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Dioptase

This page kindly sponsored by Mariusz Oleszczuk
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About DioptaseHide

Formula:
CuSiO3 · H2O
Colour:
Emerald Green, blue-green
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
5
Specific Gravity:
3.28 - 3.35
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named in 1797 by Hauy from the Greek for "through" and "to see" in allusion to the visibility of internal cleavage planes.
Bright emerald-green modified rhombohedral crystals, usually less than 0.75 cm in size.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Dioptase.


Classification of DioptaseHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.CJ.30

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
J : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings (sechser-Einfachringe), without insular complex anions
Dana 7th ed.:
61.1.3.1
61.1.3.1

61 : CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
1 : Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
14.2.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
2 : Silicates of Cu

Pronounciation of DioptaseHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom
Debbie WoolfUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of DioptaseHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Emerald Green, blue-green
Streak:
Green
Hardness:
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {1011}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.28 - 3.35 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.296 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of DioptaseHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.652 - 1.658 nε = 1.704 - 1.710
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.052
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
O>E

Chemical Properties of DioptaseHide

Formula:
CuSiO3 · H2O

Crystallography of DioptaseHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3 - Rhombohedral
Space Group:
R3
Cell Parameters:
a = 14.566 Å, c = 7.778 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.534
Unit Cell V:
1,429.15 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
18
Morphology:
Long to short prismatic [0001], dominant forms {1120}, and {0221}, {1341}.
Twinning:
On {1011}, uncommon.

Crystallographic forms of DioptaseHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Dioptase no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Dioptase no.17 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.29 Å(80)
4.90 Å(40)
4.06 Å(40)
2.60 Å(100)
2.44 Å(40)
2.11 Å(50)
1.506 Å(40)
1.420 Å(50)

Type Occurrence of DioptaseHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
A secondary mineral in the oxidized zones of copper deposits.

Synonyms of DioptaseHide

Other Language Names for DioptaseHide

Common AssociatesHide

CerussitePbCO3
ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
FluoriteCaF2
HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
QuartzSiO2
WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
772 photos of Dioptase associated with CalciteCaCO3
179 photos of Dioptase associated with QuartzSiO2
165 photos of Dioptase associated with MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
145 photos of Dioptase associated with PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
125 photos of Dioptase associated with ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
124 photos of Dioptase associated with ShattuckiteCu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2
99 photos of Dioptase associated with DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
98 photos of Dioptase associated with CerussitePbCO3
93 photos of Dioptase associated with WulfenitePb(MoO4)
39 photos of Dioptase associated with DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.CJ.Avdeevite(Na,Cs)(Be2Li)Al2(Si6O18)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
9.CJ.05BazziteBe3Sc2(Si6O18)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CJ.05BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CJ.05IndialiteMg2Al3(AlSi5O18)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CJ.05StoppaniiteBe3Fe3+2(Si6O18) · H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CJ.10Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cccm
9.CJ.10Sekaninaite(Fe,Mg)2Al3(AlSi5O18)Orth.
9.CJ.15aCombeiteNa4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
9.CJ.15bImandriteNa12Ca3Fe3+2(Si6O18)2Orth.
9.CJ.15aKazakoviteNa6Mn2+Ti(Si6O18)Trig.
9.CJ.15cKoashviteNa6(Ca,Mn)(Ti,Fe)Si6O18 · H2OOrth.
9.CJ.15aLovozeriteNa2Ca(Zr,Ti)(Si6O12)[(OH)4O2] · H2OMon.
9.CJ.15aTisinaliteNa3H3(Mn,Ca,Fe)TiSi6(O,OH)18 · 2H2OTrig.
9.CJ.15aZirsinaliteNa6(Ca,Mn2+,Fe2+)Zr(Si6O18)Trig.
9.CJ.15aLitvinskiteNa2(◻,Na,Mn)ZrSi6O12(OH,O)6Mon. m : Bm
9.CJ.15aKapustiniteNa5(Na,Mn2+)<1Zr(H2Si6O18)Mon. 2/m
9.CJ.25BaratoviteKCa7(Ti,Zr)2Li3Si12O36F2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.CJ.25KatayamaliteKLi3Ca7Ti2(SiO3)12(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.CJ.25AleksandroviteKCa7Sn2Li3Si12O36F2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.CJ.35KostyleviteK2Zr(Si3O9) · H2OMon.
9.CJ.40PetarasiteNa5Zr2(Si6O18)(Cl,OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.CJ.45Gerenite-(Y)(Ca,Na)2(Y,REE)3Si6O18 · 2H2OTric.
9.CJ.50OdintsoviteK2Na4Ca3Ti2Be4Si12O38Orth.
9.CJ.55MathewrogersitePb7FeAl3GeSi12O36(OH,H2O)6Trig.
9.CJ.60PezzottaiteCs(Be2Li)Al2(Si6O18)Trig. 3 : R3

