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Ferrihydrite

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About FerrihydriteHide

Formula:
Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Previously given as Fe3+5O3(OH)9.
Colour:
dark brown, yellow-brown
Specific Gravity:
3.96
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
For the chemical composition (hydrated ferric iron oxide).
A poorly crystalline nanomineral built up of about 20% (FeO4) and 80% (FeO6) polyhedra. It forms by rapid oxidation and hydrolysis, and exists in varying degrees of structure disorder; the two extremes are the so-called 2-line and 6-line ferrihydrites (distinguished by their X-ray powder diffraction patterns). It is a metastable nanomineral precursor to other minerals, e.g. hematite, goethite. There are no known deposits of ferrihydrite before the Pleistocene.

Two structure models have been proposed: the "f-phase" model and the "akdalaite" model; the first one seems to be correct (Paktunc et al., 2013).

Some lichen (e.g., Pertusaria corallina, Stereocaulon vulcani) may induce ferrihydrite formation on lava flows and basalt- and gabbro- hosted olivine and also on augite (vide Burford et al., 2003).

The iron bacteria, especially Gallionella ferruginea, Leptothrix ochracea and Toxothrix trichogenes create ferrihydrite as a waste product of their metabolism.



Classification of FerrihydriteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1971
First Published:
1973
4.FE.35

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
E : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
4.3.2.2

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
7.20.9

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
20 : Oxides of Fe

Physical Properties of FerrihydriteHide

Colour:
dark brown, yellow-brown
Streak:
yellow-brown
Density:
3.96 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Comment:
Synthesized material

Chemical Properties of FerrihydriteHide

Formula:
Fe3+10O14(OH)2

Previously given as Fe3+5O3(OH)9.

Crystallography of FerrihydriteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 2.96 Å, c = 9.4 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 3.176
Unit Cell V:
71.33 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Occurrences of FerrihydriteHide

Paragenetic Mode(s):

Type Occurrence of FerrihydriteHide

Reference:
Chukhrov, F.V., Zvyagin, B.B., Gorshkov, A.I., Yermilova, L.P., Balashova, V.V. (1973) Ferrihydrite. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya: 1973(4): 23-33.

Synonyms of FerrihydriteHide

Other Language Names for FerrihydriteHide

Simplified Chinese:水铁矿
六方针铁矿
Spanish:Ferrihydrita

Varieties of FerrihydriteHide

MelanosideriteMelanosiderite was described by Cooke (1875) as a hydrated basic ferric silicate. Examination of a specimen from the type locality and corresponding to the original description (BM66908), by energy-dispersive microanalysis, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ra...

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Ferrihydrite associated with DussertiteBaFe3+3(AsO4)(AsO3OH)(OH)6
1 photo of Ferrihydrite associated with AnglesitePbSO4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.FE.05AmakiniteFe2+(OH)2Trig.
4.FE.05BruciteMg(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.05PortlanditeCa(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FE.05PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FE.05TheophrastiteNi(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.10BayeriteAl(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
4.FE.10DoyleiteAl(OH)3Tric.
4.FE.10GibbsiteAl(OH)3Mon. 2/m
4.FE.10NordstranditeAl(OH)3Tric. 1 : P1
4.FE.15BöhmiteAlO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.FE.15Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
4.FE.20GrimaldiiteCrO(OH)Trig.
4.FE.20HeterogeniteCo3+O(OH)Hex.
4.FE.25FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.25Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FE.30QuenselitePbMnO2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.FE.40FeroxyhyteFe3+O(OH)Hex.
4.FE.40Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2OHex.
4.FE.45QuetzalcoatliteZn6Cu3(TeO6)2(OH)6 · AgxPbyClx+2yTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

4.3.2.1Akdalaite5Al2O3 · H2OHex.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.20.1WüstiteFeOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.20.2MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.3Maghemite(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
7.20.4HematiteFe2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
7.20.5Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.20.6Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2OMon. 2/m
7.20.7FeroxyhyteFe3+O(OH)Hex.
7.20.8Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
7.20.10AmakiniteFe2+(OH)2Trig.
7.20.11MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.12MuskoxiteMg7Fe4O13 · 10H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.20.13SrebrodolskiteCa2Fe3+2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.20.14HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.15BrownmilleriteCa2(Al,Fe3+)2O5Orth. mm2

