Grunerite associated with Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DE.Clino-suenoite□{Mn2+2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.05Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Root Name☐{Li2}{Z2+3Z3+2}(Si8O22)(OH,F,Cl)2Mon.
9.DE.05Permanganogrunerite☐{Mn2+2}{Mn2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeite{Na}{Na2}{Mg2Fe3+2Li}(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Ferri-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Mg3Fe3+2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.10Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.10Ferro-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Fe2+4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Fe2+3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Joesmithite{Pb}{Ca2}{Mg3Fe3+2}(Be2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.10Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10CannilloiteCa(Ca2)(Mg4Al)(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.10Fluoro-cannilloite{Ca}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al3Si5O22)(F,OH)2Mon.
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite☐{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Ferro-ferri-hornblende☐Ca2(Fe2+4Fe3+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.15Ferro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.15Ferro-kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2Mon.
9.DE.15Ferro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.15Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.15Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2Mon.
9.DE.15Magnesio-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.15Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.15Sadanagaite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Si5Al3O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.15Fluoro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Fe2+3Fe3+2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.15Potassic-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.15Potassic-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Fe2+3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.15Magnesio-fluoro-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite{Na}{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-chloro-edenite{K}{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(AlSi7O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Cr3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Ferri-kaersutiteNaCa2(Mg3Fe3+Ti)(Al2Si6O22)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Vanadio-pargasiteNaCa2(Mg3+4V)(Al2Si6)O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe2+3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Barroisite☐{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Fe2+3Fe3+2)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Fe2+4(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Mg3Fe3+2)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe2+3Fe3+2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophoriteNa(NaCa)(Fe2+4Fe3+)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite☐{CaNa}{Fe2+3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite ☐{CaNa}{Fe2+4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.20Ferro-katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe2+4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferri-katophoriteNa(CaNa)(Mg4Fe3+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.20Ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Mg3Fe3+2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.20Magnesiotaramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3AlFe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.20Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DE.20Taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Fluoro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DE.20Katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Potassic-fluoro-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2Mon.
9.DE.20Potassic-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Mg4(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Fluoro-katophoriteNa(CaNa)(Mg4Al)(AlSi7O22)F2Mon.
9.DE.20Ferri-fluoro-katophoriteNa(CaNa)(Mg4Fe3+)(AlSi7O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-eckermanniteNaNa2(Fe2+4Al)Si8O22(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.25Ferro-glaucophane◻[Na2][Fe2+3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.25Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.25Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.25Mangano-ferri-eckermannite{Na}{Na2}{Mn2+4Fe3+}Si8O22(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.25Ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Mg2Fe3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.25Magnesio-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe3+2}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25NybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Mangano-mangani-ungarettiiteNaNa2(Mn2+2Mn3+3)(Si8O22)O2Mon.
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøiteNaNa2[(Fe2+3,Mg)Fe3+2](AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite◻{Li2}{Fe2+3Fe3+2}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferri-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Fe3+2](AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Fe2+2Fe3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-fluoro-leakeiteNa(Na2)(Fe2+2Fe3+2Li)(Si8O22)(F)2Mon.
9.DE.25Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistiteNa0.5{Li2}{Fe2+3Fe3+2}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.25Magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22](F,OH)2Mon.
9.DE.25Ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Mg2Fe3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeite[K][Na2][Mg2Fe3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraite{Na}{Na2}{MgMn3+2LiTi4+}Si8O22O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedriziteNaLi2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Mangani-obertiiteNa(Na2)(Mg3Mn3+Ti)(Si8O22)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Fe2+2Fe3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite[K][Na2][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25PedriziteNaLi2(LiMg2Al2)(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-pedriziteNaLi2(Fe2+2Al2Li)Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-fluoro-pedrizite{Na}{Li2}{Fe2Al2Li}(Al2Si6O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiiteNaNa2(Fe2+3Fe3+Ti)Si8O22O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferri-obertiiteNa(Na2)(Mg3Fe3+Ti)(Si8O22)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.21.1OlivineOrth.
14.21.2Ringwoodite(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
14.21.3Wadsleyite(Mg,Fe2+)2(SiO4)Orth.
14.21.4ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.21.5Anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
14.21.6Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
14.21.7 Magnesiocummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
14.21.9MinnesotaiteFe2+3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
14.21.10Chesterite(Mg,Fe)17Si20O54(OH)6Orth.
14.21.11Jimthompsonite(Mg,Fe)5Si6O16(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
14.21.12Clinojimthompsonite(Mg,Fe)5Si6O16(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
14.21.13MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3Iso.
14.21.14Balangeroite(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Mn2+)42Si16O54(OH)40Mon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
This mineral is known to be a respirable carcinogen, and is a common form of asbestos. Exposure to very dusty air or long-term exposure to low level airborne dusts containing fine fibres of chrysotile has been found to cause a high risk of serious lung disease including mesothelioma and lung cancer. Care should be taken working with samples that contain fibrous forms of this mineral, to avoid creating or inhaling dusts. Non-fibrous forms, such as in many amphibolites, are safer to handle, but can still produce potentially carcinogenic respirable fibre when crushed. Appropriate dust masks should be worn if working in areas which have dusts likely to be rich in this mineral. Storage and careful handling of specimens has little or no risk.