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.2.2ShattuckiteCu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.2.3PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.2.4GilaliteCu5Si6O17 · 7H2OMon.
14.2.5ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2OOrth.
14.2.6LitidioniteCuNaKSi4O10Tric.
14.2.7ReinhardbraunsiteCa5(SiO4)2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.2.8CuprorivaiteCaCuSi4O10Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/ncc
14.2.9KinoiteCa2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]Mon. 2/m : P21/m
14.2.10StringhamiteCaCu(SiO4) · H2OMon.
14.2.11ApachiteCu9Si10O29 · 11H2OMon.

Fluorescence of DioptaseHide

Non-fluorescent.

Other InformationHide

Electrical:
Pyroelectric
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for DioptaseHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Delamétherie, J.C. (1793) De la cristallisation d'une émeraude. Observations sur la Physique, sur l’Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts: 42: 154-154.
Haüy, R.J. (1797) Dioptase (N.N.), c'est-à-dire, visible au travers. Journal des Mines: 5: 274-275.
Haüy, C. (1798) Sur la dioptase. Bulletin des Science, par la Société Philomathique: 1798: 101-101.
Vauquelin, L.N. (1798) De la dioptase de Hauy, émeraudine de delamétherie. Essai dur la dioptase. Observations sur la Physique, sur l’Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts: 46: 301-302.
Traite de Minéralogie: III: 477.
Belov, N.V. (1957) New silicate structures. Acta Crystallographica: 10: 757-758.
Belov, N.V., Maksimov, B.A., Nozik, Y.Z., Muradyan, L.A. (1978) The refinement of the crystal structure of dioptase Cu6(Si6O18)(H2O)6 by the X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 239: 842-845.
Soviet Physics – Doklady: 23: 215-217.
Adams, D.M., Gardner, I.R. (1974) Single-crystal vibrational spectra of beryl and dioptase. Dalton Transactions: 1974: 1502-1505.
McKeown, D.A., Kim, C.C., Bell, M.I. (1995) Vibrational analysis of dioptase Cu6Si6O18·6(H2O) and its puckered six-member ring. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 22: 137-144.
Goryainov, S.V. (1996) Dehydration-induced changes in the vibrational states of dioptase. Journal of Structural Chemistry: 37: 58-64.
O. Janson, A. A. Tsirlin, M. Schmitt, H. Rosner (2010) Large quantum fluctuations in the strongly coupled spin-1/2 chains of green dioptase: a hidden message from birds and trees. Physical Reviews B: 82: 014424. [http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.3765v1]

Internet Links for DioptaseHide

Localities for DioptaseHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Angola
 
  • Uíge Province
Gysin, M. (1957) Les minérais de cuivre du gisement de Mavoio (Angola). Boletim da Sociedade Geológica de Portugal, 12(3), 31-40.; Van hee, Paul (2019) De Mavoio mijn, Uige, Angola - een mythische kopermijn... gaat ze terug open,... of is ze terug open? Geonieuws, 44(4), 101-104 [in Dutch].
Argentina
 
