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Emerald

This page kindly sponsored by Hobart M. King
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About EmeraldHide

Formula:
Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Name:
Emerald has priority over beryl as a mineral name. Emerald was known in antiquity and was prized as a gem. In the 1790s, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, the discoverer of chromium, demonstrated that emerald and beryl were essentially the same chemical compound and that emeralds, sensu strictu, contained chromium. Nonetheless, emerald continued to be listed as the preferred species name for many decades and emerald finally began to be used as a variety name for beryl by the 1830s. New emerald reports referring to ordinary green or even blue beryl persisted in the amateur literature into the twentieth century. In the latter twentieth century, it was discovered that some emeralds contain more vanadium than chromium.
A variety of Beryl

A green gem variety of beryl, highly sought after as a precious gemstone. The majority of the world's gem-quality emeralds come from the Muzo area of Colombia.

The colour of emerald is caused by trace amounts of a chromophore such as trivalent chromium or trivalent vanadium.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Emerald.


Chemical Properties of EmeraldHide

Formula:
Be3Al2(Si6O18)

Crystallography of EmeraldHide

Crystal System:
Hexagonal

Synonyms of EmeraldHide

Other Language Names for EmeraldHide

Arabic:زمرد
Bulgarian:Изумруд
Catalan:Maragda
Czech:Smaragd
Danish:Smaragd
Dutch:Smaragd
Esperanto:Smeraldo
Finnish:Smaragdi
French:Émeraude
German:Smaragd
Indonesian:Zamrud
Italian:Smeraldo
Lithuanian:Smaragdas
Norwegian:Smaragd
Polish:Szmaragd
Portuguese:Esmeralda
Romanian:Smarald
Simplified Chinese:绿宝石
祖母绿
Slovak:Smaragd
Slovenian:Smaragd
Spanish:Esmeralda
Swedish:Smaragd

Varieties of EmeraldHide

Trapiche emeraldVariety showing six-spoked growth features.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
150 photos of Emerald associated with CalciteCaCO3
83 photos of Emerald associated with QuartzSiO2
62 photos of Emerald associated with PyriteFeS2
18 photos of Emerald associated with BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
15 photos of Emerald associated with SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
14 photos of Emerald associated with RutileTiO2
12 photos of Emerald associated with MolybdeniteMoS2
11 photos of Emerald associated with BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
9 photos of Emerald associated with PhenakiteBe2SiO4
8 photos of Emerald associated with Feldspar Group

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for EmeraldHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Sinkankas (1981) "Emeralds and other Beryls".
Extra Lapis English No. 2 "Emeralds of the world"
Extra Lapis No. 22 (in German)
Le, T.-T. H. (2008): Microscopic, chemical and spectroscopic investigations on emeralds of various origins. Dissertation, Universität Mainz, Germany, 113 pp. [http://ubm.opus.hbz-nrw.de/volltexte/2008/1673/pdf/diss.pdf]
Ringsrud, R. (2009): Emeralds, a passionate guide. Green View Press, 250 pp.
Giuliani, G., Groat, L.A., Marshall, D., Fallick, A.E. (2019) Emerald deposits: A review and enhanced classification. Minerals: 9(2): 105. [https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020105]

Internet Links for EmeraldHide

Localities for EmeraldHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Afghanistan
 
  • Badakhshan
    • Jurm District
Rob Lavinsky
  • Kunar
    • Narang District
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
  • Laghman
    • Dawlat Shah District
Shigley, J.E., Laurs, B.M., Janse, A.J.A., Elen, S., and Dirlam, D.M. (2010): Gems & Gemmology 46(3), 188-216
  • Nuristan
    • Nurgaram District
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
  • Panjshir
    • Bazarak District
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp61-62 ; Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Sabot B, Cheilletz A, de Donato P, Banks D, Levresse G, Barrès O, 2000. Afghan emeralds face Colombian cousins. Chronique de la Recherche Minière, 541, 111-114.
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
    • Khinj District
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Argentina
 
