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Citrine

This page kindly sponsored in memory of Laszlo Z. Valachi
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About CitrineHide

Formula:
SiO2
Colour:
Yellow - Orange
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
7
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
From citrina (color as yellow as citron).
A variety of Quartz

A yellow to yellow-orange or yellow-green variety of quartz.

09660570014946259973952.jpg
A yellow-green citrine crystal with smoky phantoms.
00003410014946259981963.jpg
A cut natural citrine from Norway
02118990014946259985283.jpg
A natural citrine from Salamanca, a classic citrine locality
09660570014946259973952.jpg
A yellow-green citrine crystal with smoky phantoms.
00003410014946259981963.jpg
A cut natural citrine from Norway
00754560014949685496996.jpg
A natural citrine from Salamanca, a classic citrine locality
09660570014946259973952.jpg
A yellow-green citrine crystal with smoky phantoms.
00003410014946259981963.jpg
A cut natural citrine from Norway
03208390014946259982477.jpg
A natural citrine from Salamanca, a classic citrine locality

The cause of the color is still under debate. At least some citrine is colored by aluminum-based and irradiation-induced color centers related to those found in smoky quartz (Lehmann, 1972; Maschmeyer et al., 1980). Accordingly, transitions to smoky quartz ("smoky citrine") exist, many citrines show smoky phantoms. Like smoky quartz, these types of citrines pale when heated above 200-500°C and turn yellow again when irradiated (Lehmann, 1970). There appear to be at least two types of yellow Al-based color centers with different thermal stability (Schmetzer, 1988). Since the yellow color centers are often more stable than the smoky color centers, some smoky quartz can be turned into citrine by careful heating (Nassau and Prescott, 1977). Natural citrine, as well as citrine produced by heating smoky quartz, is dichroic in polarized light.


It has also been suggested that iron is the cause of color, as artificial crystals grown in an iron-bearing solution turn out yellow. However, the dichroic behavior of the lab-grown crystals differs from that in natural citrine (Rossmann, 1994).

04273680014946259988707.jpg
Dichroism of citrine (right) compared to smoky quartz (left) and heated amethyst (center)
04813450014946259993881.jpg
Thermal behaviour of citrine (two crystals in the center), compared to heated amethyst and amethyst when heated to 380°C
04028600014946260003376.jpg
An amethyst geode cut into 2 halves, the right one was heated to turn the amethyst into "citrine".
04273680014946259988707.jpg
Dichroism of citrine (right) compared to smoky quartz (left) and heated amethyst (center)
01727920014949685496501.jpg
Thermal behaviour of citrine (two crystals in the center), compared to heated amethyst and amethyst when heated to 380°C
04028600014946260003376.jpg
An amethyst geode cut into 2 halves, the right one was heated to turn the amethyst into "citrine".
06662950014946260008616.jpg
Dichroism of citrine (right) compared to smoky quartz (left) and heated amethyst (center)
04813450014946259993881.jpg
Thermal behaviour of citrine (two crystals in the center), compared to heated amethyst and amethyst when heated to 380°C
04028600014946260003376.jpg
An amethyst geode cut into 2 halves, the right one was heated to turn the amethyst into "citrine".

Note: Natural citrine is very rare. Large quantities of amethyst, usually of lesser quality, are heated to turn it yellow or orange and sold as "citrine." Because the color is now caused by finely distributed iron minerals (mostly hematite and goethite), heated amethyst is not citrine in the strict sense, and also shows no dichroism in polarized light.
That a crystal shows dichroism does not mean it is natural citrine, it just means it is not heated amethyst. Certain smoky quartz and rock crystals can be turned yellow by careful heat treatment and/or irradiation, and these crystals will show dichroism.
Thin coatings of iron oxides on colourless quartz, as well as inclusions of yellow iron oxides ("limonite"), may simulate citrine.

Quartz colored by inclusions, or coatings, of any kind is not called citrine.



Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Citrine.