  • Córdoba Province
    • Colón Department
      • Dumesnil
Colombo, F., Lira, R., Ripley, E. M., & del Tanago, J. G. (2011). Geology, mineralogy and possible origin of the copper mineralization in marble near Saldan, Cordoba (Argentina). Journal of GEOsciences, 56(3), 299-316.
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • Mareeba Shire
      • Chillagoe district
Haupt, J., 2012. Minerals from the Muldiva mines, Chillagoe, Queensland. Australia and New Zealand Micromineral News, 5, 12-24
  • South Australia
    • Olary Province
      • Boolcoomatta Reserve (Boolcoomata Station)
Vera Munro-Smith (2006) Cobalt Mineralisation in Selected Australian Deposits. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney.
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Estrie
      • Les Sources RCM
        • Asbestos
HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. and SPERTINI, F. (2013) The Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Québec, Canada: A mineralogical review. Mineralogical Record, 44, 375-417.
Chile
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Sierra Gorda
        • Caracoles
R. S. W. Braithwaite et al.: Mineralogical Magazine 68(3):527-539 (2004)
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Chuquicamata District
maurizio dini collection; Lambiel, F., Dold, B. S., & Fontboté, L. (2012). Present copper-rich" gel" formation in the giant porphyry copper deposit of Chuquicamata (northern Chile).
  • Arica and Parinacota
    • Los Camarones
sample analysed by Tony Kampf, senior curator of NHM of LAC, California
  • Atacama
    • Chañaral Province
      • El Salado
        • Cerro Negro district
Uwe Kolitsch collection (SXRD-analysed)
Sernageomin database 2005;Stgo de Chile
[MinRec 10:123]
Mr. Terry Szenics. Joan Rosell specimen & photo, photo id 108163
maurizio dini collection - analysed material
    • Copiapó Province
      • Cachiyuyo de Llampos district
collected and analysed by french mineralogist Remy Phillippe
samples analysed by Gerhard Moehn
Sample from the collection of Copiapó School of Mine
      • Garín Nuevo district
Hède frédéric
      • Ligas Negras-Cuestecilla District
Sernageomin database 2005;Stgo de Chile
      • Tierra Amarilla
        • Las Pintadas mining district
          • Cerro Pintado
Mr. Terry Szenics; Maurizio Dini collection
      • Zapallar district
Gerhard Möhn collection
    • Huasco Province
      • Vallenar
        • San Antonio mining district
Morales A.(1920); "Informe preliminar sobre las minas del mineral de San Antonio, Enami, Stgo de Chile.; Morales A.(1920); "Informe preliminar sobre las minas del mineral de San Antonio", Enami, Stgo de Chile.
China
 
  • Xinjiang
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Yizhou District
Jiyuan Zhou, Bingfang Cui, and Yan Lu (1999): Mineral Deposits 18(3), 209-218
Czech Republic
 
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Sokolov District
No reference listed
        • Krásno (Schönfeld)
Petr Pauliš (2000): Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Čech, Kuttna, Kutná Hora
  • Olomouc Region
    • Jeseník District
      • Javorník
Sejkora, J., Pauliš, P., Škoda, R.: Uranové ložisko Zálesí v Rychlebských horách. Minerál, 2007, roč. 15, č. 4, s. 305-238.
DR Congo
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
  • Haut-Katanga
    • Kambove District
Jordi Fabre specimen
      • Shinkolobwe
Mineralogical Record: 20: 287-288.
Deliens, M. (1996) Overzicht van de mineralogie van de koper-, kobalt- en uraniumvoorkomens in Zuid-Shaba (Zaïre). Pages 35-49 in: Schatten der Aarde. Van mineraal tot juweel. Tentoonstelling in de abdij Saint-Gérard de Brogne van 27 april tot 27 oktober 1996. Catalogus opgemaakt onder de leiding van R. Warin, AGAB en P. Van hee, MKA (in Dutch).; http://www.champ-hannut.be/fichierpdf/Rev%20SP%202017%20NL.pdf
    • Kipushi
Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., and Melcher, F. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 263-297.
  • Lualaba
    • Kambove District
    • Kolwezi mining district
      • Kolwezi
Wilson, W. E. (2018) The Musonoi mine, Kolwezi District, Lualaba Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Mineralogical Record 49:236-304
Mineralogical Record 22: 13-20, 28.; http://www.champ-hannut.be/fichierpdf/Rev%20SP%202017%20NL.pdf
      • Mutoshi (Ruwe)
Lapis 17(3), 13-40 (1992); Deliens, M. L (1989) Agardite-(y) De Mutoshi, Shaba, Zaire. Annales de la Societe Geolique de Belgique 112:207-213
France
 