  • Tucumán Province
    • Tafí del Valle Department
      • Cerro Pichao
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry´s collection.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Arrawatta Co.
Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W. and Stroud W.J. (1997) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Inverell Metallogenic Map (SH/56-5). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
    • Clive Co.
Personal collection Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Fielders Hill
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
    • Gough Co.
      • Emmaville
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Barnes R.G., Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W., Henley H.F., and Stroud W.J. (2001) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Barnes R.G., Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W., Henley H.F., and Stroud W.J. (2001) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Barnes, R.G., Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Henley, H.F., and Stroud, W.J. (2001) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Strathbogie
Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W. and Stroud W.J. (1997) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Inverell Metallogenic Map (SH/56-5). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Barnes R.G., Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W., Henley H.F., and Stroud W.J. (2001) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-10, SH/56-11), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Barnes R.G., Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W., Henley H.F., and Stroud W.J. (2001) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
    • Selwyn Co.
      • Tumbarumba
Wagga Wagga Mine Data Sheets, 1982
  • Tasmania
    • Break O'Day municipality
      • St Helens district
Bottrill, R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Bull. 73. Minerals Resources Tasmania
  • Western Australia
    • Coolgardie Shire
      • Coolgardie
R Bottrill collection
      • Gibraltar Goldfield
Min News 21:7 p 8
    • Cue Shire
      • Meka Station
Pegmatites of Western Australia; M Jacobson, M Calderwood, B Grguric; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007.
      • Poona
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pegmatites of Western Australia
Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pegmatites of Western Australia
Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V.(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
Fred Rose 2012
Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pematites of Western Australia
Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pegmatites of Western Australia
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V.(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
    • East Pilbara Shire
      • Shaw River District
Pegmatites of Western Australia; Mark I Jacobson, Mark A Calderwood, Benjamin A Grguric; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007
    • Menzies Shire
      • Riverina Station
; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
    • Port Hedland Shire
      • Abydos Station
        • Wodgina
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
      • Wallareenya Station
        • Pilgangoora (Pilgangoora MIning Centre; Lynas Find; McPhees Patch; Mount York)
Pegmatites of Western Australia; M Jacobson, M Calderwood, B Grguric; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007.
    • Yalgoo Shire
      • Noongal Station
Pegmatites of Western Australia; M Jacobson, M Calderwood, B Grguric,; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007.
Simpson, E.S. (1948), Minerals of Western Australia, Vol 1, p225
Austria
 