Physical Properties of CitrineHide

Vitreous
Colour:
Yellow - Orange
Comment:
dichroic
Hardness:

Chemical Properties of CitrineHide

Formula:
SiO2

Crystallography of CitrineHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal

Synonyms of CitrineHide

Other Language Names for CitrineHide

Basque:Zitrino
Bulgarian:Цитрин
Dutch:Citrien
Finnish:Sitriini
French:Citrine
Hungarian:Citrin
Latvian:Citrīns
Lithuanian:Citrinas
Polish:Cytryn
Portuguese:Citrino
Romanian:Citrin
Russian:Цитрин
Simplified Chinese:黃水晶
黄晶
Slovak:Citrín
Swedish:Citrin
Turkish:Sitrin

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
22 photos of Citrine associated with Smoky QuartzSiO2
20 photos of Citrine associated with QuartzSiO2
16 photos of Citrine associated with AmethystSiO2
9 photos of Citrine associated with MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
8 photos of Citrine associated with DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
7 photos of Citrine associated with HematiteFe2O3
7 photos of Citrine associated with CalciteCaCO3
7 photos of Citrine associated with ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
5 photos of Citrine associated with FluoriteCaF2
4 photos of Citrine associated with Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
Citrine is a variety of quartz which is usually quite harmless unless broken or powdered. Broken crystals and masses may have razor-sharp edges that can easily cut skin and flesh. Handle with care. Do not grind dry since long-term exposure to finely ground powder may lead to silicosis.

References for CitrineHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Georgius Agricola (1546) "De Natura Fossilium" (Book VI). Dover reprint Mark Chance Bandy & Jean A. Bandy translation Dover Publications p. 120
Dana, 1892, 187 - "Syst. Min. 6th Ed"
Chudoba, K. F. (1962) Some relations between the causes of amethyst, smoky quartz, and citrine colors as given by modern science. Mineralogicheskii Sbornik (Lvov): 16: 91-105.
Samoilovich, M.I., Tsinober, L.I., Kreishop, V.N. (1969) The nature of radiation-produced citrine coloration in quartz. Soviet Physics-Crystallography: 13: 626-628.
Lehmann, G. (1972) Yellow color centers in natural and synthetic quartz. Physik der Kondensierten Materie: 13: 297-306.
Nassau, K., Prescott, B.E. (1977) Smoky, blue, greenish yellow, and other irradiation-related colors in quartz. Mineralogical Magazine: 41: 301-312.
Maschmeyer, D., Niemann, K., Hake, K., Lehmann, G., Räuber, A. (1980) Two modified smoky quartz centres in natural citrine. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 6: 145-156
Schmetzer, K. (1988) Thermal stability of yellow color centers in natural citrine. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 2: 71-80.
Rossman, G.R. (1994) Colored varieties of the silica minerals. In: Reviews in Mineralogy, Vol.29, Silica - Physical behavior, geochemistry and materials applications, Mineralogical Society of America.
Pan, Y., Nilges, M.J., Mashkovtsev, R.I. (2008) Radiation-induced defects in quartz. II. Single-crystal W-band EPR study of a natural citrine quartz. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 35: 387-397.

Internet Links for CitrineHide

Localities for CitrineHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Angola
 
  • Moxico Province
    • Alto Zambeze City Council
António Manuel Ináçio Martins collection
Argentina
 