  • Occitanie
    • Hérault
      • Le Puech
[Le Règne Minéral 1997, 13, p.5-18]
Germany
 
  • Saxony
    • Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge
      • Altenberg
Mineralien-Welt, (2), 17-39.
  • Schleswig-Holstein
    • Plön
      • Grebin am See
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
Iran
 
  • Isfahan Province
    • Nain County
      • Anarak District
P. Bariand and P. Herpin, Bull. Soc. Franç. Minér. Crist. , 1963, LXXXVI, pp. 133-135.
  • Kerman Province
    • Rafsanjan County
      • Pariz
K. J. Henley (1970) Cupriferous Sericite from the Sar Cheshmeh Porphyry Copper Ore, Kerman Province, Iran. Mineralogical Magazine 37:945-947.
Israel
 
  • Southern District (HaDarom District)
    • Eilat
Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.
Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Genoa
        • Borzoli
Giuseppe Pipino - L'antica miniera di Monte Ramazzo e i suoi minerali - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano, vol. 8, fasc. 3, 1977; Bracco et al. (2009): Prie, 5, 17-22.
  • Piedmont
    • Metropolitan City of Turin
      • Traversella
Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo, (10), 1-54.
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Domusnovas
        • Oridda
Stara P., Rizzo R. and Tanca G. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e minerali. E.M.Sa. Ed., pagg. 105-106.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Capoliveri
          • Cape Calamita Mine (Calamita Mine)
L. Dell'Anna, C.L. Garavelli (1967) - Plancheite di Capo Calamita (Isola d'Elba) - Per. Min., 36: 126-146.
Japan
 
  • Shimane Prefecture
    • Ochi district
Watanabe, H., Tazaki, K., Islam, A. B. M., & Khodijah, C. S. (2003). 1-7. Copper biomineralization with banded structure at Dogamaru mine, Shimane Prefecture, Japan.
Kazakhstan (TL)
 
  • Karaganda Region
    • Bukhar-Zhyrau
      • Altyn-Tyube area
[MinRec 23:495]; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
Kazakhstan/Russia
 
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
Mexico
 
  • Baja California
    • Ensenada Municipality
      • El Arco
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
      • Las Palomas
Panczner(1987):159,181 & 259.
  • Durango
    • San Dimas Municipality
      • San Dimas District
        • Tayoltita
Panczner(1987):181,212.
  • Guadalajara-Nogales Highway
Rob Lavinsky.
  • Sonora
    • Álamos Municipality
      • Álamos
Panczner (1987): 181 & 262.
    • Hermosillo Municipality
      • Hermosillo
Panczner (1987): 181.
    • Santa Cruz Municipality
      • Cuitaca
Jordi Fabre
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Tinghir Province
      • Alnif County
        • Alnif
Tom Praskier has been to the locality and confirmed dioptase with (unknown) tests
  • Souss-Massa Region
    • Taroudant Province
      • Amelal
No reference listed
Namibia
 
