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Cryolite

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About CryoliteHide

Formula:
Na2NaAlF6
Colour:
Colourless, white, brown, grey, black; colourless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Greasy, Pearly
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
2.96 - 2.98
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
From the Greek κρύος, frost, and λίθος, stone, meaning "ice-stone" in allusion to its appearance.
A curiosity mineral. Colourless samples of this sodium-aluminium-fluoride mineral seemingly disappear in water due to the proximity of their refractive indices.

Historically, cryolite was used as an aluminium ore and later in the electrolytic processing of the aluminium ore bauxite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Cryolite.


Classification of CryoliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1799
3.CB.15

3 : HALIDES
C : Complex halides
B : Neso-aluminofluorides
11.6.1.1

11 : HALIDE COMPLEXES
6 : Aluminofluorides - Isolated Octahedra
8.6.5

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
6 : Halides of Al

Physical Properties of CryoliteHide

Vitreous, Greasy, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on {001}
Colour:
Colourless, white, brown, grey, black; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Parting:
On {001} and {110}, producing cuboidal forms.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
2.96 - 2.98 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.973(2) g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of CryoliteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.339 - 1.339 nβ = 1.339 - 1.339 nγ = 1.340 - 1.340
2V:
Measured: 43°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.001
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r < v

Chemical Properties of CryoliteHide

Formula:
Na2NaAlF6
Common Impurities:
Fe,Ca

Crystallography of CryoliteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.7564(3) Å, b = 5.5959(2) Å, c = 5.4024(2) Å
β = 90.18°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.386 : 1 : 0.965
Unit Cell V:
234.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals usually cuboidal with c, , or modified by r, v, k; also short prismatic [001]. {110} faces striated [111], [111], or [110]. Massive, coarsely granular.
Twinning:
Very common. Often repeated or polysynthetic with simultaneous occurrence of several twin laws, and reflecting the pseudo-orthorhombic symmetry of the unit cell.

1. By a 90° or 270° rotation on [110], penetration, common.

2. By a 180° rotation on [110], rhombic section (110), repeated, less common.

3. By a 120° rotation on [021], composition surface irregular; common, especially in granular material, as fine lamellae and probably always secondary.

4. By a 180° rotation on [111], rhombic section near (110), repeated; rare (not in granular material).

5. On (001) or by a 180° rotation on [100], composition plane (001).

6. On (100) or by a 180° rotation on [001], composition plane (100).

7. On (112), composition plane (112).

8. On (112), composition plane (112).

9. On (110), composition plane (110).

10. By a 180° rotation on [111], rhombic section near (110).

11. On (211).

(Palache et al (1951), Dana's System of Mineralogy, 7th. ed., vol. 2: 111).
Comment:
Spacegroup: P21/n (Mitchell et al. 2016)