  • Catamarca Province
    • Antofagasta de la Sierra Department
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
    • Belén Department
      • Papachacra
http://www.papachacraminerals.com.ar/english/aboutpap.htm.
  • Misiones Province
    • Iguazú department
Hugo A. Peña (1970): Minerales y rocas de aplicación de la Provincia de Tucumán. Secretaría de Estado de Comercio, Industria y Minería. Dirección Provincial de Minas. Tucumán. República Argentina.
    • Graneros Department
      • Cerro Quico
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry´s collection.
    • Tafí del Valle Department
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry´s collection.
      • Cerro Pichao
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
      • El Infiernillo
        • El Infiernillo pegmatite
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Clive Co.
Patrick Gundersen
    • Drake Co.
      • Ewingar State Forest
P.Gundersen (personal communication)
    • Gough Co.
Personal collection
Barnes R.G., Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W., Henley H.F., and Stroud W.J. (2001) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Keith Compton
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
Minerals of Broken Hill, W.D. Birch (Ed), 1999
  • Northern Territory
    • Central Desert Region
      • Harts Range (Harts Ranges; Hartz Range; Hartz Ranges)
        • Mt Riddock Station
NT Mines + personal collecting
      • Jinka Station
Thompson, D. (ed) (1986) A Guide to Fossicking in the Northern Territory. Northern Territory Geological Survey, Northern Territory Department of Mines and Energy, 2nd ed., 73p.
  • Queensland
    • Etheridge Shire
      • Mount Surprise
http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/mines/fossicking/pdf/obriens_creek.pdf
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Kimba
Barnes L. C., et al, (1980), Some Semiprecious and Ornamental Stones of South Australia, Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia.
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Echunga goldfield
Paul Stahl collection
  • Tasmania
    • Glamorgan Spring Bay municipality
R Bottrill collection
  • Victoria
    • Rural City of Wangaratta
Cochrane, G. W., Bowen, K. G. (1971) Tin deposits of Victoria (No. 60). Geological Survey of Victoria Bulletin No. 60.
Dunn, E.J.,(1913). Bulletins of the Geological Survey of Victoria No. 25. The Woolshed Valley, Beechworth. Department of Mines.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Spittal an der Drau District
      • Heiligenblut am Großglockner
        • Große Fleiß valley
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
        • Zirmsee area
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • Rennweg am Katschberg
        • Pölla valley
          • Lanisch
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens (1995)
      • Weißensee
        • Wurten
Paar, W.H., and Niedermayr, G. (1998): Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft 143, 425-435.
  • Lower Austria
    • Gmünd District
RIEDEL, Christian (2011): Schmucksteine aus Österreich.- Gemmo News, 31, 3, Wien.
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Horn District
      • Geras
Peter Lamatsch collection
      • Irnfritz-Messern
Alois Kranzl collection
    • Waidhofen an der Thaya District
      • Dobersberg
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Salzburg
    • St. Johann im Pongau District
      • Bad Gastein
        • Siglitz - Bockhart gold mining district
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
Grolig, D., Niedermayr, G. (2003) Interessante Mineralfunde aus dem Grossarntal, Land Salzburg, Österreich. Minealien Welt: 14(1): 38-48.
    • Zell am See District
      • Rauris
        • Alteck - Hoher Sonnblick area
          • Hoher Sonnblick
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Gerd Stefanik collection
  • Styria
    • Leibnitz District
      • Wildon
        • Weitendorf
H. Meixner: Carinthia II 143./63.:96-97 (1953); C.Auer (2017)
  • Upper Austria
    • Rohrbach District
- Hans Commenda, in: Übersicht der Gesteine und Mineralien Oberösterreichs, II. Minerale.
Bolivia
 
  • Santa Cruz
    • Sandoval Province
      • La Gaiba mining district
Vasconcelos, P.M., Wenk, H.-R., Rossman, G.R. (1994) The Anahí Ametrine Mine, Bolivia. Gems & Gemology: 30(10): 4-23.
Brazil
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 88).
  • Bahia
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 90).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 90).
Amir Akhavan
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 90).
  • Goiás
    • Catalão I carbonatite complex
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 90).
    • Catalão II Carbonatite Complex
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 90).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 90).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 90).
    • Luziânia
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 90).
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
http://www.mindat.org/gallery.php?min=3337&loc=6421
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 90).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (pp. 88-89).
    • Conselheiro Pena
      • Ferruginha
Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:273-292
Karel Bal Collection
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 90).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 90).
Rafael Corrêa-Silva
    • Galiléia
      • Laranjeiras
[MinRec 21:411]
    • Itinga
Amir Akhavan Collection
Russ Rizzo collection
    • Mucuri valley
Proctor, K. (1984). Gem pegmatites of Minas Gerais, Brazil: exploration, occurrence, and aquamarine deposits. Gems and Gemology, 20(2), 78-100.
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 90).
Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (p. 88).
  • Paraíba
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Junco do Seridó
Kievlenko E.Ya., Geology of gems, 2003, p. 113
  • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Fontoura Xavier
      • Três Pinheiros
Small quartz crystals, citrine var., in a chalcedony geode collected in August 1996 by Prof. Paulo César Pereira Neves (USP - São Paulo University), co-author with Dr. Daniel Atencio of "Enciclopédia dos Minerais do Brasil".
Amir Akhavan; Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. (pp. 90-92).
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Hastings County
      • Wollaston Township
Identified by Mineral Associates Inc.
    • Thunder Bay District
      • McTavish Township
Ontario Gem Company
www.alpinegems.net
China
 