Grunerite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for GruneriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Gruner, E.L. (1847) Description d'un minéral nouveau dont la composition correspond à un pyroxène à base de fer. C.R. Acad. Sci.: 24: 794-795.
Kenngott, A. (1853) Das Mohs'sche Mineralsystem dem gegenwärtigen Standpunkt der Wissenschaft germäss bearbeitet. Wien, Gerol & Sohn, p.69.
Lacroix, A. (1886) Propriétés optiques de la grünerite de Collobrières (Var.). Bull Soc. Franc. Mineral.: 9: 40-41.
Finger, L.W. (1969) The crystal structure and cation distribution of a grunerite. Mineralogical Society of America Special Paper 2: 95-100.
Leake, B.E. (1978) Nomenclature of amphiboles. American Mineralogist: 63: 1023-1052.
Uchida, E. (1983) Grunerite from the Shinyama ore deposit, Kamaishi mine, Japan. The Canadian Mineralogist: 21: 517-528.
Hirschmann, M., Evans, B.W., Yang, H. (1994) Composition and temperature dependence of Fe-Mg ordering in cummingtonite-grunerite as determined by X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist: 79: 862-877.
Leake, B.E., Woolley, A.R., Arps, C.E.S., Birch, W.D., Gilbert, M.C., Grice, J.D., Hawthorne, F.C., Kato, A., Kisch, H.J., Krivovichev, V.G., Linthout, K., Laird, J., Mandarino, J.A., Maresch, W.V., Nickel, E.H., Rock, N.M.S., Schumacher, J.C., Smith, D.C., Stephenson, N.C.N, Ungaretti, L., Whittaker, E.J.W., Youzhi, G. (1997) Nomenclature of amphiboles: report of the Subcommittee on Amphiboles of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. The Canadian Mineralogist: 35: 219-246.
Mandarino, J.A. (1998) The Second List of Additions and Corrections to the Glossary of Mineral Species (1995). The Amphibole Group. Mineralogical Record: 29: 169-174.
Boffa Ballaran, T., Angel, R.J., Carpenter, M.A. (2000) High-pressure transformation behaviour of the cummingtonite-grunerite solid solution. European Journal of Mineralogy: 12: 1195-1213.
Boffa Ballaran, T., Carpenter, M.A., Domeneghetti, M.C. (2001) Phase transition and mixing behavior of the cummingtonite-grunerite solid solution. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 28: 87-101.
Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R. (2006) On the classification of amphiboles. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44: 1-21.
Roth, P. (2007) Grunerite. in Minerals first discovered in Switzerland and minerals named after Swiss individuals. Kristallografik Verlag (Achberg Germany): 182-183.
Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R., Harlow, G.E., Maresch, W.V., Martin, R.F., Schumacher, J.C., Welch, M.D. (2012) Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup. American Mineralogist: 97: 2031-2048.