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for FerrihydriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Chukhrov, F.V., Zvyagin, B.B., Gorshkov, A.I., Yermilova, L.P., Balashova, V.V. (1973) Ferrihydrite. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya: 1973(4): 23-33.
Fleischer, M. (1973) Translation of “Chukhrov F V, Zvyagin B B, Gorshkov A I, Yermilova L P, Balashova V V (1973) Ferrihydrite, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR 1973, 23-33”. International Geology Review: 16: 1131-1143.
Fleischer, M., Chao, G.Y., Kato, A. (1975) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 60: 485-489.
Manning, P.G., Lum, K.R., Wong, H.K.T., Birchall, T. (1985) Origin and age of the ferrihydrite layer in Lake Ontario sediments. The Canadian Mineralogist: 23: 103-110.
Eggleton, R.A., Fitzpatrick, R.W. (1988) New data and a revised structural model for ferrihydrite. Clays and Clay Minerals: 36: 111-124.
American Mineralogist: 75: 437.
Jambor, J.L., Puziewicz, J. (1990) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 75: 431-438.
Canadian Mineralogist: 28: 185-207.
Farmer, V.C. (1992) Possible confusion between so-called ferrihydrites and hisingerites. Clay Minerals: 27: 373-378.
Jambor, J.L., Puziewicz, J., Roberts, A.C. (1994) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 79: 763-767.
Boyd, T., Scott, S.D. (1999) Two-XRD-line ferrihydrite and Fe–Si–Mn oxyhydroxide mineralization from Franklin Seamount, western Woodlark Basin, Papua New Guinea. The Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 973-990.
Jansen, E., Kyek, A., Schäfer, W., Schwertmann, U. (2002) The structure of six-line ferrihydrite. Applied Physics A: 74: S1004-S1006.
Mazzetti, L., Thistlethwaite, P.J. (2002) Raman spectra and thermal transformation of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: 33: 104-111.
Burford, E.P., Kierans, M., Gadd, G.M. (2003) Geomycology: fungi in mineral substrata. Mycologist: 17(3): 98-107. doi: 10.1017/S0269915X03003112
Frankel, R.B., Bazylinski, D.A. (2003) Biologically induced mineralization by bacteria. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry: 54: 95-114.
Hochella, M.F., Kasama, T., Putnis, A., Putnis, C.V., Moore, J.N. (2005) Environmentally important, poorly crystalline Fe/Mn hydrous oxides: ferrihydrite and a possibly new vernadite-like mineral from the Clark Fork River Superfund Complex. American Mineralogist: 90: 718-724.
Michel, F.M., Ehm, L., Antao, S.M., Lee, P.L., Chupas, P.J., Liu, G., Strongin, D.R., Schoonen, M.A.A., Phillips, B.L., Parise, J.B. (2007) The structure of ferrihydrite, a nanocrystalline material. Science: 316: 1726-1729.
Berquó, T.S., Banerjee, S.K., Ford, R.G., Penn, R.L., Pichler, T. (2007) High crystallinity Si-ferrihydrite: An insight into its Néel temperature and size dependence of magnetic properties. Journal of Geophysical Research: 112: B02102-12.
Paktunc, D., Manceau, A., Dutrizac, J. (2013) Incorporation of Ge in ferrihydrite: Implications for the structure of ferrihydrite. American Mineralogist: 98: 848-858.
Gilbert, B., Erbs, J.J., Penn, R.L., Petkov, V., Spagnoli, D., Waychunas, G.A. (2013) A disordered nanoparticle model for 6-line ferrihydrite. American Mineralogist: 98: 1465-1476.
Manceau, A., Skanthakumar, S., Soderholm, L. (2014) PDF analysis of ferrihydrite: Critical assessment of the under-constrained akdalaite model. American Mineralogist: 99: 102-108.
Sobron, P., Bishop, J.L., Blake, D.F., Chen, B., Rull, F. (2014) Natural Fe-bearing oxides and sulfates from the Rio Tinto Mars analog site: Critical assessment of VNIR reflectance spectroscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy, and XRD as mineral identification tools. American Mineralogist: 99: 1199-1205.
Paktunc, D. (2015) Phase transformations in the system Fe-AsO4-SO4 and the structure of amorphous ferric arsenate: Implications for arsenic stabilization in mine drainage and industrial effluents. The Canadian Mineralogist: 53: 921-936.

