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Franckeite

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About FranckeiteHide

Formula:
Fe2+(Pb,Sn2+)6Sn4+2Sb2S14
Colour:
Grey-black, black; iridescent at times
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
5.90
Crystal System:
Triclinic
Name:
After the mining engineers Carl and Ernest Francke.
This page provides mineralogical data about Franckeite.


Classification of FranckeiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.HF.25b

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
H : Sulfosalts of SnS archetype
F : With SnS and PbS archetype structure units
3.1.4.2

3 : SULFOSALTS
1 : ø > 4
6.1.18

6 : Sulphosalts - Sulphostannates, Sulphogermanates,Sulpharsenates, Sulphantimonates, Sulphovanadates and Sulphohalides
1 : Sulphostannates and other sulfides containing Sn

Physical Properties of FranckeiteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Grey-black, black; iridescent at times
Streak:
Grayish black
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Malleable
Cleavage:
Perfect
{010} perfect.
Comment:
Flexible, inelastic
Density:
5.90(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    5.88 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of FranckeiteHide

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Weak
Colour in reflected light:
Gray-white
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Very weak.

Chemical Properties of FranckeiteHide

Formula:
Fe2+(Pb,Sn2+)6Sn4+2Sb2S14
IMA Formula:
Pb21.7Sn9.3Fe4.0Sb8.1S56.9
Common Impurities:
Zn,Ag,Ge,In

Crystallography of FranckeiteHide

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 46.9 Å, b = 5.82 Å, c = 17.3 Å
α = 90°, β = 94.66°, γ = 90°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 8.058 : 1 : 2.973
Unit Cell V:
4,706.56 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Thin tabular {010}, elongated [100]; {010} striated [001], and less markedly [100]. Usually massive, radial, or foliated; often in spherical, rosette-like or cauliform aggregates of thin plates. Crystals often warped or bent.
Twinning:
Complex.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of FranckeiteHide

Synonyms of FranckeiteHide

Other Language Names for FranckeiteHide

German:Franckeit
Simplified Chinese:辉锑锡铅矿

Varieties of FranckeiteHide

IncaiteSn(II)-rich variety of franckeite. See also potosíite.

Relationship of Franckeite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Coiraite(Pb,Sn)12.5Sn5FeAs3S28Mon.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
216 photos of Franckeite associated with PotosíitePb6Sn3FeSb3S16
50 photos of Franckeite associated with PyriteFeS2
31 photos of Franckeite associated with SphaleriteZnS
24 photos of Franckeite associated with JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
23 photos of Franckeite associated with QuartzSiO2
20 photos of Franckeite associated with VauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
19 photos of Franckeite associated with GalenaPbS
18 photos of Franckeite associated with BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
18 photos of Franckeite associated with MetavauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
18 photos of Franckeite associated with ParavauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.HF.20VrbaiteHg3Tl4As8Sb2S20Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmca
2.HF.25aCylindritePb3Sn4FeSb2S14Tric. 1 : P1
2.HF.25bIncaite(Pb,Ag)4Sn4FeSb2S15Mon.
2.HF.25aLévyclauditePb8Sn7Cu3(Bi,Sb)3S28
2.HF.25bPotosíitePb6Sn3FeSb3S16Tric.
2.HF.25bCoiraite(Pb,Sn)12.5Sn5FeAs3S28Mon.
2.HF.25aAbramovitePb2SnInBiS7Tric. 1 : P1
2.HF.30Lengenbachite Ag4Cu2Pb18As12S39Tric.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

3.1.4.1CylindritePb3Sn4FeSb2S14Tric. 1 : P1
3.1.4.3Incaite(Pb,Ag)4Sn4FeSb2S15Mon.
3.1.4.4PotosíitePb6Sn3FeSb3S16Tric.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