  • Guangdong
    • Shaoguan
      • Lechang Co.
Joe Freilich specimen
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Ulanqab City (Wulanchabu Prefecture)
      • Chahar Right Middle Banner (Chaha'er Youyi Zhongqi)
Yantian Guo and Guangming Tian (1979): Geology and Prospecting 15(8), 29-34
Colombia
 
  • Santander Department
    • Suaita Municipality
Russ Rizzo Collection
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Kutná Hora District
      • Uhlířské Janovice
Sejkora, J., Hejný, M.: Minerály severní části Ratajské zóny (Českomoravská vrchovina). Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1984, roč. 29, č. 2, s. 212.
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Cheb District
      • Lázně Kynžvart
Černý, P., Veselovský, F.: Pegmatit Bílý kámen (Weisser Stein) u Kynžvartu. Minerál, 2000, roč. 8, č. 1, s. 10-16.
    • Sokolov District
      • Krásno
Beran, P. & Sejkora, J. (2006): The Krásno Sn-W ore district near Horní Slavkov: Mining history, geological and mineralogical characteristics. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 51, 3-42
  • Liberec Region
    • Jizerské Mtn (Iser Mtn)
geological prospecting, 2008 - 2009, Czech geological Organization
    • Liberec District
Fengl, M.: Mineralogie těžených fluoritových ložisek (1.). Minerál, 1998, 6, 2, 243–252.
    • Semily District
      • Lomnice nad Popelkou
Pauliš, P.: Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Čech II. Kutná Hora: Kuttna, 2003, s. 49-50.
  • South Bohemian Region
    • Písek District
Historic mineral collection National museum of Czech Republic
  • Vysočina Region
    • Havlíčkův Brod District
Novák, J.: Výskyt rutilu západně od Golčova Jeníkova. Věstník ÚÚG, 1959, roč. XXXIV, s. 409 - 415.
    • Žďár nad Sázavou District
V. Mátl: Lokalita Česká mez u Žďáru n. Sázavou, Minerál,1995,roč.1,č.1,
DR Congo
 
  • Haut-Katanga
Safaa Yu collection
Information Eric Greene
France
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Franconian Forest
      • Kronach
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
    • Upper Franconia
      • Wunsiedel im Fichtelgebirge
        • Wunsiedel
          • Göpfersgrün
F. Müller: "Bayerns steinreiche Ecke", 2nd. ed. (1984), pp. 49-59
  • Hesse
    • Limburg-Weilburg
      • Weilmünster
        • Phillipstein
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Hagen
        • Hohenlimburg
          • Oege
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Hochsauerlandkreis
various added photos
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Bad Kreuznach
      • Stromberg
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
    • Vogtlandkreis
      • Tannenbergsthal
Tröger, S. (2008): Der Bergbau um Gottesberg im Sächsischen Erzgebirge. Lapis 33 (2), 22-27; 50.
Greece
 
  • East Macedonia and Thrace
    • Evros
Christos Spiromitros - Chris Spiromitros collection
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Gönc District
      • Telkibánya
Szakáll & Weiszburg: Telkibánya
Szakáll & Weiszburg: Topographia Mineralogica Hungariae II.
Szakáll-Gatter: Hungarian Mineral Species, 1996
  • Heves County
    • Gyöngyösoroszi
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
India
 
  • Telangana
http://minerals.gps.caltech.edu/AMETRINE/Index.htm.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karaganda Region
    • Karkaraly
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
    • Ulytau
State Gems (Samotsvety) Museum, Moscow
  • Mangystau Region
    • Mangystau
Bespaev H.A., Uzhkenov B.S., Aliaskarov S.A., Egembaev K.M. (Almaty, 1999) Gemstones of Kazakhstan, Reference book. Volume 1. Deposits and occurrences of precious and semiprecious stones.
Madagascar
 