Internet Links for FerrihydriteHide

Localities for FerrihydriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Algeria
 
  • Tamanghasset Province
Greshake, A. (1997). The primitive matrix components of the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094: A TEM study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61 (2): 437–452. (Jan 1997). ; Wasson, J. T. & Rubin, A. E. (2010). Matrix and whole-rock fractionations in the Acfer 094 type 3.0 ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45 (1): 73-90. (Jan 2010).
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Transantarctic Mts
      • Miller Range
Ling, Z., & Wang, A. (2015). Spatial distributions of secondary minerals in the Martian meteorite MIL 03346, 168 determined by Raman spectroscopic imaging. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 120(6), 1141-1159.
  • Western Antarctica
Barczuk A. & Tatur A. 2003: BIOGENIC PHOSPHATE AND SULPHATE MINERALS IN THESOILS OF ANTARCTIC PENINSULA. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 41-43
Barczuk, A., Tatur, A. (2003): Biogenic phosphate and sulphate minerals in the soils of Antarctic Peninsula. Mineralogia Special Papers: 23: 41-43
Arctic Ocean
 
Murdmaa, I.O., Bogdanova, O.Y., Gorshkov, A.I., Novikov, G.V. and Shevchenko, V.P. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(6), 594-597.
Atlantic Ocean
 
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
    • Rainbow Massif
Lartaud, F., Little, C. T., De Rafelis, M., Bayon, G., Dyment, J., Ildefonse, B., ... & Le Bris, N. (2011). Fossil evidence for serpentinization fluids fueling chemosynthetic assemblages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(19), 7698-7703.
    • Snake Pit hydrothermal field
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): LGeology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Australia
 
  • Australian Capital Territory
    • Brindabella Range
      • Cotter River
McQueen, Ken G.; J. R. Caldwell; P. W. Millsteed (July 1988). "Primary and Secondary Minerals at the Paddy's River Mine, Australian Capital Territory". Australian Mineralogist 3: 83–100.
  • Western Australia
    • Mount Marshall Shire
      • Bencubbin
D. J. Barber & R. Hutchinson (1991). The Bencubbin stony-iron meteorite breccia - Electron petrography, shock-history and affinities of a 'carbonaceous chondrite' clast. Meteoritics 26, 83-95.
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • Kufstein District
      • Brixlegg
        • Geyer - Silberberg District
          • Silberberg
Schnorrer, G. and Poeverlein, R. (2002) Schwaz-Brixlegg-Fundstellen: 2. Die Minerale des Stockerstollens bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss, 53, 209-228.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Nova Lima
Spier, C.A., Barros de Oliveira, S.M., Rosière, C.A., and Ardisson, J.D. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 229-254.
    • Poços de Caldas alkaline complex
      • Poços de Caldas
Waber (1991)
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Sherridon District
MONCUR , M.C, PTACEK, C.J., BLOWES, D.W. & PETERSON, R.C. (2015) The occurrence and implications of efflorescent sulfate minerals at the former Sherritt–Gordon Zn–Cu mine, Sherridon, Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 53, 961-977.
  • Northwest Territories
    • Fort Norman
Battler, M. M., Osinski, G. R., Lim, D. S., Davila, A. F., Michel, F. A., Craig, M. A., ... & Preston, L. J. (2013). Characterization of the acidic cold seep emplaced jarositic Golden Deposit, NWT, Canada, as an analogue for jarosite deposition on Mars. Icarus, 224(2), 382-398.
  • Nunavut
    • Qikiqtaaluk Region
      • Devon Island
Izawa, M. R. M., Banerjee, N. R., Osinski, G. R., Flemming, R. L., Parnell, J., & Cockell, C. S. (2011). Weathering of post-impact hydrothermal deposits from the Haughton impact structure: implications for microbial colonization and biosignature preservation. Astrobiology, 11(6), 537-550.
China
 
  • Guizhou
    • Qianxinan
      • Xingren County
Zhiwei Bao (2001): PhD Thesis, University of Québec, Canda.
  • Xinjiang
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Hejing Co. (Xejing Co.)
        • Baluntai
Zhian Qin (1999): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 14(4), 69-75
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Příbram District
RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
Egypt
 
