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Graphite

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About GraphiteHide

Formula:
C
As a Commodity:
Colour:
Iron black to steel-grey
Lustre:
Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
1 - 2
Specific Gravity:
2.09 - 2.23
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Name:
Named "plumbago" in 1739 by Magnus von Bromell, but in a different sense than previous authors such as Agricola and Conrad Gesner. Also called "molybdaena", but "molybdaena" was shown to represent two species, molybdenite and graphite - as known today, in 1781 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Named graphite in 1789 by Abraham Gottlob Werner from the Greek "graphein", "to write".
Graphite usually occurs in flakes in metamorphosed rocks rich in carbon, but it can also be found in veins and in pegmatites. Where large deposits are found it is mined and used as an industrial lubricant and for 'lead' in pencils. The crystallinity depends on the temperature of the formation and the grade of metamorphism.


Classification of GraphiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
1.CB.05a

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
C : Metalloids and Nonmetals
B : Carbon-silicon family
Dana 7th ed.:
1.3.5.2
1.3.6.2

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
3 : Semi-metals and non-metals
1.25

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)

Pronounciation of GraphiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of GraphiteHide

Sub-Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Iron black to steel-grey
Streak:
Black to steel gray
Hardness:
1 - 2 on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN10=7 - 11 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Perfect
{0001}
Fracture:
Micaceous
Density:
2.09 - 2.23 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.26 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of GraphiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
Anisotropism:
Extreme
Colour in reflected light:
Iron black to steel gray
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
Deep blue in transmitted light.

Chemical Properties of GraphiteHide

Formula:
C
CAS Registry number:
7782-42-5

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society

Crystallography of GraphiteHide

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Graphite-2HGraphite-3R
CC
Hexagonal Trigonal 
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
P63/mmc R3m
  
a = 2.463 Å, c = 6.714 Å
a = 2.456 Å, c = 10.044 Å
a:c = 1 : 2.726a:c = 1 : 4.09
V 35.27 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
V 52.47 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
46

Crystallographic forms of GraphiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Graphite - Dipyramidal {101}
Graphite - Tabular {001}
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000049GraphiteKukesh J S, Pauling L (1950) The problem of the graphite structure American Mineralogist 35 125-12519500293
0011247GraphiteWyckoff R W G (1963) Second edition. Interscience Publishers, New York, New York Crystal Structures 1 7-8319630293
0013978GraphiteFayos J (1999) Possible 3D carbon structures as progressive intermediates in graphite to diamond phase transition Journal of Solid State Chemistry 148 278-28519990293
0013979GraphiteFayos J (1999) Possible 3D carbon structures as progressive intermediates in graphite to diamond phase transition Journal of Solid State Chemistry 148 278-28519990293
0013980GraphiteFayos J (1999) Possible 3D carbon structures as progressive intermediates in graphite to diamond phase transition Journal of Solid State Chemistry 148 278-28519990293
0013981GraphiteFayos J (1999) Possible 3D carbon structures as progressive intermediates in graphite to diamond phase transition Journal of Solid State Chemistry 148 278-28519990293
0013982GraphiteFayos J (1999) Possible 3D carbon structures as progressive intermediates in graphite to diamond phase transition Journal of Solid State Chemistry 148 278-28519990293
0014675GraphiteTrucano P, Chen R (1975) Structure of graphite by neutron diffraction Nature 258 136-1371975undefined0293
0018217GraphiteNixon D, Parry G, Ubbelohde A (1966) Order-disorder transformations in graphite nitrates _cod_database_code 1100002 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 291 324-33919660293
0015334GraphiteLipson H, Stokes A R (1942) The structure of graphite Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A181 101-1051942Ceylon, Bavaria0293
0017960GraphiteHassel O (1924) Ueber die Kristallstruktur des Graphits. _cod_database_code 1011060 Zeitschrift fur Physik 25 317-33719240293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.354 Å(100)
2.131 Å(3)
2.031 Å(14)
1.800 Å(3)
1.677 Å(5)
1.543 Å(4)
1.231 Å(3)
1.155 Å(5)
Comments:
Calculated from the crystal structure.