Internet Links for GruneriteHide

Localities for GruneriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
Birch BH Book
Collection of M. Willoughby. Analysis by South Australian Museum.
      • Northern Broken Hill Block
Econ Geol (1993) 88:505-541
  • Northern Territory
    • Central Desert Region
      • Strangways Range
Pigott, G.F., McLennan, R.M. (1984) Exploration Licence 4420 - Sliding Rock Well. Annual Report to the Northern Territory Department of Mines and Energy for the period ending 18th October 1984, Australian Anglo American Limited.
  • Queensland
    • Cloncurry Shire
      • Selwyn District
Vaughan, J.P. (1986) The iron end-member of the pyrosmalite series from the Pegmont lead-zinc deposit, Queensland. Mineralogical Magazine, 50(357), 527-531. Lottermoser, B.G., Ashley, P.M., Munksgaard, N.C. (2008) Biogeochemistry of Pb–Zn gossans, northwest Queensland, Australia: Implications for mineral exploration and mine site rehabilitation. Applied Geochemistry, 23(4), 723-742.
    • McKinlay Shire
      • McKinlay
USGS Open-File Report 2009-1252 Sediment-hosted zinc-lead deposits of the world - Database and grade and tonnage models
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
Australian Jour.Min. v.6, no. 1
  • Tasmania
    • Circular Head municipality
      • Balfour-Temma district
        • Temma
Bottrill, R.S., Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Tasmania Bulletin 73, 254 pages.
Bottrill, R., 2004. Miscellaneous mineral analyses from near Balfour and Temma. Mineral Resources Tasmania Tasmanian Geological Survey Record 2004/06
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
      • Heazlewood district
        • Luina
No reference listed
  • Western Australia
    • Dundas Shire
      • Lake Johnston
Maggie Hays Nickel Mineralization, Lake Johnston, Western Australia; W. Clayton, C. Stott, R.H. Mazzucchelli; CRC LEME 2005
    • Halls Creek Shire
      • Koongie Park Community
Orth, K. (2002), Setting of the Paleoproterozoic Koongie Park Formation and Carbonate Associated Base Metal Mineralisation at Koongie Park Northwestern Australia (thesis), University of Tasmania, November 2002
Steadman, J. A., Large, R. R., Davidson, G. J., Bull, S. W., Thompson, J., Ireland, T. R., & Holden, P. (2014). Paragenesis and composition of ore minerals in the Randalls BIF-hosted gold deposits, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: Implications for the timing of deposit formation and constraints on gold sources. Precambrian Research, 243, 110-132.
      • Mount Monger Goldfield
Steadman, J.A., Large, A.A., Davidson, G.J., Bull, S.W., Thompson, J., Ireland, T.R., Holden, P. (2014), Paragenesis and Composition of Ore Minerals in the Randalls BIF Hosted Gold Deposits Yilgarn Craton Western Australia: implications for timing of deposit formation and constraints in gold source, Precambrian Research, 243, pp110-132, 2014 ; Steadman, J. A., Large, R. R., Davidson, G. J., Bull, S. W., Thompson, J., Ireland, T. R., & Holden, P. (2014). Paragenesis and composition of ore minerals in the Randalls BIF-hosted gold deposits, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: Implications for the timing of deposit formation and constraints on gold sources. Precambrian Research, 243, 110-132.
    • Kondinin Shire
Marston, R.J. (1984) Nickel Mineralization in Western Australia. Mineral Resources Bulletin 14, Geological Survey of Western Australia, 291p. 
Marston, R.J. (1984) Nickel Mineralization in Western Australia. Mineral Resources Bulletin 14, Geological Survey of Western Australia, 291p. 
Marston, R.J. (1984) Nickel Mineralization in Western Australia. Mineral Resources Bulletin 14, Geological Survey of Western Australia, 291p. 
    • Laverton Shire
      • Laverton
        • Windarra Ni Mine (Mount Windarra; Windarra; Discovery gossan; Poseidon deposit)
http://www.poseidonresources.com/laverton-project
    • Leonora Shire
      • Leonora
Williams, P.R. (1998), Geology Structure and Gold Resources of the Leonora 1:100 000 Sheet W.A., Record, Australian geological Survey Organisation/ Department of Primary Industries and Energy, 1998
    • Meekatharra Shire
      • Gabanintha
        • Quinns gold area
Hassan, L. Y. (2017). Alteration Associated with the Austin-Quinns VMS Prospects, Northern Yilgarn Craton. Geological Survey of Western Australia, Record 2017/10, 61p.
      • Peak Hill Goldfield
Pirajno, F., Occhipini, S.A. (1998), Geology of the Bryah, GSWA, 1998
    • Menzies Shire
      • Plumridge Lakes Nature Reserve
        • Tropicana Gold Mine
Spaggiari, G.V., Kirkland, C.L., Pawley, M.J., Smithies, R.H., Wingate, M.T.D., Doyle, M.C., Blenkinsop, T.G., Clark, C., Oorschot, C.W., Fox, L.J., Savage, J. (2011): The Geology of the East Albany-Fraser Orogen - a field guide, Geological Society of Western Australia, Department of Mines and Petroleum, State Government of Western Australia, Record 2011/23.
    • Morawa Shire
www.portergeo.com and www.morawa.gov.au- The first quoting Western Mining and 2nd Sinosteel Midwest the company presently operating the mine.
    • Mount Magnet Shire
      • Mount Magnet
        • Boogardie Goldfield
Gole, M. J. (1981). Archean banded iron-formations, Yilgarn Block, western Australia. Economic Geology, 76(7), 1954-1974.
    • Port Hedland Shire
      • Kavir Downs Station
Fetherston J.M, Stocklmayer, S.M., Stocklmayer, V.C., (2013) Gemstones of Western Australia. Geological Survey of Western Australia, Mineral Resources Bulletin 25, 306p.
    • Sandstone Shire
      • Youangarra Goldfield (Curran's Find)
Ferguson, K.M. (1999) Lead, Zinc and Silver Deposits of Western Australia. Geological Survey of Western Australia, Mineral Resources Bulletin 15.
    • Wongan-Ballidu Shire
      • Wongan Hills
Ferguson, K.M. (1999) Lead, Zinc and Silver Deposits of Western Australia. Geological Survey of Western Australia, Mineral Resources Bulletin 15.
    • Yalgoo Shire
      • Retaliation Goldfield
        • Mount Gibson Conservation Reserve
Lascelles, D.F. (2006) The Mount Gibson Banded Iron Formation-Hosted Magnetite Deposit: Two Distinct Processes for the Origin of High Grade Iron Ore. Economic Geology, 101(3) 651-666.
    • Yilgarn Shire
      • Forrestania Goldfield (Mount Holland)
Economic Geology (1997) 92:181-209.
      • Marvel Loch
Meinert, 1992. Skarns & Skarn Deposits; Pasi Eilu (2003) Exploration for orogenic gold deposits. Fennoscandian Exploration and Mining 2003 Rovaniemi, Finland December 2003; Gole, M. J. (1981). Archean banded iron-formations, Yilgarn Block, western Australia. Economic Geology, 76(7), 1954-1974.
      • Southern Cross
Pasi Eilu (2003) Exploration for orogenic gold deposits. Fennoscandian Exploration and Mining 2003 Rovaniemi, Finland December 2003
Ore Petrology Chemistry and Timing of Electrum in the Archaean Hypozonal Transvaal Lode Gold Deposit, Western Australia; SG Hagemann, PE Brown, J Ridley, P Stern, J Fournelle; Economic Geology, V93May 1998, pp 271-291
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Klagenfurt-Land District
      • Moosburg
        • Stallhofen
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
Bolivia
 
  • Santa Cruz
    • Cerro Pelado
Rivas, S. and Ahlfeld, F. (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes (Santa Cruz)
Brazil
 
  • Bahia
    • Boquira
Misi, A., Iyer, S. S., Tassinari, C. C., Kyle, J. R., Coelho, C. E., Franca-Rocha, W. J., ... & Carvalho, I. G. (1999). Geological and isotopic constraints on the metallogenic evolution of the Proterozoic sediment-hosted Pb-Zn (Ag) deposits of Brazil. Gondwana Research, 2(1), 47-65
  • Goiás
    • Crixás gold field
      • Crixás
        • Crixás belt
Jost, H., and de Tarso Ferro de Oliveira Fortes, P. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 358-376.
  • Pará
    • Carajás mineral province
      • Canaã dos Carajás
Grainger, C.J., Groves, D.I., Tallarico, F.H.B., and Fletcher, I.R. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 451-489.
      • Marabá
Monteiro, L.V.S., Xavier, R.P., de Carvalho, E.R., Hitzman, M.W., Johnson, C.A., de Souza Filho, C.R., and Torresi, I. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 129-159.; Villas, R.N., and Dias Santos, M. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 300-331
      • Parauapebas
        • Alemão Cu deposit
Dreher, A.M., Xavier, R.P., Taylor, B.E., and Martini, S.L. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 161-184.; Tallarico, F. H. B., de Oliveira, C. G., & Figueiredo, B. R. (2008). The Igarapé Bahiacu-Au mineralization, Carajás Province. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 30(2).
Grainger, C.J., Groves, D.I., Tallarico, F.H.B., and Fletcher, I.R. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 451-489.
  • Paraíba
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Catingueira
Souza Neto, J.A., Legrand, J.M., Volfinger, M., Pascal, M.-L., and Sonnet, P. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 185-205.
Cameroon
 