  • Beheira
    • Abu Hommos
      • Nakhla
Treiman, A. H. & Gooding, J. L. (1991) Iddingsite in the Nakhla meteorite: TEM study of mineralogy and texture of pre-terrestrial (Martian?) alterations. Meteoritics, vol. 26, p. 402.
Fleischer M (1973) Translation of “Chukhrov F V, Zvyagin B B, Gorshkov A I, Yermilova L P, Balashova V V (1973) Ferrihydrite, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR 1973, 23-33”. International Geology Review 16, 1131-1143
Finland
 
  • North Karelia
    • Joensuu
Schwertmann, U. et al 1987. Properties of iron oxides in relation to the environment of their formation. Clays and Clay Minerals Vol 35, No 4, 297-307.
France
 
  • Centre-Val de Loire
    • Loir-et-Cher
L. P. Keller & Peter R. Buseck (1990). Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite - A transmission electron microscope study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 54, p. 1155-1163. (April 1990).
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche
Gautier, J, Grosbois, C., Courtin-Nomade, A., Floc'h, J. P. and Martin, F. (2006): Transformation of natural As-associated ferrihydrite downstream of a remediated mining site. Eur. J. Mineral. 18, 187-195.
  • Occitanie
    • Lozère
      • Pont-de-Montvert
        • Vialas
No reference listed
    • Tarn-et-Garonne
      • Orgueil
Kazushige Tomeoka & Peter R. Buseck (1988). Matrix mineralogy of the Orgueil CI carbonaceous chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 52, #6, 1627-1640. (June 1988).
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
    • Schenkenzell
      • Wittichen
Nieding, E. (1990): Rezente Mineralbildungen in Schlacken der Schmiedestollenhalde in Wittichen/Schwarzwald. Aufschluss, 41, 361-364.
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Neustadt an der Waldnaab
        • Pleystein
Dill, H. G., Melcher, F., Gerdes, A., & Weber, B. (2008). The origin and zoning of hypogene and supergene Fe–Mn–Mg–Sc–U–REE phosphate mineralization from the newly discovered Trutzhofmühle aplite, Hagendorf pegmatite province, Germany. The Canadian Mineralogist, 46(5), 1131-1157.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Oberschulenberg
Gröbner, J., Hajek, W., Junker, R. & Nikoleizig, J. (2011): Neue Mineralschätze des Harzes. Papierflieger Verlag GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, 127 pp.
      • Grane Reservoir
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Hüsten
D. Pawlowski: "Mineralfundstellen im Sauerland", Weise (Munich), 1991
      • Märkischer Kreis
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld Basin
      • Hettstedt
        • Copper-Silver smelter (Gottesbelohnung smelter) slag locality
Mineralien Welt 15 Jg Heft 2-2004and 19 JgHeft 1 2008,Horst Knoll Erfurt
      • Mansfeld
        • Leimbach
Joan Rosell - RosellMinerals
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
  • Schleswig-Holstein
    • Nordfriesland
      • Bredstedt
        • Joldelund
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1988): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis 13 (2), 11-14.
          • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
Laurion The minerals in the ancient slags by Piet Gelaude netc.
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Vrissaki area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  • Central Greece
    • Euboea
      • Euboea Island
Kanellopoulos, C., Valsami-Jones, E., Voudouris, P., Stouraiti, C., Moritz, R., Mavrogonatos, C., & Mitropoulos, P. (2018). A New Occurrence of Terrestrial Native Iron in the Earth’s Surface: The Ilia Thermogenic Travertine Case, Northwestern Euboea, Greece. Geosciences, 8(8), 287.
  • South Aegean
    • Syros
      • Syros Island
        • Gria Spilia
Altherr, R., Soder, C., Panienka, S., Peters, D., & Meyer, H. P. (2013). Pink manganian phengite in a high P/T meta-conglomerate from northern Syros (Cyclades, Greece). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166(5), 1323-1334.
    • Thira
      • Santorini Island
Fleischer M (1973) Translation of “Chukhrov F V, Zvyagin B B, Gorshkov A I, Yermilova L P, Balashova V V (1973) Ferrihydrite, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR 1973, 23-33”. International Geology Review 16, 1131-1143
India
 
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Krishnagiri District
Berlin, J., Jones, R. H. & Brearley, A. J. (2007) A Closer Look at Chondrules and Matrix in Kakangari: Evidence for Wide-Spread Reduction and Sulfurization, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII. LPI Contribution #1338, p. 2395. (March 2007)
Italy
 