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
    • Zell am See District
      • Bramberg am Wildkogel
        • Breitfuß - Großer Finagl area
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
        • Nasenkopf mountain
          • Leckbachgraben
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 84
Harjo Neutkens collection
      • Hollersbach im Pinzgau
        • Scharnbachgraben
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • Mittersill
        • Mittersill Scheelite deposit
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • Neukirchen am Großvenediger
        • Ascham Alp - Breitfuß - Sonntagskopf area
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
G. Grundmann et al.: Lapis 16(2):37-45 (1991)
Brazil
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pages (3, 13, 20, 26).; O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages.
  • Bahia
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 20).; ExtraLapis English Vol. 2 (2002) Emeralds of the World, 24-35.
Cassedanne, Jacques P.; Cassedanne, Jeannine O.; De Mello, Zenaide F. (1976): Occurrence of emerald at Acude Sossego (Anage Municipio - Bahia). Mineracao Metalurgia 40, 36-42.; Mineralogical Record (1977) 8:382-387
Mineralogical Record (1977) 8:382-387
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 20).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 20).
      • Serra das Éguas
Cassedanne, J.P. & Cassedanne, J.O. (1978): Famous mineral localities: The Brumado district, Bahia , Brazil. Mineralogical Record 9 : 196-205; Rob Lavinsky.
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
    • Campo Formoso
Giuliani, Gaston; Cheilletz, Alain; Zimmermann, Jean-Louis; Ribeiro-Althoff, Ana Maria; France-Lanord, Christian; Feraud, Gilbert (1997): Brazilian emerald deposits: genesis and topology. Chronique de la Recherche Minière, 65, 17-61.; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
    • Pilão Arcado
Sauer, Jules Roger (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (pp. 14, 20, 22).; ExtraLapis English Vol. 2 (2002) Emeralds of the World, 24-35.
    • Pindobaçu
Sauer, Jules Roger (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (pp. 14, 20-25, 126-127).; Giuliani, Gaston, Cheilletz, Alain, Zimmermann, Jean-Louis, Ribeiro-Althoff, Ana Maria, France-Lanord, Christian, and Feraud, Gilbert (1997) Brazilian emerald deposits: genesis and topology. Chronique de la Recherche Minière, 65, 17-61.; ExtraLapis English Vol. 2 (2002) Emeralds of the World, 24-35.
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 90
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 91
  • Ceará
    • Tauá
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (pp. 10-11).
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 90
    • Pirenópolis
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
    • Porangatu
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 92
    • Santa Terezinha de Goiás district
      • Campos Verdes
Sauer, Jules Roger (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (pp. 8-9, 14, 24).; Giuliani, Gaston, Cheilletz, Alain, Zimmermann, Jean-Louis, Ribeiro-Althoff, Ana Maria, France-Lanord, Christian, and Feraud, Gilbert (1997) Brazilian emerald deposits: genesis and topology. Chronique de la Recherche Minière, 65, 17-61.; ExtraLapis English Vol. 2 (2002) Emeralds of the World, 24-35.
O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages.
    • Antônio Dias
      • Hematita
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 20).
    • Conceição do Mato Dentro
      • São José de Brejaúba
Guimar˜aes, C.P. (1941) Djalmaite, a new radioactive mineral. American Mineralogist: 26: 343–346.
    • Conselheiro Pena
Ázaro, A. S. (2013). Pegmatito Itatiaia, Conselheiro Pena: uma nova ocorrência de esmeraldas em Minas Gerais. Universidade Federal Do Rio De Janeiro; Karampelas S, Schnellrath J, Schwarz D, Scholz R, Gubelin S, Link K, Azzaro A (2014) Emeralds from Itatiaia (Minas Gerais, Brazil). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 280
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 20).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 20).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 20).
Sauer, Jules Roger (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (pp. 14, 20, 22-23).
Giuliani, Gaston; Cheilletz, Alain; Zimmermann, Jean-Louis; Ribeiro-Althoff, Ana Maria; France-Lanord, Christian; Feraud, Gilbert (1997): Brazilian emerald deposits: genesis and topology. Chronique de la Recherche Minière, 65, 17-61.; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Kanis, J. (2002) Piteiras, Brasilien: Erfolgreiche Smaragdsuche mit modernsten Methoden. Lapis 27 (3), 13-18. Lynch, E.P., Costanzo, A., Feely, M., Blamey, N.J.F., Pironon, J. Lavin, P. (2014) The Piteiras emerald mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil: fluid-inclusion and gemmological perspectives. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 1571-1587.
Da Silva Lopes, P.H., Cesar-Mendes, J., Roeser, H. (2008): Ein neues Smaragdvorkommen in Brasilien – Die Rocha Mineracao Mine in Minas Gerais, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 59, 301-315
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 20).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 20).
    • Nova Era
Morteani, G., Preinfalk, C., and Horn, A.H. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 638-655.
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
    • Porteirinha
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 20).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 20).
  • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Caiçara do Rio do Vento
Neto, M. T. D. O. C., & Barbosa, R. V. N. (2008). As Esmeraldas De Lajes, Caiçara Do Rio Dos Ventos E São Tomé/rn. Holos-ISSN 1807-1600, 2, 92-104.
Neto, M. T. D. O. C., & Barbosa, R. V. N. (2008). As Esmeraldas De Lajes, Caiçara Do Rio Dos Ventos E São Tomé/rn. Holos-ISSN 1807-1600, 2, 92-104.
Neto, M. T. D. O. C., & Barbosa, R. V. N. (2008). As Esmeraldas De Lajes, Caiçara Do Rio Dos Ventos E São Tomé/rn. Holos-ISSN 1807-1600, 2, 92-104. J. C. (Hanco) Zwaan, Dorrit E. Jacob, Tobias Häger, Mário T. O. Cavalcanti Neto, and Jan Kanis EMERALDS FROM THE FAZENDA BONFIM REGION, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRAZIL Gems & Gemology Spring 2012
      • São Tomé
Neto, M. T. D. O. C., & Barbosa, R. V. N. (2008). As Esmeraldas De Lajes, Caiçara Do Rio Dos Ventos E São Tomé/rn. Holos-ISSN 1807-1600, 2, 92-104.
Neto, M. T. D. O. C., & Barbosa, R. V. N. (2008). As Esmeraldas De Lajes, Caiçara Do Rio Dos Ventos E São Tomé/rn. Holos-ISSN 1807-1600, 2, 92-104.
  • Tocantins
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Bulgaria
 
  • Kyustendil Province
E.Ya. Kievlenko, Geology of gems, 2003, p. 85
Dekov, V. M., Arnaudov, V., Munnik, F., Boycheva, T. B., & Fiore, S. (2009). Native aluminum: Does it exist?. American Mineralogist, 94(8-9), 1283-1286.
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Skeena Mining Division
      • Stewart
Can.Rockhound v.3, no.1
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mackenzie Mountains
Mercier, M. et al (2008) 35th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Abstracts of contributed papers, 15.; Hewton, M. L. (2012). Investigation of the Mountain River beryl (emerald variety) occurrence, Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories (MSc dissertation, Science: Department of Earth Sciences).
      • Tungsten
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
  • Nunavut
    • Committee Bay greenstone belt
Mining News North (2012) Emerald find gives literal meaning to Nunavut greenstone belt. Vol. 06, No. 42; Groat L, Brand A, Cempirek J, Kleespies P (2014) Emerald mineralization at the Anuri prospect, Nunavut, Canada. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 284
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
      • Brownridge Township
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
CanRockhound Vol.7, No. 2 (2003)
Brand, Allison A., Groat, Lee A., Linnen, Robert L., Garland, Mary I., Btraks, Frederick W., and Giuliani, Gaston, 2009, Emerald Lake Mineralization Associated with the Mavis Lake Pegmatite Group, near Dryden, Ontario, Canadian Mineralogist, v 47, p. 315-336.
  • Yukon
    • Watson Lake mining district
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Can Min (2002) 40, 1313-1338
China
 