  • North-West Region
    • Nkambe
Tetsopgang, S., Koyanagi, J., Enami, M., and Kihara, K. (2003): Mineralogical Magazine 67(3), 509-516.
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
Bernier, Louis R., 1990, Vanadiferous Zincian-Chromian Hercynite in a Metamorphosed Basalt-Hosted Alteration Zone, Atik Lake, Manitoba, Canadian Mineralogist (1990) v. 28:57-50.; Richardson, D.J., Ostry, G., Weber, W., Fogwill, W.D. (1996) Gold deposits of Manitoba, Manitoba Energy and Mines, Economic Geology Report 86-1 (2nd Edition), 114 p.
    • Thompson Nickel Belt
      • Moab-Setting Lakes area
Canadian Mineralogist 31, 695; Chen, Yuan, "Precious-metal Mineralization And Sulfide-silicate Relationships In Some Canadian Nickel-copper Sulfide Deposits: Thompson Mine, Manitoba; Sudbury, Ontario; Dundonald Beach, Ontario" (1993). Digitized Theses. Paper 2231.; Pan, Y., Fleet, M. E., Barnett, R. L., & Chen, Y. (1993). Pyrosmalite in Canadian Precambrian sulfide deposits; mineral chemistry, petrogenesis and significance. The Canadian Mineralogist, 31(3), 695-710.
Phillips, K. A. (1979) Minerals of Manitoba: Volume II: Metallic minerals. Manitoba Mineral Resources Division Educational Series 78/2.
  • New Brunswick
    • Gloucester Co.
      • Bathurst Parish
        • Bathurst Mining Camp
Peter, J. M., & Goodfellow, W. D. (1996). Mineralogy, bulk and rare earth element geochemistry of massive sulphide-associated hydrothermal sediments of the Brunswick Horizon, Bathurst Mining Camp, New Brunswick. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 33(2), 252-283.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
Maggie Wilson
KLEIN, C. (1966): Mineralogy and petrology of the metamorphosed Wabush iron formation, southwest Labrador. Journal of Petrology 7, 246-305.
www.geosurv.gov.nf.ca/gacmap/LAB2.html.
  • Nunavut
P.B. Tomascak, M.A. Wise, P. Cerni, and D.L. Trueman (1994) Reconnaissance studies of four pegmatite populations in the Northwest Territories. pp 33-62. in W.D. Sinclair and D.G. Richardson eds. Studies Of Rare-Metal Deposits In The Northwest Territories. Geological Survey Of Canada Bulletin 475
    • Kitikmeot Region
Meinert, 1992. Skarns & Skarn Deposits; Econ Geol (1994) 89:1217-1227; Econ Geol (1997) 92:181-209
    • Kivalliq Region
      • Baker Lake
Thurston, P. C., Kontak, D. J., & Côté-Mantha, O. (2014). Interpretations and Implications of Preliminary LA ICP-MS Analysis of Chert for the Origin of Geochemical Signatures in Banded Iron-formations (BIFs) from the Meadowbank Gold Deposit, Western Churchill Province, Nunavut. Geological Survey of Canada.
  • Ontario
    • Algoma District
      • Elliot Lake area
        • Gunterman Township
Robertson, J.A. (1976) The Blind River Uranium Deposits: the ores and their setting. (Ontario Division of Mines, Miscellaneous paper 65)
      • McMurray and Chabanel Townships
from photos posted to Mindat - Maggie Wilson
      • McMurray Township
    • Kenora District
http://www.geologyontario.mndm.gov.on.ca/mndmfiles/afri/data/imaging/temp/2_57819/2_57819_10_DiamondDrillingReport_AkowLake2016.pdf
      • Skinner Lake Area
Kinross Gold Corporation, Technical Report (2003); Econ Geol (1997) 92:181-209; 55TH INSTITUTE ON LAKE SUPERIOR GEOLOGY (2009) PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 55 p. 74
    • Sudbury District
      • Hutton Township
Markland, G.D., (UNK), The Geology of the Moose Mountain Mine and its Application to Mining and Milling
      • Levack Township
Springer (1989) Canadian Mineralogist 27, 311-313
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Val d'Or
Sabina, A.P. (2003): Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Kirkland Lake - Rouyn-Noranda - Val d'Or, Ontario & Quebec. GSC Misc. Report 77, 197p.
      • Rouyn-Noranda TE
Galley, A.G., Jonasson, I.R., and Watkinson, D.H. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 619-637.
    • Nord-du-Québec
      • Nunavik
W. W. Moorhouse and N. Shepherd (1963): Hypersthene and cummingtonite from Payne Bay, New Quebec. Can. Mineral. 7, 527-532
China
 