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Ferrara Province
      • Vigarano Mainarda
        • Vigarano Pieve
Lee, M.R., Hutchinson, R., and Graham, A.L. (1996) Aqueous alteration in the matrix of the Vigarano (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 31, 4, 477-483; Tomeoka, K., and Tanimura, I. (2000) Phyllosilicate-rich chondrule rims in the Vigarano CV3 chondrite: Evidence for parent-body processes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 11, 1971–1988; Abreau, N. M., Brearley, A. J. (2011) Deciphering the nebular and asteroidal record in silicates and organic material in the matrix of the reduced CV3 chondrite Vigarano. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 46, 2 (Feb. 2011), 252-274.
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Sestri Levante
Carbone, C. , Marescotti, P., Cabella, R., Lucchetti, G. (2002): Sulfide alteration and related secondary minerals from the Libiola mine (Eastern Liguria, Italy). Poster at the 82° SIMP Congress , Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 18-20/09/2002. Abstract in Plinius 28 , 88-89.; E. Dinelli, N. Morandi & F. Tateo (1998): Fine-grained weathering products in waste disposal from two sulphide mines in the northern Apennines, Italy. Clay Minerals 33,423-433.; Carbone, C. (2008). Crystallochemical and minerogenetic study of oxide and oxy-hydroxides related to AMD (acid mine drainage) processes in Libiola mine (Sestri Levante). Plinius No. 34
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
ko jansen
    • Livorno Province
      • Piombino
Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
    • Siena Province
      • Chiusdino
Menchetti, S., Batoni, M., Batacchi, C., Borselli, G., Brogi, A., Ceccantini, L., Fassina, B., Marchesini, M., Rossellini, A. & Ruggieri, G. (2015): Le Cetine di Cotorniano. Miniera e minerali. Associazione Micro-Mineralogica Italiana, Cremona, 354 p.
Japan
 
  • Kagoshima
    • Mishima village
Kazue, T. (2000) Clays and Clay Minerals, 48, 511-520
Kazakhstan
 
  • East Kazakhstan
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Glubokoye
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Ridder
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Kostanay Region
    • Rudny
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Mexico
 
  • Baja California Sur
Canet, C., Prol-Ledesma, R. M., Proenza, J. A., Rubio-Ramos, M. A., Forrest, M. J., Torres-Vera, M. A., & Rodríguez-Díaz, A. A. (2005). Mn–Ba–Hg mineralization at shallow submarine hydrothermal vents in bahía Concepción, Baja California Sur, México. Chemical Geology, 224(1-3), 96-112.
Pacific Ocean
 
  • East Pacific Rise
    • Juan de Fuca Ridge complex
Novikov, G.V., Vikent’ev, I.V., and Bogdanova, O.Y. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 304-325.
  • Tonga-Kermadec Arc
Schwarz-Schampera, U.,et al. (2007) Cruise Report SONNE 192/2, MANGO. Marine Geoscientific Research on Input and Output in the Tonga-Kermadec Subduction Zone
Schwarz-Schampera, U.,et al. (2007) Cruise Report SONNE 192/2, MANGO. Marine Geoscientific Research on Input and Output in the Tonga-Kermadec Subduction Zone
  • Woodlark Basin
Novikov, G.V., Vikent’ev, I.V., and Bogdanova, O.Y. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 304-325.
Papua New Guinea
 
  • Bismarck Sea
Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
R Moss 2000. GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD IN THE PACMANUS AND SUSU KNOLLS HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS, EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PNG. Unpublished PhD thesis Univ of Toronto.
Poland
 
  • Lesser Poland Voivodeship
    • Tarnów Co.
      • Gmina Pleśna
Musiał J. 1996: Results of preliminary Mossbauer spectroscopy analysis of ochres from Janowice, Ciężkowice region, Outer Carpathians.Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 27, no. 1
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Dzierżoniów County
      • Piława Górna
Mateusz Dulski, Roman Wlodyka, Tomasz Krzykawski (2018) Weathering processes of iron sulfides from Pilawa quarry, EMPA and Raman characterization. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 179
    • Jawor County
      • Gmina Bolków
        • Radzimowice
          • Stara Góra deposit
1. R. Siuda, 2001 : New sulphate minerals from the Stara Góra oxidised zone, Radzimowice, Kaczawskie Mts., Mineralogical Society of Poland, Special Papers, vol 18, 186-188
    • Kamienna Góra County
      • Gmina Marciszów
Siuda, R. (2004) Wieściszowice. Otoczak, No.31, 58-65.
    • Ząbkowice Śląskie Co.
      • Gmina Bardo
Nejbert, K., Siuda, R., Borzęcki, R., Matyszczak, W. (2013): Mineralogy of antimony ores mined at Dębowina in the Bardzkie Mts (Sudetes), SW Poland. Mineralogia Special Papers: 41: 68
  • Silesian Voivodeship
Cabała, J.; Warchulski, R.; Rozmus, D.; Środek, D.; Szełęg, E. (2020) Pb-Rich Slags, Minerals, and Pollution Resulted from a Medieval Ag-Pb Smelting and Mining Operation in the Silesian-Cracovian Region (Southern Poland). Minerals 10, 28.
Red Sea
 
