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Ferricopiapite

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About FerricopiapiteHide

Formula:
Fe3+0.67Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Colour:
Yellow, yellow-orange
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
2.14
Crystal System:
Triclinic
Member of:
Name:
In allusion to its composition as the ferric iron dominant member of the copiapite group.
Type Locality:
Copiapite Group.

Difficult to distinguish from copiapite or other members of the copiapite group.


Classification of FerricopiapiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.DB.35

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations; insular octahedra and finite units
31.10.5.4

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
10 : Miscellaneous
25.10.12

25 : Sulphates
10 : Sulphates of Fe alone

Physical Properties of FerricopiapiteHide

Colour:
Yellow, yellow-orange
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {010}
Density:
2.14 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.14 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of FerricopiapiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.496 - 1.530 nβ = 1.531 - 1.550 nγ = 1.579 - 1.592
2V:
Measured: 69° to 80°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.083
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
relatively strong r > v
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
Shades of yellow

Chemical Properties of FerricopiapiteHide

Formula:
Fe3+0.67Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O

Crystallography of FerricopiapiteHide

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.394(5) Å, b = 18.36(2) Å, c = 7.324(8) Å
α = 93.8(1)°, β = 102.2(1)°, γ = 98.9(1)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.403 : 1 : 0.399
Unit Cell V:
955.05 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
Pseudo-orthorhombic plates; scaly, granular aggregates.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000315FerricopiapiteFanfani L, Nunzi A, Zanazzi P F, Zanzari A R (1973) The copiapite problem: The crystal structure of a ferrian copiapite American Mineralogist 58 314-32219730293
0006121FerricopiapiteMajzlan J, Kiefer B (2006) An X-ray and neutron-diffraction study of synthetic ferricopiapite, Fe14/3(SO4)6(OD,OH)2(D2O,H2O)20, and ab-initio calculations on the structure of magnesiocopiapite MgFe4(SO4)6(OH)2(H2O)20 The Canadian Mineralogist 44 1227-12372006synthetic0293
0007143FerricopiapiteMajzlan J, Navrotsky A, McCleskey R B, Alpers C N (2006) Thermodynamic properties and crystal structure refinement of ferricopiapite, coquimbite, rhomboclase, and Fe2(SO4)3(H2O)5 European Journal of Mineralogy 18 175-1862006synthetic0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Oxidation zone of pyrite deposits in arid environments.

Type Occurrence of FerricopiapiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Smithsonian Museum, Washington DC 80516

Synonyms of FerricopiapiteHide

Other Language Names for FerricopiapiteHide

Relationship of Ferricopiapite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
CalciocopiapiteCaFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
CopiapiteFe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
CuprocopiapiteCu2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
ZincocopiapiteZnFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 18H2OTric.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
4 photos of Ferricopiapite associated with CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
3 photos of Ferricopiapite associated with GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2O
3 photos of Ferricopiapite associated with RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
2 photos of Ferricopiapite associated with SulphurS8
1 photo of Ferricopiapite associated with HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
1 photo of Ferricopiapite associated with VoltaiteK2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
1 photo of Ferricopiapite associated with ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.DB.05AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2OTric. 1
7.DB.05Magnesioaubertite(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DB.05Svyazhinite(Mg,Mn2+,Ca)(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)2F · 14H2OTric.
7.DB.10KhademiteAl(SO4)F · 5H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.DB.10RostiteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.DB.15JurbaniteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OMon.
7.DB.20Minasragrite(V4+O)(SO4) · 5H2OMon. 2/m
7.DB.20Orthominasragrite(V4+O)(SO4) · 5H2OOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
7.DB.20Anorthominasragrite(V4+O)(SO4) · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DB.25Bobjonesite(V4+O)(SO4) · 3H2OMon. 2/m
7.DB.30AmarantiteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 7H2OTric. 1
7.DB.30HohmanniteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 8H2OTric. 1
7.DB.30MetahohmanniteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DB.35AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DB.35CalciocopiapiteCaFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DB.35CopiapiteFe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DB.35CuprocopiapiteCu2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DB.35MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DB.35ZincocopiapiteZnFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 18H2OTric.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