6.1.1KuramiteCu3SnS4Tet.
6.1.2MohiteCu2SnS3Mon.
6.1.3VelikiteCu2HgSnS4Tet.
6.1.4HemusiteCu6SnMoS8Iso.
6.1.5KiddcreekiteCu6SnWS8Iso. 4 3m : F4 3m
6.1.6StanniteCu2FeSnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
6.1.7RhodostanniteCu1+(Fe2+0.5Sn4+1.5)S4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
6.1.8MawsoniteCu6Fe2SnS8Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
6.1.9ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
6.1.10FerrokësteriteCu2FeSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
6.1.11Kësterite Cu2ZnSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
6.1.12StannoiditeCu+6Cu2+2(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12Orth.
6.1.13ČernýiteCu2(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
6.1.14VincienniteCu+7Cu2+3Fe2+2Fe3+2Sn(As,Sb)S16Tet.
6.1.15PirquitasiteAg2ZnSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
6.1.16HocartiteAg2(Fe2+,Zn)SnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
6.1.17TeallitePbSnS2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
6.1.19LévyclauditePb8Sn7Cu3(Bi,Sb)3S28
6.1.20CylindritePb3Sn4FeSb2S14Tric. 1 : P1
6.1.21PotosíitePb6Sn3FeSb3S16Tric.
6.1.22Sakuraiite(Cu,Zn,Fe)3(In,Sn)S4Iso.
6.1.23Petrukite(Cu,Fe,Zn,Ag)3(Sn,In)S4Orth.
6.1.24Incaite(Pb,Ag)4Sn4FeSb2S15Mon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for FranckeiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Breithaupt In: Hintze (1904): 1(1): 1198.
Stelzner (1893) Jb. Min.: 11: 114.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 448-450.
Li Jiuling, Gunther H. Moh, Naiding Wang (1988): Franckeite: Mineralogical Aspects and Genetic Relations to the Dachang and Bolivian Ore Deposits. Pp. 406-410 in: C. S. Hutchison (ed.), Geology of Tin Deposits in Asia and the Pacific, Springer, 718 pp.
Williams, T.B. and Hyde, B.G. (1988) Electron microscopy of cylindrite and franckeite. Phys. Chem. Minerals 15, 521–544.
Mottana, A.; Fiori, S.; Parodi, G.C. (1992) Improved X-ray powder diffraction data for franckeite. Powder Diffr. 7, 112–114.
American Mineralogist (1995) 80: 1174.
Makovicky, E.; Petříček, V.; Dušek, M.D.; Topa, D. (2011) The crystal structure of franckeite, Pb21.7Sn9.3Fe4.0Sb8.1S56.9. Am. Mineral. 96, 1686-1702.

Internet Links for FranckeiteHide

Localities for FranckeiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Jujuy Province
    • Rinconada Department
DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.; Board, W. S., Kennedy, B., & Yeomans, T. (2011). NI 43-101 Technical Report on the Pirquitas Mine.; Coira, B. L., & de Brodtkorb, M. K. (1995) Polymetallic mineralization associated with Cenozoic volcanism in Northern Puna, Argentina. In Pacrim (Vol. 95, pp. 135-140).
Amer.Min.(2000) 85, 1066-1075; Paar, W. H., Putz, H., Topa, D., de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Sureda, R. J. (2005, January). Occurrence and paragenesis of tellurium in mineral deposits of Argentina. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1419-1422). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Paar, W. H. (2013): Pirquitasit - erstmals Kristalle aus Argentinien zu sehen. Mineralien-Welt 24 (3), 42-43 (in German).
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • King Co.
      • Rye Park
McQueen, K. G. (1988): Teallite, low-antimony franckeite and tin-bearing galena from the Wallah Wallah mine, Rye Park, New South Wales. Australian Mineral. 3 (3), 111-116.
  • Tasmania
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
      • Waratah district
        • Waratah
Bottrill (unpub)
R Bottrill & A Tuma collections
    • West Coast municipality
      • Zeehan district
        • North Dundas
STILLWELL, F. L.; EDWARDS, A . B . 1943. Mineral composition of the tin ores at Renison Bell, Tasmania. Proc . Australas. Inst. Min . Metall. 131-132: 173-186.
Bolivia
 