Parnell, J.; Lianjun, Y.; Changming, C., editors (1988) Sediment-Hosted Mineral Deposits: Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 30 July-4 August 1988.
Russia
 
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Chitinskaya Oblast
      • Krasnokamensk
        • Strel'tsovskoe Mo-U ore field
Petrov, V. et al (2005) Evaluation of Uranium Migration Pathways in Fractured Welded Tuffs in The 10th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management September 4-8, 2005, Scottish Exhibition & Conference Centre, Glasgow, Scotland
Saudi Arabia
 
  • Mintaqah Makkah
Surour, A. A. (2015). Cu–Mn–Fe alloys and Mn-rich amphiboles in ancient copper slags from the Jabal Samran area, Saudi Arabia: With synopsis on chemistry of Fe–Mn (III) oxyhydroxides in alteration zones. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 101, 70-83.
Slovakia
 
  • Bratislava Region
    • Pezinok Co.
Majzlan J., Chovan M., Lalinska B., Milovská S., Jurkovič Ľ., 2006: The sstructure and ageing of As-rich ferrihydrite from Pezinok, Slovakia. Acta Miner.-Petrograph.,Abstract Series 5, Szeged, p.70
Spain
 
  • Galicia
    • A Coruña (La Coruña)
      • Santiago de Compostela
        • Aríns
Pascual, E; Estévez, A. (1981) Estudio geológico del yacimiento de Fornás (Santiago). Cuaderno do Laboratorio Xeolóxico de Laxe 2 (vol II):191-211
Turkmenistan
 
  • Balkan
    • Cheleken Peninsula
Fleischer M (1973) Translation of “Chukhrov F V, Zvyagin B B, Gorshkov A I, Yermilova L P, Balashova V V (1973) Ferrihydrite, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR 1973, 23-33”. International Geology Review 16, 1131-1143
Lebedev, L.M., Nikitina, J.B. (1983): The Cheleken ore forming system. Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow (in Russian.)
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • Clear Creek Co.
      • Geneva District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Indiana
    • Tippecanoe Co.
      • Lafayette
Treiman, A. H., Barrett, R. A. & Gooding, J. L. (1993) Preterrestrial aqueous alteration of the Lafayette (SNC) meteorite: Meteoritics 28 (1): 86-97. (Mar 1993)
  • Kansas
    • Decatur Co.
Workshop on Parent-Body and Nebular Modification of Chondritic Materials 4038.pdf http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/chondrite/pdf/4038.pdf
  • Massachusetts
    • Franklin Co.
      • Rowe
Cerato, A.. 2003: Mineralogical Study of Davis Mine, Rowe, MA, Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
      • Hanover-Fierro Mining District
Newcomer,Robert W.,Romig,Douglas E.,Niccoli,Walter.,(2008) Closure And Reclamation Of The Hanover-Empire Zinc Mine Area,Grant County,New Nexico ;New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook,Geology of the Gila Wilderness,Silver City Area,2008,pp.151-158
  • North Carolina
    • Ashe Co.
      • Ore Knob
Borden,Robert C. and Behrooz,Mchnroosh (2008) Ore Knob Mine Tailings Pile-Hydrologic and Geochemical Characterization
  • Pennsylvania
    • Centre Co.
      • State College
        • Skytop
U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
    • Delaware Co.
      • Middletown Township
        • Lima
S.G. Gordon, "Mineralogy of Pennsylvania", 1922, p. 190
    • Lancaster Co.
      • Lancaster Township
William B. White – Cave sediments and paleoclimate. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 69, no. 1, p. 76–93.
 
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