Crystallographic forms of CryoliteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Cryolite no.15 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Cryolite no.16 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0005118CryoliteHawthorne F C, Ferguson R B (1975) Refinement of the crystal structure of cryolite The Canadian Mineralogist 13 377-38219750293
0007739CryoliteYang H, Ghose S, Hatch D M (1993) Ferroelastic phase transition in cryolite, Na3AlF6, a mixed fluoride perovskite: high temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction study and symmetry analysis of the transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19 528-54419930293
0007740CryoliteYang H, Ghose S, Hatch D M (1993) Ferroelastic phase transition in cryolite, Na3AlF6, a mixed fluoride perovskite: high temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction study and symmetry analysis of the transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19 528-54419930293
0007741CryoliteYang H, Ghose S, Hatch D M (1993) Ferroelastic phase transition in cryolite, Na3AlF6, a mixed fluoride perovskite: high temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction study and symmetry analysis of the transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19 528-54419930293
0007742CryoliteYang H, Ghose S, Hatch D M (1993) Ferroelastic phase transition in cryolite, Na3AlF6, a mixed fluoride perovskite: high temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction study and symmetry analysis of the transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19 528-54419930293
0007743CryoliteYang H, Ghose S, Hatch D M (1993) Ferroelastic phase transition in cryolite, Na3AlF6, a mixed fluoride perovskite: high temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction study and symmetry analysis of the transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19 528-54419930293
0007744CryoliteYang H, Ghose S, Hatch D M (1993) Ferroelastic phase transition in cryolite, Na3AlF6, a mixed fluoride perovskite: high temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction study and symmetry analysis of the transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19 528-54419930293
0007745CryoliteYang H, Ghose S, Hatch D M (1993) Ferroelastic phase transition in cryolite, Na3AlF6, a mixed fluoride perovskite: high temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction study and symmetry analysis of the transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19 528-54419930293
0007746CryoliteYang H, Ghose S, Hatch D M (1993) Ferroelastic phase transition in cryolite, Na3AlF6, a mixed fluoride perovskite: high temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction study and symmetry analysis of the transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19 528-54419930293
0007747CryoliteYang H, Ghose S, Hatch D M (1993) Ferroelastic phase transition in cryolite, Na3AlF6, a mixed fluoride perovskite: high temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction study and symmetry analysis of the transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19 528-54419930293
0007748CryoliteYang H, Ghose S, Hatch D M (1993) Ferroelastic phase transition in cryolite, Na3AlF6, a mixed fluoride perovskite: high temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction study and symmetry analysis of the transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19 528-54419930293
0007749CryoliteYang H, Ghose S, Hatch D M (1993) Ferroelastic phase transition in cryolite, Na3AlF6, a mixed fluoride perovskite: high temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction study and symmetry analysis of the transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19 528-54419930293
0007750CryoliteYang H, Ghose S, Hatch D M (1993) Ferroelastic phase transition in cryolite, Na3AlF6, a mixed fluoride perovskite: high temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction study and symmetry analysis of the transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19 528-54419930293
0017654CryoliteNaray-Szabo S, Sasvari K (1938) Die Struktur des Kryoliths Na3 Al F6 _cod_database_code 1010932 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 99 27-3119380293
0014033CryoliteRoss K C, Mitchell R H, Chakhmouradian A R (2003) The crystal structure of synthetic simmonsite, Na2LiAlF6 Journal of Solid State Chemistry 172 95-1012003natural0293
0014034CryoliteRoss K C, Mitchell R H, Chakhmouradian A R (2003) The crystal structure of synthetic simmonsite, Na2LiAlF6 Journal of Solid State Chemistry 172 95-1012003synthetic0293
0014038CryoliteZhou Q, Kennedy B J (2004) High-temperature powder synchrotron diffraction studies of synthetic cryolite Na3AlF6 Journal of Solid State Chemistry 177 654-6592004synthetic0293
0014039CryoliteZhou Q, Kennedy B J (2004) High-temperature powder synchrotron diffraction studies of synthetic cryolite Na3AlF6 Journal of Solid State Chemistry 177 654-6592004synthetic0293
0014040CryoliteZhou Q, Kennedy B J (2004) High-temperature powder synchrotron diffraction studies of synthetic cryolite Na3AlF6 Journal of Solid State Chemistry 177 654-6592004synthetic0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Epitaxial Relationships of CryoliteHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
Epitaxy Comments:
Oriented growths (artificial material).

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Paragenetic Mode(s):
Geological Setting:
Late stage mineral in granitic pegmatites, vapor phase mineral in rhyolites.

Type Occurrence of CryoliteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Massive white transparent to translucent.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Geological Setting of Type Material:
As a pegmatitic body in a granite stock intruded into gneiss.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of CryoliteHide

Other Language Names for CryoliteHide

Asturian:Criolita
Catalan:Criolita
Czech:Kryolit
Danish:Kryolit
Dutch:Cryoliet
Estonian:Krüoliit
Italian:Criolite
Japanese:氷晶石
Norwegian:Kryolitt
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Kryolitt
Polish:Kriolit
Portuguese:Criolita
Simplified Chinese:冰晶石
Slovenian:Kriolit
Spanish:Criolita
Sundanese:Kriolit
Ukrainian:Кріоліт
Vietnamese:Cryôlit

Relationship of Cryolite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
ElpasoliteK2NaAlF6Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
SimmonsiteNa2LiAlF6Mon.