  • Hunan
    • Yueyang
      • Pingjiang Co.
No reference listed
  • Xinjiang
    • Kashi Prefecture (Kashgar Prefecture; Qeshqer Prefecture)
      • Tashiku'ergan Co. (Taxkorgan Co.; Tashqurqan Co.)
Blauwet, D., Quinn, E.P., and Muhlmeister, S. (2005): Gems and Gemology 41, 56–57
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
        • Fuhai Co. (Burultokay Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
        • Qinghe Co. (Qinggil Co.; Chinggil Co.)
Yinlin Feng and Xiaopo Jiang (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 344-351; Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
  • Yunnan
    • Wenshan
      • Malipo County
Ottens, B. (2006): Lapis 31(4), 13-20; Xue, G., Marshall, D., Zhang, S., Ullrich, T.D., Bishop, T., Groat, L.A., Thorkelson, D.J., Giuliani, G., and Fallick, A.E. (2010): Economic Geology 105, 339-349; Zheng, Y.; Yu, X.; Guo, H. (2019) Major and Trace Element Geochemistry of Dayakou Vanadium-Dominant Emerald from Malipo (Yunnan, China): Genetic Model and Geographic Origin Determination. Minerals 9, 777.
Colombia
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel.
  • Boyacá Department
    • Chivor Municipality
Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages.; Morris, N. (2005) Diamonds and other gems. Appleseed Editions, East Sussex.; English ExtraLapis (2002) Emeralds of the World, 36-45.
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
    • Macanal Municipality
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
    • Maripí Municipality
      • La Pita
GIA, 2018
Jordi Fabre
Kevin Ward - The Mineral Gallery
GIA, 2018
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp36-45
Pogue, J.E. (1916) Emerald Deposits of Muzo, Colombia. Transactions of the AIME, 50, 910-934.; Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages. English ExtraLapis (2002) Emeralds of the World, 36-45.
Dr Carlos A. Ortiz P. collection
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages.; Robinson, George W. and King, Vandall T. (1989) What's New in Minerals? Sixteenth Annual Rochester Academy of Science Mineralogical Symposium. Mineralogical Record, 20(5), 387-399 (p. 394).; Morris, N. (2005) Diamonds and other gems. Appleseed Editions, East Sussex.
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
GIA, 2018
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
    • Otanche Municipality
      • La Glorieta
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
    • San Pablo de Borbur Municipality
Natural History Museum Vienna collection; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002, 36-45
  • Cundinamarca Department
    • Guavió-Guatéque mining district
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp36-45
      • Ubalá Municipality
Emerald and Other Beryls, John Sinkankas p426
Czech Republic
 
  • Liberec Region
    • Jizerské Mtn (Iser Mtn)
geological prospecting, 2008 - 2009, Czech geological Organization
  • South Bohemian Region
    • Písek District
Denmark
 
  • Greenland
    • Sermersooq
      • Nuuk (Godthåb)
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages [p.257]
Egypt
 
  • Red Sea
    • Eastern Desert
      • Sikait-Zabara region
Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976) Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262.; Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; English ExtraLapis (2002) Emeralds of the World, 36-45.; Grundmann, G., Morteani, G. (2008) Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 50(2), 168-187.
Ethiopia
 
  • Oromia Region
    • Kenticha pegmatite field
Pavel M. Kartashov data
From miners as sold at Tucson 2017
France
 
  • Normandy
    • Orne
      • Alençon
http://www.arehn.asso.fr/centredoc/livres/deboodt/complement.php
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Limoges
http://pujol.chez.tiscali.fr/ident/beryl.html
  • Occitanie
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Albères massif
        • Argelès-sur-Mer
          • Pegmatite field
Berbain,C., Riley, T., Favreau, G., (2012): Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères (Pyrénées-Orientales), Association Française de Micromineralogie, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs n°117, Tiré à part p.45.
Germany
 