  • Kunene Region
Brandstetter, R. (2012): Dioptas aus Namibia: Sensationelle Neufunde aus der Christoph Mine im Kaokoland. Lapis. 37 (1):13-15
Niedermayr, G., Schnaitmann, E. A., Brandstätter, F. (2008): Das Dioptas-Shattuckit-Vorkommen Kandesei im Kakokoland [sic]. Mineralien-Welt 19, 76-93 (in German).; Bowell, R J et al (2013) Minerals of the Kaokoveld District, Kunene Region, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 44:485-504
Schnaitmann, E. A. & Jahn, S. (2010): Mineralien aus Schürfen im Kaokoveld, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 21 (2), 78-90.
Jakob, G. (1987): Reise zur Dioptas-Mine "Omaue" im Kaoko-Veld. LAPIS 12 (4), 11-14; Palfi, A. (2005): Spessartin- und Dioptas-Mineralisationen im Kaokoland, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 16 (4), 49-61 (in German). ; Bowell, R J et al (2013) Minerals of the Kaokoveld District, Kunene Region, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 44:485-504
Schnaitmann, E. A. & Jahn, S. (2010): Mineralien aus Schürfen im Kaokoveld, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 21 (2), 78-90.
    • Opuwo Rural
Bezing, L. von., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2016) Namibia Minerals and Localities II. Edition Krüger-Stiftung, Bode Verlag GmbH, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 195 pg (in English)
Schnaitmann, E. A. & Jahn, S. (2010): Mineralien aus Schürfen im Kaokoveld, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 21 (2), 78-90.
Niedermayr, G. & Schnaitmann, E. A. (2010): Neuigkeiten aus Namiba. Mineralien-Welt 21 (6), 89-96.
Bezing, L. von., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, (in English)
Bezing, L. von., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 522 pg (in English)
- Brandstätter, F.; Niedermayr, G.; Schnaitmann,E. A.; Walter F. (2011): Neue Fundstelle in Namibia: Die Van-der-Plas-Mine im Kaokoland. Mineralien Welt 22 (5), 66-75.
  • Oshikoto Region
    • Tsumeb
[MinRec 19:117, 19:337, 8:Tsumeb 23/49/71, 7:133]
Personally collected by Don Windeler in 2017
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein
[Mineralogical Record 28:124]
Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 109-130.; Cook, R. B. (2002). Connoisseur's Choice: Dioptase, Tsumeb, Namibia. Rocks & Minerals, 77(3), 176-180.
      • Kombat
Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
Am Min (1959) 44:682-685
Henglein, M. 1921. Dioptas und plancheitlagerstatten aus der Umgebung von Guchab im Otavigebirge Deutsch-Sudwestafrikas. Z. prakt. Geol. 29:53–56.
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern. (in German)
New Zealand
 
  • Manawatu-Wanganui Region
    • Tararua District
      • Maharahara
Railton, G.L¹., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages. (¹published as G.L. Railton but his initials should be G.T. not G.L. - Errata sheet inserted in publication).
  • Nelson Region
Railton, G.L., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin No. 104.
  • Waikato Region
    • Hauraki District
Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
    • Thames-Coromandel District
Fraser, C. (1910) The Geology of the Thames Subdivision, Hauraki, Auckland. New Zealand Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 10 (New Series), New Zealand Government, Wellington, 136 pages.
Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
Peru
 
