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Fraipontite

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About FraipontiteHide

09535820014946314221965.jpg
Julien J.J. Fraipont
Formula:
(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
May contain some Cu.
Colour:
Yellowish white
Lustre:
Silky
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
3.08 - 3.10
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1927 by Giuseppe Raimondo Pio Cesàro in honor of Julien Jean Joseph Fraipont [August 17 1857 Liège, Belgium - March 22, 1910 Liège, Belgium], paleontologist and professor of zoology at the University of Liège and noted for his work on Neanderthal man and in honor of his his son, Charles Marie Joseph Julien Fraipont [March 21, 1883 Chênée, Liège, Belgium - April 15, 1946 Forest, near Frasnes-lez-Anvaing, Belgium] professor of paleontology at University of Liège and who also studied Neanderthal man, as well as subjects in his specialty of phytopaleontology.

Classification of FraipontiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1927
9.ED.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
D : Phyllosilicates with kaolinite layers composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.1.2c.4

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
1 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
16.12.16

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
12 : Aluminosilicates of Sr, Ba and Zn

Physical Properties of FraipontiteHide

Silky
Colour:
Yellowish white
Streak:
White, pale green
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Density:
3.08 - 3.10 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.49(5) g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of FraipontiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.620 nβ = 1.624 nγ = 1.624
2V:
Measured: 15° to 20°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.004
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r < v strong

Chemical Properties of FraipontiteHide

Formula:
(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4

May contain some Cu.
IMA Formula:
(Zn,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
Common Impurities:
Fe,Cu,Mg,Ca,K

Crystallography of FraipontiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.34 Å, b = 9.21 Å, c = 14.12 Å
β = 93.2°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.58 : 1 : 1.533
Unit Cell V:
693.36 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.03 Å(100)
4.60 Å(20)
3.53 Å(70)
2.650 Å(40)
2.490 Å(30)
2.385 Å(30)
1.540 Å(30)

Type Occurrence of FraipontiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Crusts of fibers 4-10 mm thick on smithsonite
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Laboratory of Mineralogy, University of Liège
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Reference:
Cesàro, G. (1927) Sur la fraipontite, silicate basique hydraté de zinc et d'aluminium. Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique: 50: 106-110.

Synonyms of FraipontiteHide

Other Language Names for FraipontiteHide

German:Fraipontit
Spanish:Fraipontita

Varieties of FraipontiteHide

Cuprian FraipontiteA copper-bearing variety of fraipontite.

Relationship of Fraipontite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
Brindleyite(Ni,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon.
CaryopiliteMn2+3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.
ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.
CronstedtiteFe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
KellyiteMn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Népouite(Ni,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4Orth.
PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
7 photos of Fraipontite associated with WulfenitePb(MoO4)
5 photos of Fraipontite associated with GalenaPbS
2 photos of Fraipontite associated with Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
2 photos of Fraipontite associated with ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
2 photos of Fraipontite associated with SmithsoniteZnCO3
2 photos of Fraipontite associated with BaryteBaSO4
1 photo of Fraipontite associated with DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4
1 photo of Fraipontite associated with HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
1 photo of Fraipontite associated with CerussitePbCO3
1 photo of Fraipontite associated with Agardite-(Y)YCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.ED.ClinochrysotileMon. 2/m
9.ED.05DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.05NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05Odinite(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)2.4((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.10HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.10HisingeriteFe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.ED.10Halloysite-7ÅAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.15AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.15AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.15Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.15Brindleyite(Ni,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15CaryopiliteMn2+3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15CronstedtiteFe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
9.ED.15Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15KellyiteMn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
9.ED.15LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.15ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8Orth.
9.ED.15Népouite(Ni,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4Orth.
9.ED.15PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
9.ED.20Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2OAmor.
9.ED.20ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2OOrth.
9.ED.20ImogoliteAl2SiO3(OH)4
9.ED.20Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2OAmor.
9.ED.25BismutoferriteFe3+2Bi(SiO4)2(OH)Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.25ChapmaniteFe3+2Sb3+(Si2O5)O3(OH)Mon. m : Bm