  • Cochabamba
    • Arque Province
      • Cerro Grande District
Federico Ahlfeld y Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
  • La Paz
    • Inquisivi Province
      • Colquiri
SUGAKI, A., & KITAKAZE, A. (1988). Tin-bearing minerals from Bolivian polymetallic deposits and their mineralization stages. Mining Geology, 38(211), 419-435.
  • Oruro
    • Cercado Province
      • Oruro City
[MinRec 32:473]; Moricz, F., Walder, I. F., & Madai, F. (2009). Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of waste material from Itos Sn-Ag deposit, Bolivia. Proceeding of securing the future and 8th ICARD. Skellefteå, Sweden, 525-534.
[MinRec 32:479]; Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:248; Pastor, M., Pastor, A., Torró, L., Martínez, Á., Artiaga, D., Torres, B., ... & Alfonso, P. (2015) The San José-Itos Mines, Oruro, Bolivia: Structure and Ag-Sn Mineralization. in Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World • 13th SGA Biennial Meeting 2015. Proceedings, Volume 1 pp 327-330; Sidki Rius, N. (2017). Metalogénesis del yacimiento San José, Oruro, Bolivia (Bachelor's thesis, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya).
    • Dalence Province
      • Huanuni
[MinRec 32:472]; Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), page 17o (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Dana 7:I:440,449,483.; Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), page 171 (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
      • Santa Fé mining district
Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Salomon Rivas and Federico Ahlfeld (1998) LosMinerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz) ; Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Salomon Rivas and Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz); Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
    • Poopó Province
      • Callipampa
Dana 7:I:449, 483.
      • Pazña
        • Monserrat-Antequera mining district
Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz); Min Rec (1977) 8:52-57
[MinRec 32:477]; Belén Torres, Joan-Carles Melgarejo, Lisard Torró, Antoni Camprubí, Montgarri Castillo-Oliver, David Artiaga, Marc Campeny, Esperança Tauler, Abigail Jiménez-Franco, Pura Alfonso, Osvaldo R. Arce-Burgoa (2019) The Poopó Polymetallic Epithermal Deposit, Bolivia: Mineralogy, Genetic Constraints, and Distribution of Critical Elements. Minerals, 9(8), 472 – in Special Issue Mineral Deposits of Critical Elements.; Torres, B., Melgarejo, J. C., Torró, L., Camprubí, A., Castillo-Oliver, M., Artiaga, D., ... & Arce-Burgoa, O. R. (2019). The Poopó Polymetallic Epithermal Deposit, Bolivia: Mineralogy, Genetic Constraints, and Distribution of Critical Elements. Minerals, 9(8), 472.
Ahlfeld, F., Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. [Mineral Deposits and Petroleum Occurrences of Bolivia]. Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, Departamento Nacional de Geologia, La Paz, Boletin 5, Especial, 388 pages.
[MinRec 32:479]
  • Potosí
    • Antonio Quijarro Province
Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz); Turneaure, F. S., & Gibson, R. (1945). Tin deposits of Carguaicollo, Bolivia. Am. J. Sci, 243, 523-541.
Ahlfeld, F. and Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
    • Chayanta Province
[MinRec 32:469]
Dana 7:I:449.
    • José María Linares Province
苣木浅彦, & 北風嵐. (1988). Tin-bearing minerals from Bolivian polymetallic deposits and their mineralization stages. 鉱山地質, 38(211), 419-435.
    • Potosí City
[MinRec 32:465]
    • Rafael Bustillo
      • Llallagua
[MinRec 32:474]; Hyrsl, J. & A. Petrov (2006): Famous Mineral Localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record. 37: 117-162
Min Rec (1977) 8:52-57
    • Sud Chichas Province
      • Chocaya-Animas (Animas-Chocaya)
[MinRec 32:461]; Torró, L., Cazorla, M., Melgarejo, J. C., Camprubí, A., Tarrés, M., Gemmrich, L., ... & Mollinedo, D. (2019). Indium Mineralization in the Volcanic Dome-Hosted Ánimas–Chocaya–Siete Suyos Polymetallic Deposit, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 9(10), 604.
[MinRec 32:461]
Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Torró, L., Cazorla, M., Melgarejo, J. C., Camprubí, A., Tarrés, M., Gemmrich, L., ... & Mollinedo, D. (2019). Indium Mineralization in the Volcanic Dome-Hosted Ánimas–Chocaya–Siete Suyos Polymetallic Deposit, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 9(10), 604.
Federico Ahlfeld y Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
      • San Vicente District
Ahlfeld, F. & Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964): Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia.
Salomon Rivas And Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes (Santa Cruz); Geology and Mineral Resources of the Altiplano and Cordillera Occidental, Bolivia (USGS Bulletin no. 1975)
Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
    • Sud Lípez Province
      • San Pablo de Lípez
        • Santa Isabel district
Geology and Mineral Resources of the Altiplano and Cordillera Occidental, Bolivia (USGS Bulletin no. 1975)
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Liard Mining Division
      • Turnagain River area
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Kissin, S.A. & Owens, D.R. (1989): The relatives of stannite in the light of new data. Canadian Mineralogist 27, 673-688.
  • Yukon
    • Watson Lake mining district
Can Mineral 1957 6: 119-127.
China
 