  • Arequipa
    • Caraveli Province
(specimens on sale in Lima, May 2004)
  • Ica
Guido del Castillo (2004) Jewels of the Earth - Minerals of Peru.
    • Pampa Nazca
Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 652; Mineralogical Record: 10: 180; Mineralogical Record: 16: 303.
  • Bouenza Department
(Demetrius Pohl, http://www.mindat.org/mesg-6-234115.html )
    • M'Fouati District
Demetrius Pohl, Mindat messageboard post, 2011.
See photo http://www.mindat.org/photo-700854.html
Redpath Museum collection, McGill University, Montreal; De Putter, T., & Nikis, N. (2016). The Mindouli (Republic of the Congo) mining district revisited (1).: geological context and preliminary results on the formation of complex, multiphase, Cu-Pb-Zn deposits. 5th International Geologica Belgica Meeting 2016, At Mons
  • Pool Department
    • Kindanba District
      • Renéville
        • Renéville Mine (Djoué Mines)
Demetrius Pohl, http://www.mindat.org/mesg-6-234115.html
    • Mindouli District
Rob Lavinsky
        • Kimbanga prospects (Kimbanga mine)
Demetrius Pohl, field observations, 2011.
Demetrius Pohl, field observations, 2011.
Demetrius Pohl, field observations, 2011.
(Demetrius Pohl, http://www.mindat.org/mesg-6-234115.html )
Demetrius Pohl, http://www.mindat.org/mesg-6-234115.html; De Putter, T., & Nikis, N. (2016). The Mindouli (Republic of the Congo) mining district revisited (1).: geological context and preliminary results on the formation of complex, multiphase, Cu-Pb-Zn deposits. 5th International Geologica Belgica Meeting 2016, At Mons
Kevin Conroy observance
        • Pimbi hill
Dan Weinrich specimen
[MinRec 24:394]
(Demetrius Pohl, http://www.mindat.org/mesg-6-234115.html )
Romania
 
  • Bihor
    • Nucet
South Africa
 
  • Gauteng
    • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
Rocks & Minerals 83:5 pp 410-421
  • North West
    • Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati District
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, pg 202;
  • Northern Cape
    • Namakwa
Minerals of South Africa
T. Q. Meyer, W. A. van der Westhuizen, G. J. Beukes, H. de Bruiyn and A. E. Schoch (1986) An Occurrence of the Hydrous Lead-Copper-Iron Silicate Creaseyite in South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine 50:346-348
UK
 
  • England
    • Cumbria
      • Allerdale
        • Caldbeck
          • Potts Gill
Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to specimens in the Kingsbury Collection and Hartley, 1984).
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous Mineral Localities: Pyromorphite Group Minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
USA
 