  • Schleswig-Holstein
    • Kiel
      • Schönberg in Holstein
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
India
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
  • Jharkhand
    • East (Purbi) Singhbhum District
SHREERAM, S. S., SAHENDRA, S. and JYOTI, S. S. (2014), Genesis of Emerald Occurrences and Their Exploration Implications within Singhbhum Shear Zones, Eastern Indian Craton. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 1481–1482.
  • Rajasthan
    • Ajmer District
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
E. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 86; Babu, S. K. (1972). On the occurrence of chlorapatite at the Emerald Mine, Rajagarh village, Ajmer. Mineralogical Magazine, 38(300), 972-974.
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Salem District
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Italy
 
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Trontano
        • Pizzo Marcio
Boscardin, M., Demichele, V., Mattioli, V. (1976): Lo smeraldo della Val Vigezzo. La Gemmologia, 2, 21-26; Mattioli, V. (1979 a): I minerali di Pizzo Marcio in Valle Vigezzo. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 3 [1, serie 2], 2 (2-1979), 30-36; Mattioli, V. (1979 b): Minerali Ossolani. Ed. Arti Grafiche Medesi, Milano, 268 pp.; Appiani, R., Cini, V., Gentile, P., Mattioli, V., Preite, D., Vignola, P. (1995): Val Vigezzo - I minerali delle albititi. Ed. Linea Due S.r.l., Marnate (Varese), 90 pp.; Albertini, C. (1996): Das Valle Vigezzo (Verbano-Cusio-Ossola) in Piemont, Italien. Eine klassische Mineralfundstelle in den Alpen. Mineralien-Welt, 7, 2, 16-54; Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragd-Vorkommen der Welt. ExtraLapis, 21, 26-37; Guastoni, A., Diella, V., Pezzotta, F., Demartin, F. (2007): Vigezzite and associated Nb-Ta oxides of emerald pegmatitic deposits of Vigezzo Valley (Western Alps, Italy). Crystallization Processes in Granitic Pegmatites - International Meeting. Cavoli, Elba Island, Italy, 23rd-29th May 2005. Abstracts; http://www.minsocam.org/msa/Special/Pig/PIG_Articles/Elba%20Abstracts%2010%20Guastoni.pdf; Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.; Guastoni, A., Diella, V., Pezzotta, F. (2008): Vigezzite and associated oxides of Nb–Ta from emerald-bearing pegmatites of the Vigezzo valley, Western Alps, Italy. Canadian Mineralogist, 46, 619-633; Guastoni, A. (2012): LCT (lithium, cesium, tantalum) and NYF (niobium, yttrium, fluorine) pegmatites in the Central Alps. Proxies of exhumation history of the Alpine nappe stack in the Lepontine Dome. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Padova, Dept. of Geosciences, 159 pp.; Boscardin, M., Mattioli, V., Rocchetti, I. (2013): Minerali della Valle Vigezzo. Litotipografia Alcione, Lavis (Trento), 229 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Campo nell'Elba
          • San Piero in Campo
P. Orlandi, F. Pezzotta (1996) - Minerali dell’Isola d’Elba - Ed. Novecento Grafico, Bergamo, 245 pp.
    • Lucca Province
      • Stazzema
        • Ponte Stazzemese
Duchi G., Franzini M., Giamello M., Orlandi P., Riccobono F., 1993. The iron-rich beryls of Alpi Apuane. Mineralogy, chemistry and fluid inclusion. N. Jb. Mineral. Mh.: 193-207
        • Sant'Anna di Stazzema
Duchi G., Franzini M., Giamello M., Orlandi P., Riccobono F., 1993. The iron-rich beryls of Alpi Apuane. Mineralogy, chemistry and fluid inclusion. N. Jb. Mineral. Mh.: 193-207
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Lugo di Vicenza
Negri G.B. (1886-87): Zircone di Lonedo. Atti R. Ist. Ven. Sci. Lett. Arti, ser. 6, 5, 651-658; Panebianco R. (1886-87): Berillo e altre gemme di Lonedo. Atti R. Ist. Ven. Sci. Lett. Arti, ser. 6, 5, 387-396; Boscardin M., Girardi A., Violati Tescari O. (1975): Minerali nel Vicentino. Club Alpino Italiano, Sezione di Vicenza, 144 pp.; Boscardin M., Violati Tescari O. (1996): Gemme del Vicentino. Comune di Montecchio Maggiore, Museo Civico "G. Zannato", Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 114 pp.; Zordan A. (2014): Provincia di Vicenza. In: Zorzi F., Boscardin M. (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta dei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, 173-246.
Kazakhstan
 