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

71.1.2c.1AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
71.1.2c.2Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
71.1.2c.3Brindleyite(Ni,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon.
71.1.2c.5KellyiteMn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
71.1.2c.6ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.12.1StronalsiteNa2SrAl4Si4O16Orth.
16.12.2SlawsoniteSr(Al2Si2O8)Mon.
16.12.3BrewsteriteMon.
16.12.4CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)Mon. 2/m
16.12.5ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)Mon.
16.12.6CymriteBaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2OMon.
16.12.7EdingtoniteBa[Al2Si3O10] · 4H2O
16.12.8BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16Orth. mm2 : Iba2
16.12.9Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
16.12.10Hyalophane(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]Mon.
16.12.11BalipholiteBaLiMg2Al3(Si2O6)2(OH)4Orth.
16.12.12ArmeniteBaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
16.12.13Wellsite(K,Ba,Ca,K2)Al2Si6O16 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
16.12.14Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2OOrth.
16.12.15Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
16.12.17SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
16.12.18Minehillite(K,Na)2-3Ca28Zn4Al4Si40O112(OH)16Hex.
16.12.19HendricksiteKZn3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
16.12.20Baileychlore(Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8Tric. 1

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Easily and completely soluble in nitric acid. Gelatinizes upon evaporation. Fuses easily to a white enamel.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for FraipontiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Cesàro, G. (1927) Sur la fraipontite, silicate basique hydraté de zinc et d'aluminium. Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique: 50: 106-110 (in French).
Foshag, W.F. (1928) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 13: 491-494.
Fransolet, A.-M. and P. Bourguignon (1975) Données nouvelles sur la fraipontite de Moresnet (Belgique). Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie: 98: 235-244 (in French with English abs.)
Dimitriadis, S. (1977) Cuprian fraipontite from Laurion, Greece. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 155-162.
Fleischer, M., Mandarino, J.A. (1977) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 62: 173-176.
Foord, E.E., J.E. Taggart, and N.M. Conklin (1983) Cuprian fraipontite and sauconite from the Defiance-Silver Bill mines, Gleeson, Arizona. Mineralogical Record: 14: 131-132.
Usui, K., Sato, T., Tanaka, M., Mizoguchi, Y., Takahashi, N. (1985) Synthetic fraipontite and process for preparation thereof. U.S. Patent US4626420A.
Takahshi, N., Tanaka, M., and Sato, T. (1991) Structure of synthetic fraipontite. Gosei fraipontite no kozo. Nippon Kagaku Kaishi (Journal of the Chemical Society of Japan, Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry): 7: 962-967.
Young, B.; Livingstone, A. and Thomson, N. (1992) Fraipontite from Wensleydale, North Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society: 49: 125-127.
Kloprogge, J. Theo; Hammond, Mayra; Hickey, Leisel; Frost, Ray L. (2001) A new low temperature synthesis route of fraipontite (Zn,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4. Materials Research Bulletin: 36(5–6): 1091-1098.
Theiss, Frederick L.; López, Andrés; Scholz, Ricardo; Frost, Ray L. (2015) A SEM, EDS and vibrational spectroscopic study of the clay mineral fraipontite. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy: 147: 230-234.

Internet Links for FraipontiteHide

Localities for FraipontiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
Minerals of Iron Monarch, Glyn L. Francis
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Zeehan district
        • Zeehan mineral field
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Villach-Land District
      • Bad Bleiberg
G. Niedermayr: Carinthia II, 177./97.: 287 (1987)
Belgium (TL)
 
  • Wallonia
    • Liège
      • Verviers
        • Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining district
          • Kelmis (La Calamine)
Ann.Soc.géol.Belgique,(1927) 50, B106-B110
          • Plombières (Blieberg; Bleiberg; Bleyberg)
Joan Rosell
Chile
 
  • Tarapacá
    • Tamarugal Province
      • Challacollo
maurzi
Cuba
 
  • Cienfuegos Province
Torró, L., Proenza, J. A., Melgarejo, J. C., Alfonso, P., de Pablo, J. F., Colomer, J. M., ... & Chávez, C. (2016). Mineralogy, geochemistry and sulfur isotope characterization of Cerro de Maimón (Dominican Republic), San Fernando and Antonio (Cuba) Lower Cretaceous VMS deposits: formation during subduction initiation of the Proto-Caribbean lithosphere within a fore-arc. Ore Geology Reviews, 72, 794-817.
France
 