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
    • Cochise County
[MinRec 24:421]
[MinRec 12:305]
      • Johnny Lyon Hills
        • Tres Alamos Wash
Robert Jenkins Raman Spectroscopy
      • Little Dragoon Mountains
        • Cochise Mining District
Rolf Luetcke
    • Gila Co.
      • Dripping Spring Mountains
        • Banner Mining District
          • Christmas
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205.; Eastlick, J.T., 1968, Geology of the Christmas mine and vicinity, Banner mining district, Arizona, in Ridge, J.D., ed., Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933?1967: American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc., p. 1191-1210.
Chester S. Lemanski, Jr.
          • Hayden area
            • Chilito
Keith, S.B. (1972), Mineralogy and paragenesis of the 79 mine lead-zinc-copper deposit, Min.Rec.: 3: 247-264.
      • Globe-Miami Mining District
        • Miami-Inspiration Mining District
          • Inspiration
            • Miami-Inspiration deposit
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205.
      • Mazatzal Mountains
        • Payson Mining District (Green Valley Mining District)
          • Birch Mesa
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 165, 205; Lausen, C. & E.D.Wilson (1925), Gold and copper deposits near Payson, AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 120; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96.
          • Oxbow Estates
            • Moore Mountain area
              • Oxbow Gulch
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205; Lausen, C. & E.D. Wilson (1925), Gold and copper deposits near Payson, AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 120; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96.
    • Graham Co.
      • Galiuro Mountains
        • Rattlesnake Mining District
          • Copper Creek area
MRDS database Dep. ID #10095423, MRDS ID #M050062.
    • Greenlee Co.
      • Copper Mountain Mining District (Clifton-Morenci Mining District)
        • Clifton
          • Chase Creek headwaters
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205; Hills, R.C. (1882), Dioptase from AZ, Amer.Jour.Sci.: 23: 325; Kunz, G.F. (1885), On remarkable copper minerals from AZ, Annals NY Acad. Sci.: 3: 275-278; Lindgren, W. & W.F. Hillebrand (1904), Minerals from the Clifton-Morenci district, AZ, Amer.Jour.Sci.: 18: 448-460; Lindgren, W. (1905), The copper deposits of the Clifton-Morenci district, AZ, USGS PP 43; Guild, F.N. (1910), The Mineralogy of Arizona, The Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96.
        • Garfield Gulch
Dana, System of Mineralogy, 6th ed.: A2: 35.
MRDS database Dep. ID #10048279, MRDS ID #M800403.
        • Morenci
Merritt Stephen Enders (2000) The Evolution of Supergene Enrichment in the Morenci Porphyry Copper Deposit, Greenlee County, Arizona. PhD Thesis, University of Arizona
MRDS database Dep. ID #10048276, MRDS ID #M800399.
        • Santa Rosa Gulch
MRDS database Dep. ID #10048293, MRDS ID #M800427.
    • La Paz Co.
      • Buckskin Mountains
        • Cienega Mining District
          • Osborne Well
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205.
        • Midway Mining District
          • Mammoth-Chicago-Copper Glance Mine group
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96.
Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd Edition, John W. Anthohy et al, page 205
      • New Water Mountains
Hunt, W. (1983) Calciovolborthite from the New Water Mountains Yuma County, Arizona. Mineralogical Record 14:119
          • Moore Mine group
[MinRec 14:119]
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205.
      • Salome
        • Martin Peak
          • Bonanza and Golden Eagle Mine group
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 232.
    • Maricopa Co.
    • Mohave County
      • Artillery Mountains
        • Rawhide Wash
MRDS file #10037093.
      • Cerbat Mts (Cerbat Range)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205; Thomas, B.E. (1949), Ore deposits of the Wallapai district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 44:663-705.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 173; Thomas, B.E. (1949), Ore deposits of the Wallapai district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 44:663-705; Searls, F. Jr. (1950), The Emerald Isle copper deposit, Econ.Geol.: 45:175-176; Newberg, D.W. (1967), Geochemical implications of chrysocolla-bearing alluvial gravels, Econ.Geol.: 62:932-956.
    • Pima Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205.
      • Silver Bell Mountains
        • Silver Bell Mining District
rolf luetcke
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.:
    • Pinal Co.
      • Dripping Spring Mountains
        • Mineral Creek Mining District (Ray Mining District)
Jones, R.W. and W. E. Wilson. 1983. The Ray Mine. Mineralogical Record Vol. 14(5): 311-322.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206, 277.
          • Scott Mountain
Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
      • Galiuro Mountains
        • Table Mountain Mining District
          • Table Mountain area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of Arizona, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56; Simons, F.S. (1964), Geology of the Klondyke quadrangle, Graham and Pinal Cos., AZ, USGS PP 461; Rocks & Min.: 60(1): 5.
      • Mammoth Mining District
        • Mammoth
          • Tucson Wash
Van King
        • Tiger
          • St. Anthony deposit
Galbraith, F.W. and Kuhn, T.H. (1940) A new occurrence of dioptase in Arizona. American Mineralogist, 25, 708-710.; Palache, C. (1941) Diaboleite from Mammoth mine, Tiger, Arizona. American Mineralogist, 26, 605-612.; Speckels, M.L. (1965) Minerals for everyone: the complete guide to micromounts. Gembooks, Mentone, California. Kipfer, A. (1974) Ein neues Hobby: Kleinmineralien sammeln und präparieren. Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, W. Keller & Co., Stuttgart, 64 pp. Bideaux, R.A. (1980) Famous Mineral Localities: Tiger, Arizona. Mineralogical Record, 11, 155-181.; Anthony, J.W. et al. (1995) Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed., 206.;