  • Hebei
    • Qinhuangdao
      • Qinglong County
USGS Open-File Report 03-220
  • Heilongjiang
    • Jiamusi
      • Tangyuan Co.
Wei Juying and Zeng Qiang (1996): Geology & Geography 32(4), 472-480.
  • Hubei
    • Huangshi
      • Daye Co.
Yuanming Pan and Ping Dong (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 15, 177-242.
Yuanming Pan and Ping Dong (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 15, 177-242.
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Bayannur City (Bayannao'er Prefecture)
      • Urad Rear Banner (Wulate Houqi)
Xinming Jiang (1983): Mineral Deposits 2(4), 1-10
    • Chifeng City (Ulanhad League; Chifeng Prefecture)
      • Bairin Left Banner (Balin Zuoqi)
Yiming Zhao and Daxin Li (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(4), 345-359
    • Hinggan League (Xing'an Prefecture)
      • Tuquan County
Xixin Zhang (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(11), 49-51
    • Xilingol League (Xilinguole Prefecture)
      • Plain Blue Banner (Zhenglan Co.)
Yiming Zhao, Daxin Li, Wenming Chen, Chengyou Feng, and Wenhong Sun (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(2), 113-122
  • Jilin
    • Siping
      • Gongzhuling
http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of03-220/DATABASE/lode_deposits.txt
  • Shanxi
    • Taiyuan
      • Loufan Co.
Yang Ding, Jiyue Xue, and Gufeng Luo (1998): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 17(2), 142-147
    • Xinzhou
      • Wutai Co.
http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of03-220/DATABASE/lode_deposits.txt
  • Yunnan
    • Baoshan
      • Longyang District
Hua Huang, Changqing Zhang, Yunman Zhou, Bo Liu, Yongfu Xie, Yuntao Dong, Chunhai Yang, and Wenwei Dong (2014): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 33(1), 127-148
    • Dêqên Autonomous Prefecture (Deqin Autonomous Prefecture; Diqing Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Shangri-La County (Xianggelila Co.; Zhongdian Co.)
Tao Ren, Zhong Hong, Xingchun Zhang, Runsheng Han, and Meijuan Ma (2013): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 33(3), 278-286
Czech Republic
 
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Karlovy Vary District
      • Boží Dar
Josef Vajdak (2002) Mineral News, 18, #1, 6.
  • Olomouc Region
    • Jeseník District
      • Javorník
        • Horní Hoštice
Zimák, J.: Mineralogie železných rud na historickém ložisku Horní Hoštice v Rychlebských horách (Česká republika). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2008, vol. 16, 2, 238-242.
  • South Moravian Region
    • Brno-Country District
      • Tišnov
Víšková E., Fojt, B., Hrazdil, V., Houzar, S., (2013): Mineralogie magnetit-grunerit-sideritového zrudnění z Radoškova (jednotka Bílého potoka, svratecká klenba, moravikum). Acta Musei Moraviae, Sci. geol., 98, 2, 39–50.
Denmark
 
  • Greenland
    • Sermersooq
      • Nuuk (Godthåb)
Peter W. Uitterdijk Appel (1986) Gahnite in an Archaean Iron-Formation, West Greenland. Mineralogical Magazine 50:175-177.
Finland
 
  • Lapland
    • Sodankylä
      • Kevitsansarvi (Keivitsansarvi)
Le Vaillant, M., Barnes, S. J., Fiorentini, M. L., Santaguida, F., & Törmänen, T. (2016). Effects of hydrous alteration on the distribution of base metals and platinum group elements within the Kevitsa magmatic nickel sulphide deposit. Ore Geology Reviews, 72, 128-148.
  • North Karelia
Hytönen,K. (1999): Suomen Mineraalit. Geologian tutkimuskeskus. Erillisjulkaisu, Jyväskylä, 399 pp (p.346)
  • South Ostrobothnia
    • Seinäjoki-Lapua
Mancini, F., Alviola, R., Marshall, B., Satoh, H., & Papunen, H. (2000). The manganese silicate rocks of the early Proterozoic Vittinki group, southwestern Finland: Metamorphic grade and genetic interpretations. The Canadian Mineralogist, 38(5), 1103-1124.
  • Southwest Finland
    • Salo
      • Suomusjärvi
Niskanen, Maria (2014). Salitun felsisten juonten mineraalikoostumus ja evoluutio. Pro Gradu-tutkielma (2014). Geotieteiden ja Maantieteen Laitos Helsingin Yliopisto.gedrite
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Morbihan
      • Groix Island
        • Primiture
Chauris, L. (2014): Minéraux de Bretagne, Les Editions du Piat, 275.
  • New Caledonia
    • Northern Province
      • Diahot River Valley
Briggs, R. M. (1975). Structure, metamorphism and mineral deposits in the Diahot region, northern New Caledonia. Thesis (PhD-Geology), University of Auckland, 1975
  • Occitanie
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
      • Argelès-Gazost
        • Pierrefitte
Mineralogical Magazine 1931 22 : 477-481
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Collobrières
Mineralogical Magazine 1931 22 : 477-481
G. MARI (1979) : Mines et minéraux de la Provence cristalline (Maures.Esterel.Tanneron). Ed. SERRES.
      • Les Mayons
G. MARI (1979) : Mines et minéraux de la Provence cristalline (Maures.Esterel.Tanneron). Ed. SERRES.(in French)
Germany
 
  • Saxony
    • Bautzen District
      • Weißenberg
        • Döbschütz
          • Arnsdorf-Melaune Quarry
Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2012): Fayalit, Cristobalit, Tridymit und Grunerit aus dem Königshainer Granit, Lausitz. Aufschluss, 63 (6), 301-307.
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Schwarzenberg
Lefebvre, M. G., Romer, R. L., Glodny, J., & Roscher, M. (2017) Two stages of skarn formation in the Hämmerlein tin-skarn deposit, western Erzgebirge, Germany. Mineral Resources to Discover - 14th SGA Biennial Meeting 2017, Volume 4 pp 1305-1308
Hungary
 
  • Fejér County
    • Sukoró
Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
India
 
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Chittoor District
      • Kolar Gold Fields
        • South Schist Belt
Econ Geol (1994) 89:1552-1566
  • Karnataka
    • Chikkamagaluru District
Econ Geol. (1995) 90:2040-2057
  • Rajasthan
    • Jaipur district
      • Sikar District
        • Khetri
Baidya, A. S., Sen, A., & Pal, D. C. (2018). Textures and compositions of cobalt pentlandite and cobaltian mackinawite from the Madan-Kudan copper deposit, Khetri Copper Belt, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Earth System Science, 127(4), 56.
    • Jhunjhunu District
Baidya, A. S., Sen, A., & Pal, D. C. (2018). Textures and compositions of cobalt pentlandite and cobaltian mackinawite from the Madan-Kudan copper deposit, Khetri Copper Belt, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Earth System Science, 127(4), 56.
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Salem District
      • Namakkal
        • Nainamalai Adivaram
N. Subba Reddy, et al (1982) Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Earth and Planetary Sciences, 91, 55-63.
    • Thiruvannaamalai district
N. Subba Reddy, and A. N. Sashidhar (1989) Mineralogy and chemistry of banded iron formations (BIF) of Tiruvannamaiai area, Tamil Nadu. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Earth and Planetary Sciences, 98, 167-172.
Japan
 