31.10.5.1CopiapiteFe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
31.10.5.2MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
31.10.5.3CuprocopiapiteCu2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
31.10.5.5CalciocopiapiteCaFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
31.10.5.6ZincocopiapiteZnFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 18H2OTric.
31.10.5.7AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.10.1SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.10.2RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.3SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
25.10.4FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.10.5MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.6Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.10.7LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.10.8KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.10.9CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
25.10.10ParacoquimbiteFe4(SO4)6(H2O)12· 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.10.11QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.13MetahohmanniteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.14HohmanniteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 8H2OTric. 1
25.10.15ButleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.10.16ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.10.17AmarantiteFe3+2(SO4)2O · 7H2OTric. 1
25.10.18FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OMon.
25.10.19Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.10.20RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.10.21BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.10.22CopiapiteFe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for FerricopiapiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Berry (1938) American Mineralogist: 23, pt 2(12): 3.
University of Toronto Stud., Geol. Series, no. 51 (1947): 21.
American Mineralogist (1939): 24: 182.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume II: 623, 625.
Fanfani, L.A., A. Nunzi, P.F. Zanazzi & A.R. Zanzari (1973): The Copiapite problem; the crystal structure of a Ferrian Copiapite. American Mineralogist 58: 314-322.
Bayliss, P. & Atencio, D. (1985): X-ray powder-diffraction data and cell parameters for copiapite-group minerals. Canadian Mineralogist 23, 53-56. [as challantite]
Majzlan, J., Kiefer, B. (2006): An X-ray and neutron-diffraction study of synthetic ferricopiapite, Fe14/3(SO4)6(OD,OH)2(D2O,H2O)20, and ab initio calculations on the structure of magnesiocopiapite, MgFe4(SO4)6(OH)2(H2O)20. Canadian Mineralogist, 44, 1227-1237.
Majzlan, J. & Michallik, R. (2007): The crystal structures, solid solutions and infrared spectra of copiapite-group minerals. Mineralogical Magazine 71, 553-569.

Internet Links for FerricopiapiteHide

Localities for FerricopiapiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Catamarca Province
    • Andalgalá Department
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
MARQUEZ-ZAVALIA, M.F.. The As-rich end-member of the jordanite-geocronite series of the Capillitas Mine, Catamarca. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2006, vol.61, n.2, pp. 231-235.
Atlantic Ocean
 
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
Gablina, I. F., Dobretzova, I. G., Laiba, A. A., Narkevsky, E. V., Maksimov, F. E., & Kuznetsov, V. Y. (2018). Specific Features of Sulfide Ores in the Pobeda Hydrothermal Cluster, Mid-Atlantic Rise 17° 07′–17° 08′ N. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 53(6), 431-454.
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • City of Mount Isa
      • Mount Isa
Sielecki, R. (1988) The Mount Isa-Cloncurry mineral field. Mineralogical Record, Vol. 19, pg. 469-490.
Sielecki, R. (1985) in Australian Mineralogist, vol. 1, p. 287; Sielecki, R. (1985) Australian Mineralogist. 1, 285-289.
[MinRec 19 p469-490 - "Sielecki, R: The Mount Isa-Cloncurry mineral field"]
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Zeehan district
        • Mt Heemskirk mineral field
R Bottrill, unpublished. XRD and XRF analyses, 2020
Bulgaria
 
  • Plovdiv Province
    • Plovdiv
Atanassova, R. & Kerestedjian, T. (2009): Efflorescent minerals from the metallurgical waste heaps of the KCM non-ferrous metal smelter, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology, 47, 51-63.
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Kamloops Mining Division
Canadian Museum of Nature specimen 49498
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Cerritos Bayos
samples analysed by Gerhard Moehn and Joy Desor
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
China
 