  • East Kazakhstan
Gavrilenko et al. (2006): Emeralds from the Delbegetey deposit (Kazakhstan): mineralogical characteristics and fluid-inclusion study. Mineralogical Magazine, 70, 159-173.
  • Karaganda Region
Gavrilenko et al. (2006): Emeralds from the Delbegetey deposit (Kazakhstan): mineralogical characteristics and fluid-inclusion study. Mineralogical Magazine, 70, 159-173. ; Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
  • Kostanay Region
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 84
Madagascar
 
  • Atsimo-Andrefana
    • Benenitra
      • Ianapera
Marchand, P.(1995): Situation géologique des émeraudes de Ianapera, province de Tuléar (Madagascar. Revue de Gemmologie AFG. 124:13–16; Andrianjakavah et al.;(2009): Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar. Mineralium Deposita, 44 : 817-835
  • Betsiboka
    • Tsaratanàna
      • Brieville
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
  • Vatovavy Fitovinany
    • Mananjary
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Kanis, J. & Schwartz, D. (2001): Smaragde aus Afrika. ExtraLapis no. 21, p.62 [in german]
Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version] ; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Hänni, H. A. and Klein, H. H (1982): Ein Smaragdvorkommen in Madagascar. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Geschellschaft, 31 : 71-77; Vapnik, Ye., Moroz, I. Roth, M. and Eliezri, I. (2006): Formation of emeralds at pegmatite-ultramafic contacts based on fluid inclusions in Kianjavato emerald, Mananjary deposits, Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine 70: 141-158
Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version] ; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Cheilletz, A. et al. (2001): OS06 : TUpm30 : G5 : Emerald Deposits in Madagascar: Two Differents Types for one Mineralising Event:EUG XI.Symposium OS06 Mineralogy, Ore Geology and Mineral Resources.
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Schwartz, D. (1994): Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal Features. Gems & Gemology: Summer 1994: 88-101
Schwartz, D. (1994): Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal Features. Gems & Gemology: Summer 1994: 88-101
Schwartz, D. (1994): Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal Features. Gems & Gemology: Summer 1994: 88-101
Schwartz, D. (1994): Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal Features. Gems & Gemology: Summer 1994: 88-101
Schwartz, D. (1994): Emeralds from the Mananjary region, Madagascar: Internal Features. Gems & Gemology: Summer 1994: 88-101
Kanis, J. & Schwartz, D. (2001): Smaragde aus Afrika. ExtraLapis no. 21, p.62-63 [in german]; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
      • Antsenavolo
Kanis, J. & Schwartz, D. (2001): Smaragde aus Afrika. ExtraLapis no. 21, p.62 [in german]
Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
Mozambique
 
  • Zambezia Province
    • Alto Ligonha District
Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
    • Gilé District
      • Gilé
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
    • Uape
Namibia
 
  • Hardap Region
    • Daweb
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35. Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 51.
Nigeria
 
  • Kaduna
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
    • Nandu Village
Labeled Emerald specimen from the Nandu mine is in the Mario Pauwels collection
  • Nasarawa
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp52-59
  • Plateau
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Norway
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
  • Akershus
    • Eidsvoll
      • Minnesund
Nordrum, F.S., Raade, G. (2006): The emerald deposit at Byrud, Eidsvoll, S. Norway. Norsk Bergverkmuseums Skrift. 33, 9-16
  • Nordland
    • Bodø
Kristiansen, R. (1999): Berylliummineraler i Norge. STEIN 26 (2),8-23
Rekstad, J. (1917): III.Kyststrøket mellem Bodø og Folden. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse.79, 1-31 (p.16)
  • Telemark
    • Kragerø
      • Kragerø Archipelago
Larsen, A.O., Nordrum, F.S. & Langhof, J. (2017): Berylliummineraler fra Langøy, Kragerø. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2017: 5-15.
Pakistan
 
  • Gilgit-Baltistan
    • Gilgit District
      • Haramosh Mts.
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
    • Skardu District
      • Basha Valley (Basha Nala; Basna)
Ikram Mineralogy
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
    • Bajaur Agency
[Emeralds of the World - extraLapis nr2 - p24]
    • Mohmand Agency
      • Warsak (Warzak)
        • Ganadao (Gandahab; Ghandahab valley)
[Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]
    • Swat District (Swat Valley)
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Arif, M., & Moon, C. J. (1996). Chemistry of tourmaline from the emerald-hosting rocks in Swat, NW Pakistan. Geological Bulletin University of Peshawar, 29, 81-89.; Arif, M., Henry, D. J., & Moon, C. J. (2011). Host rock characteristics and source of chromium and beryllium for emerald mineralization in the ophiolitic rocks of the Indus Suture Zone in Swat, NW Pakistan. Ore Geology Reviews, 39(1), 1-20.
[Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
Zarek Rocks
Peru
 