  • Fukushima Prefecture
    • Date District
      • Kawamata
        • Iizaka Village (Iisaka)
Excalibur Mineral company specimens
  • Iwate Prefecture
    • Kamaishi City
No reference listed
Uchida, E. (1983) Grunerite from the Shinyama ore deposit, Kamaishi mine, Japan. Canadian Mineralogist, 21, 517-528.
  • Mie Prefecture
    • Nabari City
奥村滋. (1986). Weathering process of Nabari gabbroic body.(2) Congruent dissolution of plagioclase. 岩石鉱物鉱床学会誌, 81(3), 116-128.
  • Miyazaki Prefecture
    • Nishiusuki District
      • Hinokage
Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Oita Prefecture
    • Bungo-Ono City
Masutomi Museum specimens
  • Shiga Prefecture
    • Konan City
      • Ishibe
Masutomi Museum specimens (Kyoto); Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
Kazakhstan
 
  • Aktobe Region
    • Kargaly
Bespaev H.A., Uzhkenov B.S., Aliaskarov S.A., Egembaev K.M. (Almaty, 1999) Gemstones of Kazakhstan, Reference book. Volume 1. Deposits and occurrences of precious and semiprecious stones.
Madagascar
 
  • Betsiboka
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Mauritania
 
  • Inchiri Region
    • Akjoujt (Akjout; Fort Repoux)
Denver Region Exploration Geologists Society October 6, 2008 Technical Presentation Alteration and Mineralization at the Guelb Moghrein Magnetite-Copper-Gold-Cobalt Deposit, Akjoujt, Mauritania. Michael J. Kirschbaum and Murray Hitzman. ; Mineralium Deposita (2006) 41:68-81
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Dâures
      • Sandamap North Farm 115 (Sandamab)
Steven, N.M., Armstrong, R.A., Moore, J.M. (1993): The Sandamap Noord gold prospect, central Namibia: discovery of a new style of turbidite-hosted gold mineralization. International Geology Review 35, 840-854.
New Zealand
 
  • Waikato Region
    • Taupo District
      • Lake Taupo
Collection of RJ Martin
Janeczek, I. (1989): Manganoan fayalite and products of its alteration from the Strzegom pegnatites, Poland. Mineral. Maq. 53,315-32
Martin, R.J., (2016) Alteration of gas phase minerals in the fayalite bearing rhyolites of New Zealand. Annual Seminar of the Joint Mineralogical Societies of Australasia.
Norway
 
  • Nordland
    • Hemnes
      • Bleikvasslia
Rosenberg, J.L., Spry, P.G., Jacobson, C.E., and Vokes, F.M. (2000): The effects of sulfidation and oxidation during metamorphism on compositionally varied rocks adjacent to the Bleikvassli Zn-Pb-(Cu) deposit, Nordland, Norway. Mineralium Deposita 35, 714-726.
    • Vefsn
      • Husvika
Geological Survey of Norway. The Ore Database. Deposit Area 1824 - 033. Husvika
  • Trøndelag
    • Meldal
Jørgensen, L. B. & Sagvold, E. B. (2001): Geologiske severdigheter og mineralforekomster i Løkkenfeltet. Orkla Industrimuseum 42p: Nordrum, F.S. (2002): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2001-2002. STEIN 29 (2): 4-10
    • Oppdal
      • Vinstradalen
Witsø, T. (2005): Mineraler i Vinstradalen, Oppdal. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 30: 72-73
Portugal
 
  • Vila Real
Nuno Bento Sousa.
      • Campeã
Nuno Bento Sousa.
Romania
 
  • Suceava
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Belgorod Oblast
    • Kursk Magnetic Anomaly group
http://elibrary.lt/resursai/Uzsienio%20leidiniai/Voronezh/heol/2002-01/heol0201_10.pdf
  • Crimea
    • Alushta
Alexander I. Tischenko (1996). Minerals of the Crimea. - World of stones, 1996, #9, p.9-18.
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Olenegorsk
Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Polyarnyy
      • Greater Eastern Litsa ore field
Ivanyuk, G.Y., and Goryainov, P.M. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 670-680.
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Kostomuksha City District
      • Kostomuksha Fe deposit
Kuleshevich, L.V., and Gor’kovets, V.Y. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(7), 599-608.
    • Louhi District
Safonov, Y. G., Volkov, A. V., Vol’fson, A. A., Genkin, A. D., Krylova, T. L., & Chugaev, A. V. (2003). The Maisk Quartz Gold Deposit (Northern Karelia): Geological, Mineralogical, and Geochemical Studies and Some Genetic Problems. Geol. Rudn. Mestorozhd, 45(5), 429-451.
    • Prääsä District
Ivashchenko, V. I., Bushmin, S. A., Ruchyev, A. M., Kornakov, A. S., Bogomolov, E. S., Savva, E. V., ... & Frolov, P. V. (2018, June). First Evidence of the Archean Age of Orogenic Gold of the Russian Part of the Karelian Craton (Fennoscandian Shield): Sm–Nd Mineral Isochron for Gold-Bearing Metasomatites of the Novye Peski Deposit. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 480, No. 2, pp. 804-809). Pleiades Publishing.
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Poltár District
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
  • Bratislava Region
    • Pezinok District
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
South Africa
 