  • Xinjiang
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Yizhou District
Yingxia Xu, Kezhang Qin, Kuishou Ding, Yu Miao, Tonghui Fang, Xingwang Xu, and He Sun (2007): Mineral Deposits 26(1), 58-69
Costa Rica
 
  • Cartago Province
    • Irazú Volcano
Ulloa, A., Gázquez, F., Sanz-Arranz, A., Medina, J., Rull, F., Calaforra, J.M., Alvarado, G.E., Martinez, M., Avard, G., de Moor, J., De Waele, J. (2018) Extremely high diversity of sulfate minerals in caves of the Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) related to crater lake and fumarolic activity. International Journal of Speleology, 47(2), 229-246.
Cuba
 
  • Isla de la Juventud special municipality
    • Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Pines; Island of Youth)
Zwahr, H. & Gonzales, R. (1999): Secondary sulfate mineralization of the kaolin deposit of Rio del Callejon, Cuba. Zeitschrift für Geologische Wissenschaften 27, 219-233.
Czech Republic
 
  • Moravian-Silesian Region
    • Karviná District
      • Orlová
        • Lazy Mine
Matýsek D., Jirásek J., Osovský M., Skupien P.. Minerals formed by the weathering of sulfides in mines of the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin. Mineralogical Magazine, 2014, 78, 5, 1265-1286.
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Hochsauerlandkreis
        • Bestwig
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1988) Mineralogische Notizen IV. Der Aufschluss, 39, 153-168.
    • Niederberg area
      • Wülfrath
        • Rohdenhaus
Lapis 1988(1), 16-35
Lapis 1988(1), 16-35
  • Saxony
    • Görlitz District
      • Niesky
        • Horscha
Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2007): Der Schieferabbau Pansberg bei Horscha in der Lausitz, Sachsen. Lapis 32 (7-8), 68-73; 86.
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion mining district
          • Plaka
            • Plaka Mines
locality description
          • Sounion
            • Cato Sounio mines
Rieck, B., Kolitsch, U., Voudouris, P., Giester, G. and Tzeferis, P. (2018): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrion, Griechenland. Mineralien-Welt 29 (5), 32-77 (in German).
Hungary
 
  • Baranya County
    • Pécs District
Koller G.Own found.
Iceland
 
  • Northeastern Region
    • Skútustaðahreppur
      • Myvatn
Carson, G. L. (2015). Hydrothermal Acid-sulfate Alteration at Krafla and Námafjall, Ne Iceland: Implications for Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum, Mars. Masters thesis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
Italy
 
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Parma Province
      • Berceto
        • Corchia mine
Adorni F., Guelfi F. (1997) - La miniera di Fe e Cu di Corchia, Berceto, Appennino Parmense. - Riv. Min. It. N 3, 217-250.
Adorni F., Guelfi F. (1997) - La miniera di Fe e Cu di Corchia, Berceto, Appennino Parmense. - Riv. Min. It. N 3, 217-250.
  • Sardinia
    • South Sardinia Province
      • Fluminimaggiore
• Stara, P. Rizzo, R., Tanca, G., Vinci A. (1994): Su Zurfuru. 1° parte. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1993, 215-236.
Japan
 
  • Akita Prefecture
    • Kazuno City
Nambu et al (1974) Koubutsu-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi, 57.
  • Hokkaidō Prefecture
    • Hidaka Subprefecture
      • Saru District
        • Monbetsu (Mombetsu)
Van King; Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
    • Oshima Subprefecture
      • Kameda District
        • Nanae
Y. Okazaki collection
Portugal
 
  • Aveiro
    • Albergaria-a-Velha
      • Branca
Marques de Sá, J. & Leal Gomes, C. (2010): Les mines de cuivre et nickel de Palhal et Telhadela, Albergaria-a-Velha, Aveiro, Portugal. Le Règne Minéral, 92, 36-47.
  • Beja
    • Aljustrel
      • Aljustrel
        • Aljustrel Mine
Pedro Alves collection and analytical data.
    • Mértola
      • Corte do Pinto
Pedro Alves collection and photo.
  • Viseu
    • São Pedro do Sul
      • São Martinho das Moitas
Ko Jansen collection
Romania
 