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 83.
      • Pinal Mountains
        • Pioneer Mining District
          • Superior
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206; Barnes, R. & M. Hay (1983), Famous mineral localities: The Magma Mine, Min.Rec.: 14: 72-82; Min.Rec.: 20:69, 387; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 72; Wilson, E.D., et al (1950), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part I, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 156: 94.; Presmyk, L. (2020). The Magma Mine, Pioneer District, Superior, Pinal County, Arizona. Rocks & Minerals, 95(1), 68-91.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206; Short, M.N., et al (1943), Geology and ore deposits of the Superior mining area, AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 151; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96.
      • Riverside Mining District
        • Riverside area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96; Smith, W.B. (1887b), Dioptase from Pinal Co., AZ, Proc. CO Sci. Soc.: 2: 159-160.
      • Tohono O'odham Indian Reservation
        • Silver Reef Mining District
          • Tat Momoli Mountains
            • Silver Reef Mountains
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206.
        • Slate Mountains
          • Casa Grande Mining District
            • North Komelik area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206.
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Black Rock Mining District
        • Constellation
          • Amazon Wash
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96.
    • Yuma Co.
Andrew Haighton Collection
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Inyo Mts (Inyo Range)
        • Kearsarge Mining District [2]
          • Kearsarge
Paul M. Adams (2003) Unusual vanadium minerals from the Green Monster Mine, Inyo County, California. Mineral News, 19, #8.
    • Mono Co.
      • Benton Range
        • Blind Spring Mining District (Blind Spring Hill Mining District; Benton Mining District)
          • Benton
            • Blind Spring Hill
              • Buscones Peak
Ransome, Alfred Leslie (1940), General geology and ores of the Blind Spring Hill mining district, Mono County, California, California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division Mines (Report 36): 36: 141; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 169.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Clark Mts (Clark Mountain Range)
        • Clark Mountain District (Clark District)
          • Mohawk Hill
[Mineralien Welt 1/93:44]
      • Silver Lake Mining District
        • Silver Lake
          • Silver Lake Mountain
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 169.
        • Soda Mountains
          • Baker
            • Otto Mountain
Personally collected by Bruce Kelley, April 2015
EDS analyzed by Bob Housley.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 119
          • Zzyzx (Fort Soda; Soda; Soda Springs; Zzyzx Mineral Spring Resort)
Crowley, Jack A. (1977), Minerals of the Blue Bell mine, San Bernardino County, California. Mineralogical Record: 8: 495; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 514; Rocks and Minerals: 60(1): 8; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1198–1204, 2009; Mills, S. J., Kampf, A. R., Kolitsch, U., Housley, R. M. & Raudsepp, M. (2010) The crystal chemistry and crystal structure of kuksite, Pb3Zn3Te6+P2O14, and a note on the crystal structure of yafsoanite, (Ca,Pb)3Zn(TeO6)2. American Mineralogist, 95(7), 933–938.
  • Michigan
    • Ontonagon Co.
      • Mass City
Rocks & Min.:58:112.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Spring Mountains
        • Goodsprings Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
          • Goodsprings
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
[Hewett, D (1931) Geology and Ore Depositsof the Goodsprings Quadrangle, Nevada; USGS PP 162]
[Hewett, D (1931) Geology and Ore Depositsof the Goodsprings Quadrangle, Nevada; USGS PP 162]
[Hewett, D (1931) Geology and Ore Depositsof the Goodsprings Quadrangle, Nevada; USGS PP 162]
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Eureka Co.
      • Roberts Mountains
        • Roberts Mining District
Kenneth Coleman
    • Lander Co.
      • Battle Mountain Mining District
K. Starnes, personal ID, 1988
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Bristol and Jackrabbit Mining Districts
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Andover Township
Cummings, W. L., 2007, Personal communication
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd rev. ed., 1996
    • Luna Co.
      • Cookes Peak Mining District
        • Old Hadley Mining District
Walstrom 2006 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
      • Victorio District (Gage District)
Walstrom 2006 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
    • Otero Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Adams Co.
      • Gettysburg
Rocks & Minerals 81:229-234
  • Utah
    • Juab Co.
Dmitry Stepanenko collection
Zimbabwe
 
  • Mashonaland West
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
    • Makonde District (Lomagundi District)
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 44.; Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
  • Matabeleland North
    • Hwange District
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 44.
  • Midlands
    • Gokwe North District
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
    • Kwekwe District (Que Que District)
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 44.
 
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