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Villefranche-de-Rouergue
Patrice Queneau Collection
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Hochsauerlandkreis
        • Meschede
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
SCHNORRER, G. (1995): Mineralogische Neuheiten von bekannten deutschen Fundorten. Lapis 20 (12), 43-48; 62.
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
            • Kamariza Mines (Kamareza Mines)
No reference listed
              • Hilarion area
No reference listed
No reference listed
No reference listed
          • Sounion area
            • Agia Varvara Mines (St Barbara Mines)
Branko Rieck Collection
Lapis, 24, 7/8, (1999)
Italy
 
  • Sardinia
    • Sassari Province
      • Sassari
Orlandi, P., & Gelosa, M. (2007). Argentiera della Nurra. I minerali di alterazione della miniera di sfalerite e galena argentifera. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (1), 22-31. ; Ara D., Sanna L., Rossi A., Galli E., De Waele J. (2013): Minerali secondari in ambiente sotterraneo: la miniera dell’Argentiera (Sardegna nord-occidentale). In: Cucchi F., Gudi P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 290-295.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Montieri
        • Gerfalco
A.Costantini, G.Pagani (2015) Minerali: bellezze della natura nel parco delle colline metallifere - Tuscan mining geopark . 1-266
    • Massa-Carrara Province
Orlandi, P., and Criscuolo, A. (2009) Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Parco delle Alpi Apuane - Pacini Editore, Ospedaletto-Pisa, 180 pp.
        • Colonnata quarrying basin
Merlino, S., and Orlandi, P. (2001) Carraraite and zaccagnaite, two new minerals from the Carrara marble quarries: their chemical compositions, physical properties, and structural features. American Mineralogist, 86, 1293-1301; Orlandi, P. (2004) Carraraite, zaccagnaite, IMA 1998-033 e altre specie rinvenute nelle geodi dei marmi Apuani. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 28, 1 (1-2004), 24-27; Orlandi, P., and Criscuolo, A. (2009) Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Parco delle Alpi Apuane - Pacini Editore, Ospedaletto-Pisa, Pisa, 180 pp.
Kazakhstan (TL)
 
  • East Kazakhstan
    • Zharma
      • Akdzhal
Chukrov, F.V. (1956): Kora Vyvetrivania 2, 107-123, abstract in American Mineralogist 44, 208 (1959).; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
  • Karaganda Region
    • Aktogay
      • Gul'shad (Gul'shat; Gul'sad)
  • Turkistan Region
    • Kentau
      • Ashchysay (Achisay)
Chukrov, F.V. (1956): Kora Vyvetrivania 2, 107-123, abstract in American Mineralogist 44, 208 (1959).
Morocco
 
  • Oriental
    • Jbel Bou Arhous
F. Choulet, M. Buatier, L. Barbanson, R. Guégan, A. Ennaciri (2016): Zinc-rich clays in supergene non-sulfide zinc deposits. Mineralium Deposita 51, 467–490.
Namibia
 
  • Oshikoto Region
    • Tsumeb
Gebhard, G. (1999): Tsumeb II. A Unique Mineral Locality. GG Publishing, Grossenseifen, Germany
Portugal
 
  • Bragança
    • Mogadouro
      • Castelo Branco
Pedro Alves analytical data
Romania
 
  • Suceava
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Níjar
        • San José
Georges FAVREAU collection
  • Cantabria
    • Torrelavega
      • Viérnoles
Calvo, Miguel. (2018). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. IX. Silicatos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 767 págs.
  • Castile and Leon
    • León
      • Sobrado
Calvo, Miguel. (2018). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. IX. Silicatos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 767 págs.
  • Catalonia
    • Lleida (Lérida)
      • Cerdanya
Calvo, M., Viñals, J. & Triviño, A.: Zálesiíte, felsobanyaite and fraipontite, in a conglomerate in Prullans, La Cerdanya, Catalonia (Spain). Mineral Up, Vol. I, 3, 49-51
Switzerland
 