  • Cuzco
    • Chuquibamba (Janac Chuquibamba)
Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
Portugal
 
  • Viana do Castelo
    • Ponte de Lima
      • Estorãos
Pedro Alves collection. Hydrothermal tungstates from Serra de Arga, North Portugal - Their relation with Be mineralizations. VIII CIGEOQ. 2011 C. Leal Gomes, P. Alves, P. Dias, R. Alves, G. Verduzco
Russia
 
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Adui Batholith
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 109
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 109
    • Beryozovsky
      • Sarapulka
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
    • Malyshevo
Popov, M. P., Sorokina, E. S., Kononkova, N. N., Nikolaev, A. G., & Karampelas, S. (2019, June). New Data on the Genetic Linkage of the Beryl and Chrysoberyl Chromophores of the Ural’s Emerald Mines with Chromium-Bearing Spinels of the Bazhenov Ophiolite Complex. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 486, No. 2, pp. 630-633). Pleiades Publishing.
Avdonin V.N., Polenov Yu.A. (2004) Essays on Uralian minerals, - UGGA press, p. 419 (in Rus.).
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
Dan Weinrich
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83; Zhitova, E. S., Popov, M. P., Krivovichev, S. V., Zaitsev, A. N., & Vlasenko, N. S. (2017). Quintinite-1M from the Mariinsky Deposit, Ural Emerald Mines, Central Urals, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 59(8), 745-751.
Avdonin V.N., Polenov Yu.A. (2004) Essays on Uralian minerals, - UGGA press, p. 419 (in Rus.).
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Kievlenko, E.Y. (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83.
Somaliland
 
Thomas R. Yager (2002) The Mineral Industries Of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, And Somalia — 2002. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook
  • Awdal
    • Borama District
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
  • Hargeisa (Hargeysa)
The 1995 ICA World Gemstone Mining Report/Part 1 ICA Gazette
Thomas R. Yager (2002) The Mineral Industries Of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, And Somalia — 2002. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo
    • Mopani District
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 89
Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
    • Murchison Range
      • Gravelotte
        • Gravelotte Emerald Mine
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Cairncross, B. and R. Dixon (1995) Minerals of South Africa: 188.
        • Willie Farm 787 LT
Minerals of South Africa
  • North West
    • Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati District
      • Schweizer-Reneke
Minerals of South Africa
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).
Spain
 
  • Galicia
    • Pontevedra
      • A Cañiza
Calvo,M. y García, J.R. (1997). Emerald and associated minerals from A Franqueira, Pontevedra, Spain. The Mineralogical Record, 28, 497-501.
Sri Lanka
 
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
      • Ratnapura
Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Switzerland
 
  • Valais
    • Goms
      • Binn
Schweizer Strahler 2003 Nr. 4; Marshall D., Meisser N., Ellis S., Jones P., Bussy F., Mumenthaler T. (2017): Formational Conditions For the Binntal Emerald Occurrence, Valais, Switzerland: Fluid Inclusion, Chemical Composition, and Stable Isotope Studies. Canadian Mineralogist 55, 725-741.
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
    • Karatu District
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp52-59
    • Lake Manyara
Journal of Gemology, Volume 26, No. 2 - Mineral Inclusions in Emeralds from Different Sources
  • Rukwa Region
    • Sumbawanga District
USGS (2003) Minerals Yearbook - Tanzania.
Ukraine
 
  • Kamenka massif
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
  • Zaporizhia Oblast
    • Priazovske
      • Middle Berda River
        • Rodionovskoe pegmatite field
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 84; Shatalov, N. N. (2017). Tectonics of the Balka Kruta ore cluster of the Near-Azovian mega-block of the Ukrainian shield. Геологічний журнал, (4), 41-52.
USA
 