Common AssociatesHide

ChioliteNa5Al3F14
Feldspar GroupA group of silicate minerals.
FluoriteCaF2
PachnoliteNaCa[AlF6] · H2O
QuartzSiO2
TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
65 photos of Cryolite associated with SideriteFeCO3
19 photos of Cryolite associated with FluoriteCaF2
18 photos of Cryolite associated with ThomsenoliteNaCa[AlF6] · H2O
14 photos of Cryolite associated with QuartzSiO2
14 photos of Cryolite associated with TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
13 photos of Cryolite associated with CryolithioniteNa3Al2(LiF4)3
12 photos of Cryolite associated with GalenaPbS
8 photos of Cryolite associated with ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
7 photos of Cryolite associated with ProsopiteCaAl2F4[(OH)4-xFx], x = 0.0–1.0
7 photos of Cryolite associated with ChioliteNa5Al3F14

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.CB.05CryolithioniteNa3Al2(LiF4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
3.CB.15ElpasoliteK2NaAlF6Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.CB.15SimmonsiteNa2LiAlF6Mon.
3.CB.20ColquiriiteCaLi[AlF6]Trig.
3.CB.25WeberiteNa2Mg[AlF6]FOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Immm
3.CB.30KarasugiteSrCa[Al(F,OH)7]Mon.
3.CB.35UsoviteBa2CaMgAl2F14Mon.
3.CB.40PachnoliteNaCa[AlF6] · H2OMon. 2/m
3.CB.40ThomsenoliteNaCa[AlF6] · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.CB.45CarlhintzeiteCa2[AlF6]F · H2OTric.
3.CB.50YaroslaviteCa3Al2F10(OH)2 · H2OOrth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.6.1ZharchikhiteAlF(OH)2Mon.
8.6.2ChloraluminiteAlCl3 · 6H2OTrig.
8.6.3CadwaladeriteAl5(H2O)3(OH)12·n(Cl,H2O)Amor.
8.6.4CryolithioniteNa3Al2(LiF4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
8.6.6ChioliteNa5Al3F14Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mnc
8.6.7ElpasoliteK2NaAlF6Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
8.6.8WeberiteNa2Mg[AlF6]FOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Immm
8.6.9Hydrokenoralstonite Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
8.6.10KoeneniteNa4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
8.6.11 Chlor-manasseiteMgxAl(OH)2x+2Cl · (x-0.8)H2O
x about 1.75
8.6.12GearksutiteCa[Al(F,OH)5(H2O)]Tric. 1 : P1
8.6.13ProsopiteCaAl2F4[(OH)4-xFx], x = 0.0–1.0Mon. 2/m : B2/b
8.6.14YaroslaviteCa3Al2F10(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
8.6.15CarlhintzeiteCa2[AlF6]F · H2OTric.
8.6.16ColquiriiteCaLi[AlF6]Trig.
8.6.17ThomsenoliteNaCa[AlF6] · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.6.18PachnoliteNaCa[AlF6] · H2OMon. 2/m
8.6.19Zirklerite(Fe,Mg,Ca)9Al4Cl18(OH)12 · 14H2O (?)Trig.

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Melting Point: 1020°. Inverts to an isometric form at about 560°. Weakly thermoluminescent.
Notes:
Soluble in H2SO4 with evolution of HF. Slightly soluble in water. Readily soluble in AlCl3 solution.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Synthetically produced material is an important electrolyte for the production of aluminium from bauxite (Bayer and Hall–Héroult processes).