  • Amoron'i Mania
    • Ambatofinandrahana
      • Mandrosonoro
        • Ambatovita
Pezzotta F., Guastoni A., Forner H., Demartin F., Kristiansen R. (2004) : Exceptional chiavennite associated with pezzottaite from the Sakavalana Pegmatite, Ambatovita, Madagascar. Web site of Mineralogical Society of America. www.minsocam.org/msa/Pegmatites.html
  • Analamanga
    • Ankazobe District
Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar. Das Paradies der Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis nr 17, p. 44 (in german, short notice)
  • Atsimo-Atsinanana
Pezzotta, F. (1999): Madagaskar. Ein Paradies voll mit Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLAPIS No 17: 64-65 (german edition)
  • Vakinankaratra
    • Antsirabe II
      • Ibity
        • Sahatany Valley
Pezzotta, F. & Praszkier, T. (2013): Giant liddicoatites from Estatoby pegmatite, Madagascar. Minerals- The Collector’s Newspaper. Issue # 6, 13-17
Pezzotta, F. (2011): Neufunde in Madagascar-Edle Liddicoatite in Spitzenqualität. ExtraLapis 41, 66-71
    • Betafo
      • Andrembesoa
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    • Mandoto
      • Anjoma Ramartina
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Aquiles Serdán Municipality
      • Santa Eulalia Mining District
        • West Camp
          • Francisco Portillo
Rob Lavinsky
  • San Luis Potosí
    • Charcas Municipality
      • Charcas
www.matsminerals.com/html/mexico_sl1.html.
Panczner (1987): 177.
    • Villa de Reyes Municipality
Panczner, W.D. (1987) Minerals of Mexico. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 459 pp.
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Tazenakht
Amir Akhavan collection
Mozambique
 
  • Zambezia Province
    • Alto Ligonha District
Geotrade Bohemia
    • Gilé District
      • Gilé
Myanmar
 
  • Mandalay Region
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
      • Mogok Township
        • Bernardmyo
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyauk-Pyat-That
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
Amir Akhavan collection
Bezing, L. von., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, (in English)
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Otjiwarongo
various added photos
Norway
 
  • Aust-Agder
    • Evje og Hornnes
      • Landsverk
Revheim, O. (2006): Landsverk 1, Jokeli-bruddet i Evje. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 33: 41-50
  • Buskerud
    • Hurum
Larsen, K.E. & Nordrum, F.S. (2013): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2012-2013. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 50, 111-117
Nordrum, F.S. & Larsen, A.O.(1999): Einige neue Mineralfunde aus dem Gebiet Drammen-Holmestrand in Norwegen. MineralienWelt 10 (6):57-61
Nordrum, F. S. and Larsen, A.O. (1999): Einige neue Mineralfunde aus dem Gebiet Drammen-Holmestrand in Norwegen. Mineralien Welt nr 6, 57-61
    • Røyken
Nordrum, F.S. (2012): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2011-2012. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 49, 117-124
Viktor Strøm Collection (pers. com to Egil Hollund 2011)
  • Møre og Romsdal
    • Tingvoll
Harald Kvarsvik‎ collection
  • Østfold
    • Halden
Egil Hollund Collection
  • Rogaland
    • Bjerkreim
P. Andresen collection (2006)
Peru
 
  • Piura
    • Sechura Province
Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Świdnica Co.
      • Gmina Dobromierz
K. Łobos - Kamienie szlachetne i ozdobne Sudetów. Wydawnictwo 3NEXUS s.c. Wrocław 2010
    • Wałbrzych Co.
      • Gmina Czarny Bór
        • Grzędy
Awdankiewicz M. & Szymański M. 2009: New data on the structure, emplacement mode and post-magmatic alteration of the Grzędy trachyandesites (Lower Permian), the Intra- Sudetic Basin. Mineralogia - Special Papers, vol. 34, p. 11
Portugal
 
  • Castelo Branco
    • Vila Velha de Ródão
      • Talhadas Mountain
Martins da Pedra collection
  • Guarda
    • Guarda
      • Gonçalo
Martins da Pedra collection
  • Vila Real
    • Vila Real
      • Vila Marim
Rui Nunes' collection
Romania
 
