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Witbank coalfield, Witbank, Nkangala District, Mpumalanga, South Africai
Regional Level Types
Witbank coalfieldCoal Field
Witbank- not defined -
Nkangala DistrictDistrict
MpumalangaProvince
South AfricaCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 26° 0' 5'' South , 29° 13' 60'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -26.00139,29.23333
GeoHash:G#: keku14x4f
Locality type:Coal Field
Köppen climate type:Cwb : Subtropical highland climate or temperate oceanic climate with dry winters


The Witbank coalfield is, historically, the most important coal-producing region in South Africa. Bituminous coal is hosted in the Permian Vryheid Formation (Karoo Supergroup) and five coal seams exist in the region, although not all are economically exploitable.

About 22 coal mines in the area around Witbank. Some dumps are burning, in part already for decades.

Regions containing this locality

Transvaal, South Africa

Province (Former) - 838 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

12 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Glauconite
Formula: (K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
Hexahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 6H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Letovicite
Formula: (NH4)3H(SO4)2
Reference: International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Mascagnite
Formula: (NH4)2SO4
Reference: Stracher, G.B., Finkelman, R.B., Hower, J.C., Pone, J.D.N., Prakash, A., Blake, D.R., Schroeder, P.A., Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D., and O'Keefe, J.M.K. (2009): Natural and anthropogenic coal fires. In: Umran Dogan, A., and Cutler, J. (eds.): Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Cleveland (Washington, D.C.); International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
Salammoniac
Formula: NH4Cl
Reference: International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Stracher, G.B., Finkelman, R.B., Hower, J.C., Pone, J.D.N., Prakash, A., Blake, D.R., Schroeder, P.A., Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D., and O'Keefe, J.M.K. (2009): Natural and anthropogenic coal fires. In: Umran Dogan, A., and Cutler, J. (eds.): Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Cleveland (Washington, D.C.); International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
'Unnamed (NH4 Thiosulphate)'
Formula: (NH4)2(S2O3)
Reference: Stracher, G.B., Finkelman, R.B., Hower, J.C., Pone, J.D.N., Prakash, A., Blake, D.R., Schroeder, P.A., Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D., and O'Keefe, J.M.K. (2009): Natural and anthropogenic coal fires. In: Umran Dogan, A., and Cutler, J. (eds.): Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Cleveland (Washington, D.C.)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Salammoniac3.AA.25NH4Cl
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Copiapite'7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Hexahydrite'7.CB.25MgSO4 · 6H2O
Letovicite7.AD.20(NH4)3H(SO4)2
Mascagnite7.AD.05(NH4)2SO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Glauconite'-(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Unnamed (NH4 Thiosulphate)-(NH4)2(S2O3)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Salammoniac9.1.3.1NH4Cl
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
Anhydrous Acid Sulfates
Letovicite28.1.3.1(NH4)3H(SO4)2
A2XO4
Mascagnite28.2.1.1(NH4)2SO4
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hexahydrite29.6.8.1MgSO4 · 6H2O
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Miscellaneous
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Glauconite71.2.2a.5(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Unnamed (NH4 Thiosulphate)'-(NH4)2(S2O3)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
H Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H SalammoniacNH4Cl
H Unnamed (NH4 Thiosulphate)(NH4)2(S2O3)
NNitrogen
N Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
N Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
N SalammoniacNH4Cl
N Unnamed (NH4 Thiosulphate)(NH4)2(S2O3)
OOxygen
O BaryteBaSO4
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
O Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Unnamed (NH4 Thiosulphate)(NH4)2(S2O3)
NaSodium
Na Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Mg HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
S Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
S MarcasiteFeS2
S Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
S SulphurS8
S Unnamed (NH4 Thiosulphate)(NH4)2(S2O3)
ClChlorine
Cl SalammoniacNH4Cl
KPotassium
K Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
FeIron
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Cairncross, B. (1980). Anastomosing river deposits; palaeoenvironmental control on coal quality and distribution, northern Karoo Basin. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, vol. 83, 327-332.
Cairncross, B. and Cadle, A. B. (1987). A genetic stratigraphy for the Permian coal-bearing Vryheid Formation in the east Witbank Coalfield South Africa. South African Journal of Geology, vol. 90, No. 3, 219-230.
Cairncross, B. and Cadle, A.B. (1988). Palaeoenvironmental control on coal formation, distribution and quality in the east Witbank Coalfield, South Africa. International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 9, 343-370.
Cairncross, B. and Cadle, A.B. (1988). Depositional environments of the coal-bearing Permian Vryheid Formation in the east Witbank Coalfield, South Africa. South African Journal of Geology, vol. 91, No. 1, 1-17.
Cairncross, B. (1989). Depositional environments and tectono-sedimentary controls of the post-glacial Permian coals, Karoo Basin, South Africa. International Journal of Coal Geology, Special Publication, vol. 12, 365-380.
Cadle, A.B., Cairncross, B., Christie, A.D.M. and Roberts, D.L. (1993). The Karoo Basin of South Africa: type-basin for coal-bearing deposits of southern Africa. International Journal of Coal Geology. Special issue: World Coal Basins: vol. 23, 117-157.
Venter, M.E. and Cairncross, B. (1995). Acritarchs from the Number 5 coal seam, Permian Vryheid Formation, Greenside Colliery, Witbank Coalfield, South Africa. South African Journal of Geology, vol. 94, 479-481.
Weber, S-L., Cairncross, B. and Falcon, R.M.S. (2000). Mineralogical, petrographic and geological controls on coal ash fusion temperature from New Clydesdale Colliery, Witbank Coalfield, South Africa. Journal of the South African Institute for Mining and Metallurgy. Vol. 100, No. 3, 181-190.
Cairncross, B. (2001). An overview of the Permian (Karoo) coals of Southern Africa. Journal of African Earth Science, Vol. 33, 529-562.
Cairncross, B., Hart, R.J. and Willis, J.P. (1990). Geochemistry and sedimentology of coal seams from the Permian Witbank Coalfield, South Africa: a means of identification. International Journal of Coal Geology, 16, 309-325.
Cairncross, B. (2013). Guide to borehole core in the Karoo Basin Coalfields. Random House Struik Publishers, Cape Town, COALTECH Publishers, 76 pages.
- J. Denis N. Pone, Kim A.A. Hein, Glenn B. Stracher, Harold J. Annegarn, Robert B. Finkleman, Donald R. Blake, John K. McCormack, Paul Schroeder (2007) The spontaneous combustion of coal and its by-products in the Witbank and Sasolburg coalfields of South Africa. International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
- Stracher, G.B., Finkelman, R.B., Hower, J.C., Pone, J.D.N., Prakash, A., Blake, D.R., Schroeder, P.A., Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D., and O'Keefe, J.M.K. (2009): Natural and anthropogenic coal fires. In: Umran Dogan, A., and Cutler, J. (eds.): Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Cleveland (Washington, D.C.)

Localities in this Region
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South Africa

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