References for CryoliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Abildgaard (1799) Allgemeines Journal der Chemie, Berlin 1798-1803 (Scheerer’s Journal): 2: 502 (as Chryolith, Thonerde mit Flussäure).
Abildgaard, [P. C.] (1800): Sur plusieurs pierres nouvelles envoyées de Norwège.
Annales de Chimie. 32, 193-196. (as Chryolithe)
d'Andrada (1800) Allgemeines Journal der Chemie, Berlin 1798-1803 (Scherer’s Journal): 4: 37.
Karsten, D.L.G. (1800) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. First edition (1800): 28: 73 (as Kryolith).
Klaproth (1800) Journal Phys.: 51: 473.
Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol.: 2: 157 (as alumine fluatée alkaline).
Vauquelin (1801) Annales de chimie, Paris: 37: 89.
Klaproth, M.H. (1802): Untersuchung des Kryoliths, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Dritter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 207-214
Glocker, E.F. (1831) Handbuch der Mineralogie, Nürnberg: 958.
Hagemann (1866) American Journal of Science: 42: 268.
Brandl analysis in: Groth (1882) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 7: 386.
Cross and Hillebrand (1883) American Journal of Science: 26: 283.
Krenner (1883) Mathematische und Naturwissenschaftliche Berichte aus Ungarn, Berlin, Budapest, Leipzig: 1: 151.
Baumhauer (1885) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 11: 139.
Hillebrand (1885) USGS Bull. 20: 48.
Joly (1887) Proceedings of the Royal Society of london: 41: 250.
Mügge (1908) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 34.
Bøggild (1912) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 50: 349.
Wallerant (1912) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 35: 177.
Bernard (1916) Mineralogical Magazine: 14: 202.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 5: 53.
Poduroff (1925) Mineralogicheskoe Obshchestvo, Leningrad, Zapiski: 54: 207.
Doelter, C. (1930) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4 [3]: 303.
Doelter, C. (1931) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4 [3]: 283, 289.
Cesàro and Mélon (1936) Bulletin Académie royale des sciences de Belgique, Brussels, Cl. Sc.: 362.
Menzer (1938) Naturwissenschaften: 26: 236.
Náray-Szabó and Sasvári (1938) Mat. Termés. Ért.: 57: 664.
Náray-Szabó and Sasvári (1938)Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 99: 27.
Zintl and Morawietz (1939) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 240: 145.
Birch, F. (1942)(editor) Handbook of Physical Constants, Chairman, J.F. Schairer, and H. Cecil Spicer. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 36, New York: 169, 231.
Tananaev and Lelchuk (1943) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s.: 41: 114.
Brosset (1946) Arkiv för Kemi, Mineralogi och Geologi, Stockholm: 21A, no. 9.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 110-113.
Canadian Mineralogist (1975): 13: 377-382.
Bailey, J.C. (1980): Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 29, 1-45.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 145.

Internet Links for CryoliteHide

Localities for CryoliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Brazil
 
  • Amazonas
    • Presidente Figueiredo
Horbe, M. A., Horbe, A. C., Costi, H. T., & Teixeira, J. T. (1991). Geochemical characteristics of cryolite-tin-bearing granites from the Pitinga mine, northwestern Brazil—a review. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40(1), 227-249.
A. C. Bastos Neto, V. P. Pereira, L. H. Ronchi, E. F. de Lima and J. C. Frantz (2009): The world-class Sn, Nb, Ta, F (Y, REE, Li) deposit and the massive cryolite associated with the albite-enriched facies of the Madeira A-type granite, Pitinga mining district, Amazonas State, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist 47, 1329-1357.; Horbe, A. M. C., & da Costa, M. L. (1999). Geochemical evolution of a lateritic Sn–Zr–Th–Nb–Y–REE-bearing ore body derived from apogranite: the case of Pitinga, Amazonas—Brazil. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 66(1), 339-351.; Sighnolfi, G., Costi, H. T., Horbe, A. M. C., Borges, R. M. K., Dall'agnol, R., & Rossi, A. (2008). Mineral chemistry of cassiterites from Pitinga Province, Amozonian Craton, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 30(4), 775-782
  • Santa Catarina
G. Traversa et al., European Journal of Mineralogy, 1996, Vol. 8, N° 1, pp. 193-208.; G Traversa et al (1994) Petrology and Mineral Chemistry of the Alkaline District of Lages, SC, Brazil. Geochem Brazil 8:179-214
Canada
 