  • Valais
    • Anniviers Valley
      • Saint-Luc
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
    • Binn Valley
      • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
Roth, P. (2018): Diaphorit, eine unerwartete Neuentdeckung. Schweizer Strahler, 52(4), 27-30 (in German and French).
Turkmenistan
 
  • Lebap
    • South Tien-Shan Mts
      • Kugitangtau Ridge
http://fadr.msu.ru/caves/malmin_e.html; Maltsev, V., & Korshunov, V. (1998). Geochemistry of fluorite and related features of the Kugitangtou Ridge Caves, Turkmenistan. Journal of Caves and Karst Studies, 60, 151-155.; Vladimir A. Maltsev (1993) Minerals of the Cupp-Coutunn Karst Cave System, Southeast Turkmenistan. World of Stone 2:5-30
UK
 
  • England
    • Cumbria
      • Allerdale
        • Caldbeck
          • Roughton Gill
Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
    • North Yorkshire
      • Richmondshire
        • Marrick
Daltry, Vaughn & Deliens, Michel (1994) The Type Mineralogy of Belgium . Annals of the Belgium Geological Society 116:15-28
        • Redmire
BMS Database
  • Wales
    • Caerphilly
      • Machen
Minerals of Machen Quarry, Plant & Jones, Journal of the Russell Society, Vol 6, Pt 1, 1995
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
      • Turquoise Mining District (Courtland-Gleeson Mining District)
        • Gleeson
          • Costello Mine group (Costello claims)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 361; Foord, E.E., et al (1983), Cuprian fraipontite and sauconite from the Defiance-Silver Bill Mines, Gleeson, AZ, Min.Rec.: 14: 131-132.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 226, 361; Foord, E.E., et al (1983), Cuprian fraipontite and sauconite from the Defiance-Silver Bill mines, Gleeson, AZ, Min.Rec.: 14: 131-132.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Mammoth Mining District
        • Tiger
          • St. Anthony deposit
1) ID Paul Hlava, New Mexico. 2) An ID of Cuprian Fraipontite is consistent with form and composition determined by EDS and WDS microprobe analysis on November 17, 2006 at Cannon Microprobe--Seattle, Washington, USA
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Nopah Range
        • Upper Noonday Camp
          • Shoshone Mines (Shoshone Mines group; Shoshone Mine group; Grant Mine; Mabel Mine; Black Prince Mine)
Mindat gallery; Robert M. Housley (2005) Noonday and War Eagle mines, Tecopa Pass, Inyo Co. CA. Abstracts from the 2005 Desert Symposium. California State University, Desert Studies Consortium and LSA Associates, Inc.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Clark Mts (Clark Mountain Range)
        • Clark Mountain District (Clark District)
          • Mohawk Hill
[Mineralien Welt 1/93:44]
      • Silver Lake Mining District
        • Soda Mts
          • Zzyzx (Fort Soda; Soda; Soda Springs; Zzyzx Mineral Spring Resort)
Collected by and in the collection of Brent Thorne.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Spring Mts
        • Goodsprings Mining District
Rocks & Minerals 83:1 pp 65-69
    • Elko Co.
      • Bootstrap Mining District
        • Goldstrike Mines
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Eureka Co.
      • Carlin Trend
        • Maggie Creek Mining Subdistrict
Martin Jensen and Joe Leising (unpublished analysis, 1999).
      • Maggie Creek Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Lodi Hills
        • Lodi Mining District
          • Quartz Mountain camp
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Chukrov, F.V.: Kora Vyvetrivania:2:107-123 (1956)(abstract in Am.Min.:44:208); Dunn(1995):Pt4:505.
  • New Mexico
    • Hidalgo Co.
      • Peloncillo Mts
        • San Simon District
          • Granite Gap
Rolf Luetcke
R. D. Green photo
          • Kimball
NMBMMR New Mexico Mineral symposium (2003) pp. 8-9
    • Socorro Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. ed., 1996
        • Bingham
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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