  • California
    • Trinity Co.
      • Klamath Mountains
        • Coffee Mining District (Coffee Creek Mining District)
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 104.
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield County
www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com
        • Long Hill
  • Maine
    • Sagadahoc Co.
E.Ya. Kievlenko ( 2003) Geology of gems, p. 79
  • Montana
Christopher N. Wentzell; 'Sinkankas, John (1997) Gemstones of North America, Vol 3 (Geoscience Press, Yucson AZ); page 47.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Sinkankas, John (1997) Gemstones of North America, Vol 3 (Geoscience Press, Tucson AZ); page 47.
  • Nevada
    • Pershing Co.
      • Rye Patch Mining District
MacFall, 1951. Gem Hunter's Guide, 1st ed.
  • New Mexico
    • Taos Co.
      • Sangre de Cristo Mountains
New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources Museum No 17419
  • North Carolina
    • Alexander Co.
USGS , Mineral Resources On-Line Spatial Data, 2005; Mineralogical Record (2002) 33:263
U.S Bureau of Mines/Spatial Data from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System (Mars/Mils)CD-Rom,Sep,1995
      • Hiddenite
Rocks & Min.:60:84.
Rocks & Min.: 60: 65.; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:243; Mertie, John Beaver, Jr. (1959) Quartz crystal deposits of southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. USGS Bulletin: 1072-D
Kunz, G.F. (1907) History of the Gems found in North Carolina: Beryl Gems and Spodumene (Hiddenite). North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, Bulletin No. 12. Chapter 6, pages 37-48.; Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
Mineral Commodity Files ,Asheville Regional Office , North Carolina Geological Survey
Mineral Commodity Files, Asheville Regional Office, North Carolina Geological Survey
    • Burke Co.
      • South Mountain Mining District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Clay Co.
      • Buck Creek
Mineral Commodity Files, Asheville Regional Office, North Carolina Geological Survey
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Gaffney
U.S. Geological Survey,2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey,Reston,Virginia
U.S. Geological Survey,2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey,Reston,Virginia
      • Kings Mountain Mining District
Freed,Hilton (2000) "Forgotton Emeralds?: Mineralogical Record Vol.31,Nov-Dec 2000,p.518
      • Lawndale
MacFall, 1951. Gem Hunter's Guide, 1st ed.; :American Mineralogist,Vol.18,No.4,April,1933 pp 148-159; USGS Bull 1042G
      • Shelby
Rocks & Min.: 60:88.
    • Gaston Co.
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
    • Mitchell Co.
      • Grassy Creek
Brobst,Donald A.,(1962) Geology of the Spruce Pine District Avery, Mitchell,and Yancey Counties North Carolina:Geological Survey Bulletion 1122-A
Brobst,Donald A.,(1962) Geology of the Spruce Pine District Avery, Mitchell, and Yancey Counties North Carolina:Geological Survey Bulletion 1122-A
      • Spruce Pine Mining District
E.Ya.Kievlenko, Geology of gems, 2003, p. 77
        • Spruce Pine
Rocks & Min.:60:92.; American Mineralogist,Vol.18,No.4,April,1933 pp 148-159
    • Swain Co.
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
      • Bryson City Feldspar Mining District
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
  • South Carolina
Gems and Minerals of America-Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
Zambia
O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages. Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).
  • Copperbelt Province
    • Lufwanyama
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Behling, S. & Wilson, W.E. (2010) The Kagem Emerald Mine, Kafubu Area, Zambia. Mineralogical Record, 41: 59-67
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Seifert, A. V., Žáček, V., Vrána, S., Pecina, V., Zachariáš, J., & Zwaan, J. C. (2004). Emerald mineralization in the Kafubu area, Zambia. Bulletin of Geosciences, 79(1), 1-40.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrana, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, WB., Falster, A.U., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivula, J.I., Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Collection of Martin Slama
Collection of Martin Slama
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrana, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, WB., Falster, A.U., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivula, J.I., Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
    • Ndola
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
  • North-Western Province
    • Solwezi
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zimbabwe
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages.
  • Manicaland
    • Buhera District
Van King
Van King
Van King
    • Mutare District (Umtali District)
Susanne Schmid (2001) The Geology & Genesis of the ‘Kandemwa’ Emerald Deposit in Zimbabwe, Africa. in European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
  • Mashonaland West
    • Karoi District (Urungwe; Hurungwe District)
Bartholomew, D. S. (1990). Base metal and industrial mineral deposits of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Geological Survey, Mineral Resources Survey No. 22
  • Masvingo
    • Bikita Area
Bruce Cairncross (2004) Field Guide to Rocks and Minerals of Southern Africa
    • Masvingo (Fort Victoria)
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Bartholomew, D.S. (1990) Base metal and industrial mineral deposits of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Geological Survey, Mineral Resources Survey No. 22.
Bartholomew, D. S. (1990). Base metal and industrial mineral deposits of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Geological Survey, Mineral Resources Survey No. 22
  • Matabeleland South
    • Gwanda - Filabusi District
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 89
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 89
    • Insiza District
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 51.
    • Mweza Range (Wedja)
      • Sandawana-Belingwe District
Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch).; Mining Annual Review (1985) 427.; Sminia, T. and Zwaan, J.C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geologica, 131.
  • Midlands
    • Gweru District (Gwelo District)
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 90.
 
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