  • Gauteng
    • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
Minerals of South Africa; Rocks & Minerals 83:5 pp 410-421
  • Limpopo
    • Capricorn District
      • Lepele-Nkumpi Municipality
MIYANO, T. and. BEUKES, J. (1997): Mineralogy and Petrology of the Contact Metamorphosed Amphibole Asbestos-bearing Penge Iron Formation, Eastern Transvaal, South Africa.- Journal of Petrology, Vol. 38 , n° 5, pp 651–676.
      • Pietersburg greenstone belt
du Plessis, G., Jonck, G.J., and Kruger, R. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 362-370.
    • Sekhukhune District
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 211 pp;
    • Waterberg District
      • Lephalale
        • Onverwacht
du Plessis, G., Jonck, G.J., and Kruger, R. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 362-370.
      • Thabazimbi
Basson, I. J., & Koegelenberg, C. (2017). Structural controls on Fe mineralization at Thabazimbi mine, South Africa. Ore Geology Reviews, 80, 1056-1071.
  • Northern Cape
    • John Taolo Gaetsewe
      • Gamagara
        • Kathu
          • Sishen
Siemes, H. (2013). Microstructure and Crystallographic Preferred Orientation (CPO) of Hematite Ores from the Sishen Mine, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Geology, 116(1), 79-100.
    • Namakwa
Minerals of South Africa
www.portergeo.com.au/database/mineinfo.asp?mineid=mn017
Spain
 
  • Asturias
    • Ibias
Econ Geol (1996) 91:1292-1297
Sweden
 
  • Dalarna County
    • Hedemora
    • Smedjebacken
      • Väster Silvberg
Jansson, N. F., Erismann, F., Lundstam, E., & Allen, R. L. (2013). Evolution of the paleoproterozoic volcanic-limestone-hydrothermal sediment succession and Zn-Pb-Ag and iron oxide deposits at Stollberg, Bergslagen Region, Sweden. Economic Geology, 108(2), 309-335.
  • Gävleborg County
    • Ljusdal
      • Los
Stenberg, T. (2002): Los den 7-8 september 2002- berättelser från mineralljakt och viltsafari. Berg & Mineral (Stockholms Amatørgeologiska Sällskap), 12 (nr 37), 7-13
  • Örebro County
    • Hällefors
      • Grythyttan
Sundius, N. (1924) Zur Kenntnis der monoklinen Ca-armen Amphibole (Grünerit-Cummingtonit-Reihe). Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 46: 154-167
    • Ljusnarsberg
  • Södermanland County
    • Nyköping
      • Tunaberg
Sundius, N. (1932) Uber den sogenannten Eisenanthophyllit der Eulysite. Årsbok, Sveriges Geol. Undersökning, vol. 26, no. 2 [M.A. 6-118].; Henry, N.F.M. (1935) Some data on the iron-rich hypersthenes. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 24, n° 151, 221-226.
  • Västerbotten County
    • Storuman
      • Pauträsk
Johan Söderhielm, company geologist for Dragon information to Aksel Österlöf 19.09.2012
  • Västmanland County
    • Skinnskatteberg
      • Riddarhyttan
No reference listed
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Just
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
  • Scotland
    • Highland
      • Glenelg
        • Ratagain Intrusion
Henry, N.F.M. (1935) Some data on the iron-rich hypersthenes. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 24, n° 151, 221-226.; Poldervaart, A. (1947) The relationship of orthopyroxene to pigeonite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 28, n° 198, 168, anal. 18.; Livingstone, A. and Macpherson, H.G. (1983) Fifth supplementary list of British minerals (Scottish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 47, n° 342, 99-105.
Paul Render
      • Loch Duich
Paul Render
      • Lochalsh
        • Dornie
Paul Render
          • Keppoch
Paul Render
Ukraine
 