Synonyms of GraphiteHide

Other Language Names for GraphiteHide

Basque:Grafito
Belarusian:Графіт
Bosnian:Grafit
Bulgarian:Графит
Catalan:Grafit
Croatian:Grafit
Czech:Grafit
Danish:Grafit
Dutch:Grafiet
Esperanto:Grafito
Estonian:Grafiit
Farsi/Persian:گرافیت
Finnish:Grafiitti
Galician:Grafito
Hebrew:גרפיט
Hungarian:Grafit
Icelandic:Grafít
Indonesian:Grafit
Italian:Grafite
Korean:흑연
Latin:Graphitum
Latvian:Grafīts
Lithuanian:Grafitas
Lojban:Pistabno
Lombard:Grafiit
Norwegian:Grafitt
Polish:Grafit
Portuguese:Grafite
Russian:Графит
Serbian:Графит
Simplified Chinese:石墨
Slovak:Grafit
Slovenian:Grafit
Swedish:Grafit
Turkish:Grafit
Ukrainian:Графіт
Vietnamese:Than chì

Varieties of GraphiteHide

CliftoniteCliftonite is an octahedral graphite pseudomorph after kamacite, or rather the spaces left between kamacite domains. Found in a few iron meteorites. Originally considered as a new allotrope of carbon, later considered to be a pseudomorph of graphite after...
Uraniferous GraphiteA uranium-bearing variety of graphite.
amorphous graphiteVery fine-grained, generally sooty graphite from metamorphosed coalbeds. The word amorphous is a misnomer because all graphite is crystalline.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
149 photos of Graphite associated with CalciteCaCO3
49 photos of Graphite associated with DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
43 photos of Graphite associated with QuartzSiO2
40 photos of Graphite associated with NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
37 photos of Graphite associated with PyriteFeS2
30 photos of Graphite associated with Tanzanite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
24 photos of Graphite associated with SpinelMgAl2O4
17 photos of Graphite associated with Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
12 photos of Graphite associated with FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
12 photos of Graphite associated with TsavoriteCa3Al2(SiO4)3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

1.CB.05bChaoiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
1.CB.05cFulleriteC60Tet.
1.CB.10aDiamondCIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.CB.10bLonsdaleiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.CB.15SiliconSiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

1.3.6.1DiamondCIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.3.6.3LonsdaleiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.3.6.4ChaoiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

1.1CopperCuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.2SilverAgIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.5GoldAuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.6AuricuprideCu3AuOrth.
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCuTet.
1.8ZincZnHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.9CadmiumCdHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2Iso.
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZnIso.
1.12MercuryHgTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6Iso.
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2Iso.
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9Hex.
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2Orth.
1.18LuanheiteAg3HgHex.
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag,Hg)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.20IndiumInTet.
1.21AluminiumAlIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2Tet.
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)AlOrth.
1.24DiamondCIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.26ChaoiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
1.27LonsdaleiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.28SiliconSiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.29TinSnTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
1.30LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.31AnyuiiteAuPb2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mcm
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
1.33ArsenicAsTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.34ArsenolampriteAsOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
1.35PaxiteCuAs2Mon.
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2Hex.
1.37DomeykiteCu3AsIso. 4 3m : I4 3d
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10Mon.
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7Iso.
1.41AntimonySbTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.42StibarsenAsSbTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3AsMon. 2 : B2
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)Hex.
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
1.48DyscrasiteAg3SbOrth. mm2 : Pmm2
1.49BismuthBiTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.50MaldoniteAu2BiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.51SulphurS8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fddd
1.52RosickýiteSMon. 2/m : P2/b
1.53SeleniumSeTrig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
1.54TelluriumTeTrig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
1.55ChromiumCrIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Im3m
1.56RheniumReHex.
1.57IronFeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Im3m
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-xIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
1.60WairauiteCoFeIso.
1.61NickelNiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)Iso.
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.64TetrataeniteFeNiTet.
1.65AwaruiteNi3FeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.66Palladium(Pd,Pt)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.67PotaritePdHgTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
1.68PaolovitePd2SnOrth.
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2Hex.
1.70CabriitePd2CuSnOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
1.71Taimyrite(Pd,Cu,Pt)3SnOrth.
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3SnIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3SnIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.74ZvyagintsevitePd3PbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3n
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2Hex.
1.76Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)Iso.
1.82PlatinumPtIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.83HongshiitePtCuTrig.
1.84NiggliitePtSnHex.
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3FeIso.
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFeTet.
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFeTet.
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNiTet.
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)Iso.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Greasy feel
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Graphite in petrologyHide