  • Maramureș
    • Baia Mare (Nagybánya)
      • Chiuzbaia (Kisbánya)
Amir Akhavan edit based on photos 585282, 698254, 698257
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Astaf'evskoe quartz deposit (Astafievskoe)
Pavel M. Kartashov
  • Crimea
Tischenko A. data
  • Perm Krai
Rob Lavinsky specimens
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
Amir Akhavan Collection
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Štiavnica District
South Africa
 
  • Gauteng
    • Johannesburg District (Central Rand)
      • Johannesburg
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 236 pp.
  • Mpumalanga
    • Nkangala District
      • Mkobola
(Error for yellow iron-stained quartz; not true citrine.)
Spain
 
  • Castile and Leon
    • Salamanca
      • Villasbuenas
Arroyo, A. and Calvo, M. (1995). El cuarzo citrino de Villasbuenas (Salamanca). Revista de minerales. 1: 86-89.
Sri Lanka
Dissanayake, C.B., Chandrajith, R., Tobschall, H.J. (2000) The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 72(1-2), 5-20. ; Dissanayake, C.B., Chandrajith, R., Tobschall, H.J. (2000) The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 72(1-2), 5-20.
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
Dissanayake, C. B., Chandrajith, R. O. H. A. N. A., & Tobschall, H. J. (2000). The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka. BULLETIN-GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF FINLAND, 72(1/2), 5-20.
Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Kea
        • Baldhu
[Golley & Williams, 1995 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual", 51]
      • Lostwithiel
[Golley & Williams, 1995 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual", 51]
      • Redruth
        • Wheal Buller and Beauchamp
[Golley & Williams, 1995 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual", 51]
      • St Just
        • Botallack
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
[Golley & Williams, 1995 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual", 51]
[Golley & Williams, 1995 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual", 51]
    • County Durham
      • Bollihope District
[J.Ralph Collection]
    • North Somerset
      • Banwell
Paul Render
  • Scotland
    • North Ayrshire
      • Isle of Arran
Bauer, M. (1904) Precious Stones. Volume II. Dover Publications.
Ukraine
 