  • Dnepropetrovsk Oblast
Baranov, P., Shevchenko, S., Heflik, W., Natkaniec-Nowak, L., & Dumanska-Slowik, M. (2009). Jaspilite—the gemstone of Ukraine. The journal of gemmology and proceedings of the Gemmological Association of Great Britain, 31(5), 163.
  • Kirovohrad Oblast
    • Central Ukrainian Uranium Province
Cuney, M., Emetz, A., Mercadier, J., Mykchaylov, V., Shunko, V., & Yuslenko, A. (2012). Uranium deposits associated with Na-metasomatism from central Ukraine: a review of some of the major deposits and genetic constraints. Ore Geology Reviews, 44, 82-106.
  • Zhytomyr Oblast
Esipchuk K. (2001) Mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of the Korosten gabbro-anorthosite-rapakivi granite pluton (Ukraine) in Abstracts – GEODE field workshop 8-12th July 2001 on ilmenite deposits in the Rogaland anorthosite province, S. Norway.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Graham Co.
      • Aravaipa Mining District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 240.
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Bradshaw Mts (Bradshaw Range)
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 91.
  • California
    • Mendocino Co.
      • Coastal Range
        • Laytonville
Chesterman, C.W. (1966b), Mineralogy of the Laytonville quarry, Mendocino County, California, in: Geology of Northern California: California Division Mines & Geol. Bulletin 190: 506; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 395.; Wood, R. W. (1979) The iron-rich blueschist facies minerals: 2. Howieite. Mineralogical Magazine 43:363-370.; Robert Muir Wood (1982) The Laytonville Quarry (Mendocino County California) Exotic Block: Iron-rich Blueschist-Facies Subduction-Zone Metamorphism. Mineralogical Magazine 45:87-99.
    • San Benito Co.
Wood, R. W. (1979) The iron-rich blueschist facies minerals: 2. Howieite. Mineralogical Magazine 43:363-370.
    • Sonoma Co.
      • Coast Range
        • Cazadero
Wood, R. W. (1979) The iron-rich blueschist facies minerals: 2. Howieite. Mineralogical Magazine 43:363-370.
  • Colorado
    • Jefferson Co.
      • Ralston Buttes Mining District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
  • Iowa
    • Sioux Co.
Windom, K. E., Seifert, K. E., & Anderson, R. R. (1991). Studies of the Precambrian geology of Iowa: Part 1. The Otter Creek layered igneous complex. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS, 98(4), 170-177.
  • Maine
    • Waldo Co.
      • Palermo
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, Vol. 1., p.178.
  • Massachusetts
    • Essex Co.
Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
P Cristofono collection 2009
Bozhilov, K. N. & Evans, B. W., 2001. Ferroanthophyllite in Rockport grunerite: A transmission electron microscopy study.(AmMin 86(10):1252-1260.); Januzzi, R.E. and Seaman, David M. (1976) Mineral Localities Of Connecticut and Southern New York State and Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
Palache, Charles (1950): Fayalite at Rockport, Massachusetts. (American Mineralogist 35:877-881).
    • Hampshire Co.
      • Cummington
American Mineralogist 38:864
Harvard Museum of Natural History, no.130922
      • Plainfield
Peter Cristofono collection
  • Michigan
    • Baraga Co.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Imperial Heights
Rocks & Min.: 58:108.
Rocks & Min.: 58:108.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Dickinson Co.
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Randville
Rocks & Min.:58:108.
www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Crystal Falls
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
      • Champion
Rocks & Min.:58:111 & 61:328.
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Greenwood
Rocks & Min.:58:112.
      • Humboldt Township
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Ishpeming
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Michigamme
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Rocks & Min.: 58:112.
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Negaunee
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Dave Maietta
      • Republic
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Minnesota
    • Crow Wing Co.
      • Cuyuna North Range
USGS Prof Paper 407
USGS Prof Paper 407
USGS Prof Paper 407
    • St. Louis Co.
      • Mesabi Range
        • Babbitt
Ross, Malcolm et al. (2007): The search for asbestos within the Peter Mitchell Taconite iron ore mine, near Babbitt, Regulatory Toxicology and PharmacologyVolume 52, Issue 1, Supplement 1, October 2008, Pages S43-S50
55TH INSTITUTE ON LAKE SUPERIOR GEOLOGY (2009) PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 55 p. 70-71
  • Missouri
    • Washington Co.
Sherwood, M. D., & Williams, G. A. (1998). Missouri mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 73(2), 98-117.
  • Montana
    • Madison Co.
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
    • Park Co.
      • Crevasse Mining District (Crevice Mining District; Jardine Mining District)
Econ Geol (1997) 92:181-209
  • New Hampshire
    • Carroll Co.
      • Jackson
www.bates.edu/acad/depts/geology/jcreasy.WM.html.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Cianciulli, J. (2004), Grunerite now added to the Franklin-Sterling Hill mineral list, Min. News: 20(10): 1-3.
    • Alleghany Co.
      • Sparta
        • Bald Knob
Brannock,K.G,1971,Minerals of the Spinel Group from Alleghany County,North Carolina,pg 43
    • Iredell Co.
      • Statesville
U.S Bureau of Mines/Spatial Data from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System(Mas/Mils)CD-ROM,Sep,1995
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer Mining District
        • Custer
          • Beecher Lode
SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"; Redden, Jack Allison (1959) Beryl deposits of the Beecher No.3 Black Diamond pegmatite, Custer County, South Dakota. USGS Bulletin: 1072-
      • Unorganized mining district [1]
USGS Prof Paper 297F
    • Lawrence Co.
      • Galena Mining District
        • Roubaix
SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
      • Lead Mining District
        • Lead
P Haas collection
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone Mining District
        • Keystone
Am Min 73:3-4 pp 324-337
  • Vermont
    • Rutland Co.
      • Shrewsbury
Eby, G. N. and McHone, J. G. (1997) Plutonic and hypabyssal intrusions of the Early Cretaceous Cuttingsville Complex, Vermont.
  • Virginia
    • Albemarle Co.
      • North Garden
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
  • Wisconsin
http://wisconsingeologicalsurvey.org/Mineral%20Index/Minerals/grunerite.htm Laybourn, D.P., 1979, Geology and Metamorphism of the Ironwood Iron Formation, Gogebic Range, Wi., Unpub. M.S. Thesis, U of M - Duluth, 223 p.
Cordua, W.S. (1998) Minerals of Wisconsin. Rocks and Minerals: 73(6): 378-398.
      • Gogebic Range
Laybourn, D.P., 1979, Geology and Metamorphism of the Ironwood Iron Formation, Gogebic Range, Wi., Unpub. M.S. Thesis, U of M - Duluth, 223 p.
        • Mount Whittlesey
R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
    • Florence Co.
      • Menominee Range
Dutton, Carl, (1971) Geology of the Florence Area, Wisconsin and Michigan: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 633, 54 p. and 8 maps.
Cordua, W.S., 1998, "Minerals of Wisconsin", Rocks and Minerals vol. 73 #6, p. 378 - 399.
    • Jackson Co.
Cordua, W.S., 1998, "Minerals of Wisconsin", Rocks and Minerals: 73(6): 378 - 399
    • Marinette Co.
Hollister, V. & M. Cummings (1982) A summary of the Duval massive sulfide deposit, Marinette County, Wisconsin: Geoscience Wisconsin:6: 11-20
    • Rusk Co.
      • Ladysmith-Rhinelander Metavolcanic Complex
May, E. (1996) Eisenbrey: a structurally complex Proterozoic copper-zinc massive sulfide deposit, Rusk County, Wisconsin: in Berge, G. L., Ed., 1996, Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of northern Wisconsin: A commemorative volume: Institute on Lake Superior Geology Proceedings, 42nd Annual Meeting, Cable, WI, v. 42, part 2: 107-128.
  • Wyoming
    • Fremont Co.
      • South Pass-Atlantic City Mining District
        • Atlantic City
Rocks & Minerals 76:386
 
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