  • Hunedoara
    • Deva
      • Bocşa Mare
Apopei, A.I., Buzgar, N., Damian, G., Buzatu, A. (2005): The Raman study of weathering minerals from the Coranda-Hondol open pit (Certej gold-silver deposit) and their photochemical degradation products under laser irradiation. Canadian MIneralogist, 52, 1027-1038.
Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits, 85:1-6; Andrei I. Apopei, Nicolae Buzgar, Gheorghe Damian, and Andrei Buzatu (2014) the Raman Study of Weathering Minerals from the Coranda-hondol Open Pit (Certej Gold-silver Deposit) and Their Photochemical Degradation Products Under Laser Irradiation. Can Mineral 52:1027-1038.
South Africa
 
  • KwaZulu-Natal
    • eThekwini District
      • Durban
        • Cato Manor
          • Umbilo Valley
Cairncross, B. & Dixon, R. (1995). Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa: Linden.
        • Umhlatuzana valley
Cairncross, B. & Dixon, R. (1995). Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa: Linden; Heron, H.D.C. (1994). Siderite assemblages from Clairwood Quarries, Durban, Natal. Micro News and Views, 20(2): 3-7.
        • Westville
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Huelva
      • Minas de Riotinto
Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
UK
 
  • England
    • County Durham
      • Stanhope
        • Rookhope
Smith, F.W. (1973) Supergene Native Copper in the Northern Pennine Orefield. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 39, n° 302, 244.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177. (referring to Smith); Bridges TF and Young B. Supergene Minerals of the Northern Pennine Orefield - A Review. Journal of the Russell Soc. 7(1). 3-14(1998)
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
Graeme, R. (1993) Bisbee revisited. The Mineralogical Record: 24: 421-436.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 220; Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Coso Hot Springs
Fanfani, L., A. Nunzi, P.F. Zanazzi, and A.R. Zanzari (1973) The copiapite problem; the crystal structure of ferrian copiapite. American Mineralogist: 58: 314-322; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 274.
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield County
      • Trumbull
        • Long Hill
Jeremy Zolan
  • Georgia
    • Lincoln Co.
Collected by Julian Gray 21 September 2010. Confirmed by XRD at the University of Georgia.
  • South Dakota
    • Lawrence Co.
      • Galena Mining District
        • Galena
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael Mining District (San Rafael Swell)
        • Calf Mesa
Min Rec 19:331-338
Min News 6:8 p3
Schindler, M., Hawthorne, F.C., Huminicki, D.M.C., Haynes, P., Grice, J.D., Evans, H.T. (2003) Bobjonesite, V4+O(SO4)(H2O)3, a new mineral species from Temple Mountain, Emery County, Utah, U.S.A.. Canadian Mineralogist: 41: 83-90.
    • San Juan Co.
      • Red Canyon
Travis Olds collection
Patrick Haynes. IDs by the late Howard Evans, Jr.
  • Virginia
    • Louisa Co.
      • Gold-Pyrite Belt
        • Mineral
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Mars
 
  • Aeolis quadrangle
    • Gusev Crater
      • Columbia Hills
        • Home Plate
Johnson, J.R., Bell, J.F. III, Cloutis, E., Staid, M., Farrand, W.H., McCoy, T., Rice, M., Wang, A., Yen, A. (2007): Mineralogic constraints on sulfur-ric soils from Pancam spectra at Gusev crater, Mars. Geophysical Research Letters: 34: L13202; Farrand, W.H., Johnson, J.R., Rice, M.S., Wang, A., Bell III, J.F. (2016): VNIR Multispectral Observations of Aqueous Alteration Materials by the Pancams on the Spirit and Opportunity Mars Exploration Rovers. American Mineralogist, in press;
 
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