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
GRICE, J.D. (1989) Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec: Canada's Most Diverse Mineral Locality. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 100-108; 166-175.; HORVÁTH, L., GAULT, R.A. (1990) The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire. Mineralogical Record, 21, 281-359.
      • Lajemmerais RCM
        • Varennes & St-Amable
HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER HORVÁTH, E., GAULT, R.A., and TARASSOFF, P. (1998) Mineralogy of the Saint Amable sill, Varennes and Saint Amable, Québec, Canada. Mineralogical Record, 29, 83 118.
Horváth, L., Pfenninger-Horváth, E., Gault, R. A., & Tarassoff, P. (1998): Mineralogy of the Saint-Amable Sill, Varennes and Saint-Amable, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 29: 83-118.
    • Montréal
GRICE, J.D. (1989) A Mineral Locality in Montreal City. In: Famous Mineral Localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 109-114; 176-178.; TARASSOFF, P., HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2006) Famous mineral localities: the Francon quarry, Montréal, Québec. The Mineralogical Record, 37, 5-60.
Czech Republic
 
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Karlovy Vary District
      • Horní Blatná
        • Boží Dar (Gottesgab)
Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 477-492.
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Teplice District
Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 477-492.
Europe
 
  • Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge; Krušné hory)
Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 477-492.
Greenland
 
  • Qeqqata
    • Kangerlussuaq Fjord (Søndre Strømfjord)
Pauly, H. (1946): Medd. fra Dansk Geol. Forening. 11, 30-46
  • Sermersooq
    • Arsuk Fjord
      • Ivittuut (Ivigtut)
Scherer's Allg. Journal D. Chemie,(1799) 2, p. 502; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 99, 112.;Petersen, O.V. and Secher, K. (1993): The minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24 (2): 1-65 (p.36)
Kazakhstan
 
  • East Kazakhstan
    • Tarbagatai Range
      • Akzhaylyautas Mts (Akzhailyautas Mts; Akjaylautas Mts; Akzhalautas Mts)
Pavel M. Kartashov data; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
Namibia
 
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek Rural
      • Aris
Garvie, L. A. J., Devouard, B., Groy, T. L., Cámara, F. and Buseck, P. R. (1999): Crystal structure of kanemite, NaHSi2O5•3H2O, from the Aris phonolite, Namibia. Am. Mineral., 84, 1170-1175; Uwe Kolitsch (single-crystal X-ray diffraction); [http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/aris.htm]; Kolitsch, U., Blaß, G., Jahn, S., Cámara, F., von Bezing, L., Wartha, R. R., Tremmel, G., Sturla, M., Cerea, P., Skebo, M. and Ciriotti, M. E. (2016): Aris - mineralogy of the famous alkaline phonolite. AMI - Associazione Micromineralogica Italiana, Cremona, Italy, 95 pp.
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Omatako
      • Kalkfeld
American Mineralogist, Vol. 84, pp. 1117-1125, 1999.; New Data on Minerals (2004): 39: 50-64
    • Otjiwarongo
Buhn, B., Rankin, A.H., Schneider, J. and Dulski, P. (2002). The nature of orthomagmatic carbonatitic fluids precipitating REE, Sr-rich fluorite: fluid-inclusion evidence from the Okorusu fluorite deposit, Namibia. Chemical Geology, 186, 75-98.
Nigeria
 
  • Nasarawa
Akintola, O. F., & Adekeye, J. I. D. (2008). Mineralization controls and petrogenesis of the rare metal pegmatites of nasarawa area, central nigeria. Earth Sciences Research Journal; Vol. 12, núm. 1 (2008); 44-61 Earth Sciences Research Journal; Vol. 12, núm. 1 (2008); 44-61 2339-3459 1794-6190.
  • Plateau
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
Am Min 51:299-323
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
Norway
 
  • Viken
    • Lunner
Eldjarn, K. (1981): Kryolitt fra Gjerdingen i Nordmarka. NAGS-nytt 8 (2), 11-12. Raade, G. & Haug, J.(1982): Gjerdingen. Fundstelle seltener Mineralien in Norwegen. LAPIS 7, 9-15
Poland
 
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Wodzisław County
      • Radlin
Łukasz Kruszewski (2012) Unique chloride assemblage of exhalative origin from burning coal-mining dump in Radlin (Rybnik Coal Area, S Poland). Mineralogical Society of Poland Special Papers 40
Romania
 