References for GraphiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Cirkel, F. (1907) Graphite: its properties, occurrence, refining and uses: Department of Mines, Mines Branch, Ottawa, Canada, 307pp.
Alling, H.L. (1917) The Adirondack graphite deposits, New York State Museum Bulletin 199: 7-150.
Spence, H.S. (1920) Graphite Mines, Branch Report No. 511: Canada Department of Mines, Ottawa: 202pp. + photos.
Wesselowski, Wassiliew (1934) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 89: 494.
Palache, C. (1941) Contributions to the mineralogy of Sterling Hill, New
Jersey: Morphology of graphite, arsenopyrite, pyrite and arsenic: American Mineralogist: 26(12): 709-717.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 152-154.
Cameron, E.N. and Weis, P.L. (1960) Strategic graphite - a survey. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1082-E: 201-321.
Taylor, R., Gilchris, K., and Poston, L.J. (1968) Thermal conductivity of polycrystalline graphite. Carbon: 6: 537-544.
Kwiecinska, B. (1980) Mineralogy of Natural Graphites: Zaklad Narodowy imienia Ossolinskich. Polska Akademia Nauk: 67: Jun-87.
Weis, P.L. (1980) Graphite skeleton crystals - A newly recognized morphology of crystalline carbon in metasedimentary rocks. Geology: 8: 296-297.
Shafranovskii, G.I. (1981) New graphite twins: Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo. Mineralogicheskogo Obschestva: 110(6): 716-720.
Shafranovskii, G.I. (1982) Crystallomorphology of graphite from the Ilmen Mountains; Mineralogical Research of Endogenic Deposits of the Urals: Academy Nauk CCCP- Uralskii Nauchnuri Tsentr: 44-53.
Shafranovskii, G.I. (1982) Graphite [growth] twins and triads: Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal: 4(1): 74-81.
Shafranovskii, G.I. (1983) Classical and non-classical twinning in graphite: Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obschestva: 112(5): 577-581.
Gohla, K.-H. (1984) Graphit aus Kropfmuhl: Magma: 4: 26-51.
Jedwab, J. and Boulègue, J. (1984) Graphite crystals in hydrothermal vents. Nature: 310: 41-43.
Weinelt, W. (1984) Die Geologie der Graphit- Lagerstatte Kropfmuhl. Magma: 4: 52-56.
Weiner, K.-L. and Hager, H. (1987) Growth spirals on graphite crystals. Lapis: 12(1): 31-33.
Rumble, D. and Chamberlain, C.P. (1988) Graphite vein deposits of New Hampshire. New England Intercollegiate Geologic Conference Guidebook: 241-255.
Pearson, D.G., Davies, G.R., Nixon, P.H., and Milledge, H.J. (1989) Graphitized diamonds from a peridotite massif in Morocco and implications for anomalous diamond occurrences. Nature: 338 210: 60-62.
Bernatowicz, T.J., Amari, S., Zinner, E.K., and Lewis, R.S. (1991) Interstellar grains within interstellar grains. Astrophysical Journal: 373: L73-L76.
Jaszczak, J.A. (1991) Graphite from Crestmore, California. Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 427-432.
Kvasnitsa, V.N. and Yatsenko, V.G. (1991) Spherical graphite from the Azov Sea region. Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal: 13(1): 95-101.
Lemanski, Chester S. Jr. (1991) Graphite in ore. The Picking Table: 32(1): 13-Nov, 1991.
Tsuchiya, N., Suzuki, S., and Chida, T. (1991) Origin of graphite in the Oshirabetsu gabbroic body, Hokkaido Japan. Journal of Mineralogy, Petrology, and Economic Geology; Japanese Association of Mineralogists, Petrologists and Economic Geologists, Tohoku University, Sendai 980, Japan: 86(6): 264-272.
Kvasnitsa, V.N. and Yatsenko, V.G. (1992) Mechanisms of natural graphite crystals growth in the Ukraine. Doklady Academii Nauk: 4: 73-76.
Dissanayake, C.B. (1994) Origin of vein graphite in high-grade metamorphic terrains: Role of organic matter and sediment subduction Mineralium Deposita: 29: 57-67.
Jaszczak, J.A. (1994) Famous graphite crystals from Sterling Hill, New Jersey. The Picking Table: 35(2).
Semenenko, V.P. and Girich, A.L. (1995) Mineralogy of a unique graphite-containing fragment in the Krymka chondrite (LL3). Mineralogical Magazine: 59: 443-454.