  • Zhytomyr Oblast
Lebid, M. I., Kalinin, V. I., Kulish, E. O., Voinovsky, A. S., Lepigov, G. D., & Sukhodolsky, K. O. (200) Nonmetal Minerals of the Ukrainian Shield. Mineral. Journ. (Ukraine) 24(4):21-27
Uruguay
Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.
  • Artigas Department
California Federation of Mineralogical Societies Mineral Notes and News: Bulletin, Issues 121-154
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
C. Wellington Rose, II;
  • Arkansas
    • Saline Co.
      • Salem
Rocks & Min.:63:122; Stone, et al (1973).
  • California
    • Alameda Co.
      • Livermore Mining District (Tesla District)
        • Mendenhall Springs
Rocks & Min.: 15:41.
Personal collection
    • Los Angeles Co.
      • Santa Catalina Island
        • Interior of Santa Catalina Island
Carnahan, V. (1967), Minerals of Los Angeles County, part 1, Catalina Island, Palos Verdes and Soledad Basin: Los Angeles County Natural History Museum Alliance Quarterly: 6(2): 27; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 346.
Pelletier, 1962. Mineral Species & Localities of Marin County
    • San Diego County
      • Pala Mining District
        • Pala
          • Chief Mountain
            • Elizabeth R. Mine (Hazel W. claim)
Stephenson, J. (2007), Pala District Opens Wide: Oceanview Mine Strikes It Big. Mineral News: Pala International, Fallbrook, CA. December.
          • Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill)
Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 111.
          • Tourmaline Queen Mountain (Pala Mtn; Queen Mtn)
Fisher, J. 2002. Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record, Vol. 33: pages 378-381.
      • Ramona Mining District
        • Ramona
San Diego Mining Company (1996)
      • Warner Springs Mining District
        • Chihuahua Valley
Ritchie, S. 2000. History of the Carmelita Gem Mine in the 20th Century. Southern California Gem Industries web publication: July.
  • Colorado
    • Douglas Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • Jefferson Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • Mesa Co.
      • Unaweep Mining District
        • Unaweep Canyon
          • Nancy Hanks Gulch
Dennis & Tammey Schneider Collection
    • Park Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
  • Connecticut
    • Litchfield Co.
Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Samuel Robinson (1825) A Catalogue of American Minerals, with their localities. Boston
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Portland
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
    • New Haven Co.
Samuel Robinson (1825) A Catalogue of American Minerals, with their localities. Boston
  • Georgia
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
  • Iowa
  • Maine
    • Androscoggin Co.
      • Auburn
        • East Mount Apatite Mining District
No reference listed
        • West Mount Apatite Mining District
Guidebook 1 to Mineral Collecting in the Maine Pegmatite Belt Pg 2
    • Oxford County
      • Greenwood
Mineral News (1993) 9:2 p. 8
    • Sagadahoc Co.
      • Georgetown
Thompson, W.B., et.al., 1991, Maine Mineral Localities, 2nd edition, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta.
  • Massachusetts
    • Essex Co.
Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
; Sears, John Henry (1905): The Physical Geography, Geology, Mineralogy and Paleontology of Essex County
    • Franklin Co.
Emerson, B. K. (1895): A Mineralogical Lexicon of Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden Counties, Massachusetts (USGS Bulletin 126).
    • Hampshire Co.
      • Easthampton
Hitchcock, Edward (1835): Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, and Zoology of Massachusetts, p 489. Also, P. Cristofono collection 2009.
  • Missouri
    • Crawford Co.
      • Missouri Brown Iron Belt
        • Hinch
          • Scotia Iron Bed Mines
Sherwood, M. D., & Williams, G. A. (1998). Missouri mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 73(2), 98-117.
Sherwood, M. D., & Williams, G. A. (1998). Missouri mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 73(2), 98-117.
  • Montana
    • Beaverhead Co.
      • Pioneer Mountains
        • Elkhorn Hot Springs area
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
  • Nevada
    • Elko Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Washoe Co.
      • Hallelujah Junction area
        • Petersen Mountain ("Peterson Mountain"; Hallelujah Junction [sic])
Rocks & Minerals 82:415-418
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Peavine Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Hampshire
    • Coos Co.
Rocks & Min 65:295 (1990)
Morrill, 1960. NH Mines and Mineral Localities.
Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
Rocks & Min 80:249; Rocks and Minerals, (1990) 65:286-296
Harvard Mineralogical Museum, no. 129369.
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Nashua Min. Soc. Display Cat., 1995
  • New Jersey
Gems and Minerals of America -Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
    • Somerset Co.
      • Warren Township
Speiser, Robert (1978) A Quest for New Jersey Minerals: 10.(privately published).
Ransom, Jay Ellis (1974) Gems and Minerals of America pg.424
  • New Mexico
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • New York
    • Westchester Co.
  • North Carolina
    • Alexander Co.
Mineralogical Record (2002) 33:263
Rob Lavinsky
Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
Kunz, 1892. Gems & Precious Stones of N. America,p.117
      • Love Valley
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J,1978,Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina,Information Circular 24
    • Macon Co.
      • Cowee Valley
        • Ellijay Mining District
          • Franklin
http://www.rosecreekmine.com/
  • Rhode Island
    • Providence Co.
      • Cumberland
Samuel Robinson (1825) A Catalogue of American Minerals, with their localities. Boston
      • Lincoln
        • Lime Rock
Rocks & Minerals (1986): 61: 286-289
  • Texas
    • Brewster Co.
      • Alpine
http://www.omsinc.org/archives/Ore-cutts_Jan04.pdf
    • Gillespie Co.
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
  • Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • Mexican Hat
Collected by Sebastian Tauber in December 2108.
  • Washington
    • King Co.
      • Green Ridge
Vietnam
 
  • Khánh Hòa Province
Le Thi Thu Huong, et al. (2012) Gemstone from Vietnam: an update. Gems & Gemology FALL 2012
Zambia
 
  • Central Province
    • Serenje District
Lapis 36 (12), p.14
Peter Beckwith collection
Peter Beckwith collection
P Cristofono collection
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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