  • Harghita
Hirtopanu, P. (2006). One hundred minerals for one hundred years (dedicated to the Centennial of the Geological Institute of Romania). In 3rd Conference on Mineral Sciences in the Carpathians, Miskolc Hungary. Acta Mineralogica–Petrographica, Abstract series (Vol. 5, p. 86).
Russia
 
  • Buryatia
    • Mama River Basin
      • Maigunda River
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.; Vladykin, N. V., & Sotnikova, I. A. (2017). Petrology, geochemistry and source characteristics of the Burpala alkaline massif, North Baikal. Geoscience Frontiers, 8(4), 711-719.
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Ilmen Mountains
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
  • Murmansk Oblast
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/khib.htm
Kirnarskiy, Yu.M., Kozyreva, L.V. [Кирнарский, Ю.М., Козырева, Л.В.] (1974): On the carbonate veins in rocks of the Khibiny alkaline massif [О карбонатных жилах в породах Хибинского щелочного массива]. In: Minerals and parageneses of minerals of magmatic and metasomatic rocks [Минералы и парагенезисы минералов магматических и метасоматических горных пород]. Nauka, Leningrad, pages 196-202 (in Russian); Dudkin, O.B., Minakov, F.V. [Дудкин, О.Б., Минаков, Ф.В.] (1976): A new type of carbonate mineralisation in foyaites of the Khibiny massif [Новый тип карбонатной минерализации в фойяитах Хибинского массива]. In: Materials on the mineralogy and geochemistry of alkaline rocks of the Kola peninsula [Материалы по минералогии и геохимии щелочных пород Кольского полуострова]. Kola Branch, USSR Academy of Science Press [Издательство Кольского филиала АН СССР], Apatity, pages 159-174 (in Russian); Kozyreva, L.V., Zorina, M.L., Romanova, T.S. [Козырева, Л.В., Зорина, М.Л., Романова, Т.С.] (1976): A find of cryolite and dawsonite in the Khibiny massif [Находка криолита и давсонит в Хибинском массиве]. In: Minerals and parageneses of minerals of rocks [Минералы и парагенезисы минералов горных пород]. Nauka [Наука], Leningrad, pages 67-70 (in Russian); Kostyleva-Labuntsova, E.E., Borutskiy, B.E., Sokolova, M.N., Shlyukova, Z.V., Dorfman, M.D., Dudkin, O.B., Kozyreva, L.V., Ikorskiy, S.V. [Костылева-Лабунцова, Е.Е., Боруцкий, Б.Е., Соколова, М.Н., Шлюкова, З.В., Дорфман, М.Д., Дудкин, О.Б., Козырева, Л.В., Икорский, С.В.] (1978): Mineralogy of the Khibiny massif [Минералогия Хибинского массива]. Volume 1: Magmatism and post-magmatic transformations [Магматизм и постмагматические преобразования]. Nauka, Moscow, Москва, 227 pp.; Volume 2: Minerals [Минералы]. Nauka, Moscow, 585 pp. (in Russian); Khomyakov, A.P. (1995): Mineralogy of hyperagpaitic alkaline rocks. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 223 pp.; Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Yu., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Men'shikov, Yu.P. (2005): Khibiny. Laplandia Minerals Ltd. (in association with the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland), Apatity, 468 pp.
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
    • Lovozersky District
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Kedykverpakhk Mountain
        • Karnasurt mine (Kedyk area)
Pekov, I.V., and Agakhanov, A.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(7), 583-589.
  • Primorsky Krai
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
  • Tuva
    • Kaa-Khemsky District
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
P.M. Kartashov data; USGS Open File Report 2005-1252 p175
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706; USGS Open File Report 2005-1252 p20; Sharygin, V. V., & Vladykin, N. V. (2014). Mineralogy of cryolite rocks from the Katugin massif, Transbaikalia, Russia. Abstract Book of 30th International Conference on “Ore Potential of Alkaline, Kimberlite and Carbonatite Magmatism,” Antalya, Turkey, 166-168.; Savel’eva, V. B., Bazarova, E. P., Khromova, E. A., & Kanakin, S. V. (2017). Fluorides and Fluorcarbonates in Rocks of the Katugin Complex, Eastern Siberia: Indicators of Geochemical Mineral Formation Conditions. Geology of Ore Deposits, 59(7), 561-574.; E. V. Sklyarov, D. P. Gladkochub, A. B. Kotov, A. E. Starikova, V. V. Sharygin, S. D. Velikoslavinsky, A. M. Larin, A. M. Mazukabzov, E. V. Tolmacheva, E. A. Khromova (2016): Genesis of the Katugin rare-metal ore deposit: Magmatism versus metasomatism. Russian Journal of Pacific Geology 10, 155–167.; Starikova, A. E., Bazarova, E. P., Savel’eva, V. B., Sklyarov, E. V., Khromova, E. A., & Kanakin, S. V. (2019) Pyrochlore-Group Minerals in the Granite-Hosted Katugin Rare-Metal Deposit, Transbaikalia, Russia. Minerals, 9(8), 490.
Saint Helena
 