Tyler, I. (1995) Seathwaite Wad and the Mines of the Borrowdale Valley "Blue Rock Publications, Carlisle, England": 220.
Jaszczak, J.A. (1997) Unusual graphite crystals from the Lime Crest quarry, Sparta, New Jersey. Rocks & Minerals: 72(5): 330-334.
Kvasnitsa, V.N. and Yatsenko, V.G. (1997) Growth spirals on graphite crystals from Ukraine. Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal: 19(6): 43-48.
Jaszczak, J.A. (1998) Unusual graphite crystals from the Lime Crest quarry, Sparta, New Jersey. The Picking Table: 39(1): 20-24.
Kvasnitsa, V.N., Yatsenko, V.G., and Zagnitko, V.M. (1998) Varieties of Graphite Spherulites from Deposits and Ore Occurrences of Ukraine. Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal, Akademiya Nauk Ukrainy, Kiev, Ukraine: 20(2): 34-39.
Hanna, G.A. and Jaszczak, J.A. (1999) A new find of spherical graphite from Sterling Hill, New Jersey. The Picking Table: 40: 27-30.
Kvasnitsa, V.N., Yatsenko, V.G., and Jaszczak, J.A.(1999) Disclinations in unusual graphite crystals from anorthosites of Ukraine. The Canadian Mineralogist: 37(4): 951-960.
Jaszczak, J.A. (2000) Palache's "Contributions to the mineralogy of Sterling Hill, New Jersey": The 900-foot level revisited. Matrix, A Journal of the History of Minerals: 8(3): 137-149.
Jaszczak, J.A. and Robinson, G.W. (2000) Spherical and triskelial graphite from Gooderham, Ontario, Canada. Rocks & Minerals: 75(3): 172-173.
Satish-Kumar, M. and Wada, H. (2000) Carbon isotope equilibrium between calcite and graphite in Skallen Marbles, East Antarctica: evidence for the preservation of peak metamorphic temperatures. Chemical Geology: 166: 173-182.
El Goresy, A., Gillet, P., Chen, M., Künstler, F., Graup, G., and Stähle, V. (2001) In situ discovery of shock-induced graphite-diamond phase transition in gneisses from the Ries Crater, Germany. American Mineralogist: 86: 611-621.
Jaszczak, J.A. (2001) Palache's "Contributions to the Mineralogy of Sterling Hill, New Jersey", The 900-foot level revisited. The Picking Table: 42(1).
Jaszczak, J.A., Rakovan, J. (2002) Growth spirals on graphite crystals from the Trotter Mine dump, Franklin, New Jersey. The Picking Table: 43(2).
Rakovan, J. and Jaszczak, J.A.(2002) Multiple length scale growth spirals on metamorphic graphite {001} surfaces studied by atomic force microscopy. American Mineralogist: 87: 17-24.
Jaszczak, J.A., Robinson, G.W., Dimovski, S., and Gogotsi, Y. (2003) Naturally Occurring Graphite Cones. Carbon: 41(11): 2085-2092.
Santosh, M., Wada, H., Satish-Kumar, M., and Binu-Lal, S.S. (2003) Carbon isotope "stratigraphy" in a single graphite crystal: Implications for the crystal growth mechanism of fluid-deposited graphite. American Mineralogist: 88: 1689-1696.
Stadermann, F.J., Croat, T.K., and Bernatowicz, T. (2004) NanoSIMS Determination of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Presolar Graphites from the Murchison Meteorite. 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 15-19, League City, Texas, abstract no.1758.
Rahl, J.M., Anderson, K.M., Brandon, M.T., Fassoulas, C. (2005): Raman spectroscopic carbonaceous material thermometry of low-grade metamorphic rocks: calibration and application to tectonic exhumation in Crete, Greece. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 240, 339-354.
Buseck, P.R. and Beyssac, O. (2014) From organic matter to graphite: graphitization. Elements: 10: 421-426.
Bernard, S. and Papineau, D. (2014) Graphitic carbons and biosignatures. Elements: 10: 435-440.
Korsakov, A.V., Rezvukhina, O.V., Jasczak, J.A., Rezvukhin, D.I., Mikhailenko, D.S. (2019) Natural graphite cuboids. Minerals: 9(2): 110. [https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020110]

Internet Links for GraphiteHide

Localities for GraphiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

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