  • Guangxi
    • Guigang
      • Guiping Co.
Guangxiang Cheng (1984): Geology and Prospecting 20(9), 1-10, 32
    • Hechi
      • Nandan County
        • Dachang Sn-polymetallic ore field
Guangxiang Cheng (1984): Geology and Prospecting 20(9), 1-10, 32
Guangxiang Cheng (1984): Geology and Prospecting 20(9), 1-10, 32
Guangxiang Cheng (1984): Geology and Prospecting 20(9), 1-10, 32; Minzhi Huang, Gongbao Wu, Yuchuan Chen, and Shaohua Tang (1986): Acta Geologica Sinica 60(2); Lianchi Lei (1986): Mineral Deposits 5(3), 87-96
  • Yunnan
    • Honghe
      • Mengzi City
Xinpei Jiang (1994): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 13(5), 278-284
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Anzat-le-Luguet
P. Picot, Z. Johan : "Atlas of Ore Minerals", BRGM, Elsevier, 1982
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Huelgoat
R.PIERROT, L. CHAURIS, C. LAFORET (1973) : "Inventaire minéralogique de la France : 29- Finistère.", B.R.G.M. Paris.
Greece
 
  • East Macedonia and Thrace
    • Evros
      • Kirki Mines (Kirka)
Bull. Minéral. , 1985, 108, pp. 667-677.
Ireland
 
  • Leinster
    • Co. Meath
      • Navan (An Uaimh)
Ryback, G., Nawaz, R. and Farley, E. (1988) Seventh Supplementary List of British Isles Minerals (Irish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 52, n° 365, pp. 267-274.
Japan
 
  • Oita Prefecture
    • Bungo-Ono City
Uehara, S., et al. (2014) Minerals from Kyushu and Yamaguchi. (Fukuoka Mineral Club, 355 pages)
Kyrgyzstan
 
  • Talas Region
    • Talas Silver District
      • Kurgan ore cluster
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Russia
 
  • Primorsky Krai
Dobrovol’skaya, M.G., Genkin, A.D., Bortnikov, N.S., and Golovanova, T.I. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(1), 75-85.
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Sarychev Range
G. N. Gamyanin et al. (2001) Geology of Ore Deposits, 43, 442–467; Mills S.J., Kartashov P.M., Gamyanin G.N., Whitfield P.S., Kern A., Guerault H., Kampf A.R., Raudsepp M. (2011) Fluorocronite, the natural analogue of β-PbF2, from the Saha Republic, Russian Federation. European Journal of Mineralogy, 23, 695-700.
    • Verkhoyansk Fold Belt
      • Verkhoyansk Silver Province
        • Deputatsky ore cluster
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
        • Southern Verkhoyansk District
Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Darwin Hills
        • Darwin Mining District
          • Darwin
            • Darwin Mine (Anaconda; Bernon Mine; Defiance Mine; Essex Mine; Independence Mine; Intermediate Mine; Rip Van Winkle Mine; Thompson Mine)
Hall, Wayne Everett & E.M. Mackevett (1958), Economic geology of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: Calif Division of Mines Special Report 51, 77 pp.: 17; Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS PP 368: 61; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 137.
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Santa Cruz Co.
      • Santa Cruz
Gross, Eugene Bischoff & John E.N. Wainwright (1964), Barium-tin-titanium silicate having the benitoite structure (abstract): Geological Society of America, Cordilleran Section Meeting Program, Seattle, March 1964: 36; Gross, E.B., Wainwright, J.E.N., and Evans, B.W. (1965) Pabstite, the tin analogue of benitoite. American Mineralogist: 50: 1164-116; Gross, E.B., Chesterman, C.W., Dunning, G.E., and Cooper, J.F. (1967) Mineralogy of the Kalkar quarry, Santa Cruz, California. California Division Mines and Geol. Special Report 92: 5-6, 8; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 93, 137, 138.
 
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