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
Spain
 
  • Aragón
    • Huesca
      • Tena Valley
        • Sallent de Gállego
Am Min 51:299-323
Ukraine
 
  • Donetsk Oblast
    • Azov Sea Region
Sharygin, V.V. (2015): Zincian micas from peralkaline phonolites of the Oktyabrsky massif, Azov Sea region, Ukrainian Shield. European Journal of Mineralogy: 27(4): 521-533
  • Zhytomyr Oblast
Lyckberg, P., Chornousenko, V. & Wilson, W. E. (2009): Volodarsk-Volynski, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine. Mineralogical Record, 40, 473-506.; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.; Bailey, J. C. (1980). Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: a petrologic review. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, 29, 1-45.
Yurk Yu.Yu., Gurov E.P., Gurova E.P. (1973) Pecularities of fluorin mineralogy of Ukrainian crystalline shield, - Naukova Dumka, Kiev, pp.184 (in Russian).; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
USA
 
  • California
    • San Diego County
      • Ramona Mining District
        • Ramona
David London, George B. Morgan VI, and James L. Maner (2016) Pegmatites of the Little Three mine, Ramona, San Diego County, California. in Second Eugene E. Foord Pegmatite Symposium July 15-19, 2016 Colorado School of Mines campus, Golden, Colorado
  • Colorado
    • Boulder Co.
      • Jamestown Mining District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • El Paso Co.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 112; "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 14, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
Am Min 51:299-323
Am Min 51:299-323
Am Min 51:299-323; American Mineralogist (1936): 20: 319-333
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Fremont Co.
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 16, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Armbrustmacher, T. J. (1988) Geology and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado. USGS Professional Paper: 1049-F
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Garfield Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Jefferson Co.
      • Clear Creek pegmatite Province
Meeves, H., et al (1966), Reconnaissance of beryllium-bearing pegmatite deposits in six western states, US Bur. Mines Info. Circ. 8298: 29 (Table A-1).
    • Rio Blanco Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
MILTON, C. (1977): Mineralogy of the Green River Formation. Mineralogical Record 8, 368-379.
  • Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
      • Fitting Mining District
        • Gillis Range
Mineralogical Record: 31: 204.
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Grafton
  • New Mexico
    • Colfax Co.
      • Springer
        • Point of Rocks Mesa (Pecks Mesa)
DeMark, R. S. (1989): Micromounting in New Mexico. Mineralogical Record. 20: 64.; Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • Texas
    • Hudspeth Co.
Am. Min. 74:865-869 (1989)
Am Min 72:1122-1130; O'Neill, L. C. (2014). REE-Be-UF mineralization of the Round Top laccolith, Sierra Blanca Peaks, Trans-Pecos Texas (MS dissertation).
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Virginia
    • Amelia Co.
      • Winterham
[L.E. Kearns, 1995 - Mineralogical Record Vol 26 No.6 - "Alumino-Fluorides from the Morefield Pegmatite"]; Richards, R. P., Kearns, L. E., & Cook, W. R. (1998). Morphology of Chiolite twins from the Morefield mine, Amelia County, Virginia. Canadian mineralogist, 36, 1009-1016.
  • Wisconsin
    • Marathon Co.
      • Wausau Intrusive Complex
        • Nine Mile pluton
Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:233
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
 
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