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Rooiberg Mine (A mine), Rooiberg tin field, Waterberg District, Limpopo, South Africai
Regional Level Types
Rooiberg Mine (A mine)Mine
Rooiberg tin field- not defined -
Waterberg DistrictDistrict
LimpopoProvince
South AfricaCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude:
24° South , 27° East (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
~170km
Locality type:


60 km west of Warmbath (now known as Bela-Bela).

At Rooiberg Mine the mineralization consists of major steeply dipping fractures and associated bedding plane mineralization, mineralization in finer fractures and fissures, and pocket mineralization.

The highest-grade mineralization was present in the well-defined major fractures, but mining today is concentrated more in the bedding-plane mineralization and pockets, which dip at about 5 to 7 degrees.

The main levels are at 30 m intervals, and the ore is extracted by modified room-and-pillar mining on successive intervals 3 to 4 m apart. The development ends are 2,2 by 2,2 m, and the pillars are nominally 3,0 by 3,0 m. Owing to the erratic nature of the mineralization, a regular pattern of development is not always maintained, and development ends follow higher-grade features where these exist. Once the limits of a zone of mineralization have been reached, both laterally and vertically, the pillars are stripped as far as possible in areas where surface-protection restrictions are not necessary. Locally, this is termed 'block mining'.

The development is equipped with 450 mm gauge tracks. On the inter-levels, hand lashing and tramming using 0,7 t side tippers are practised and, on the main levels, mechanized cleaning and tramming. Drilling on all the mines is carried out by the use of hand-held jackhammers and airlegs, and all the blasting is done by Anfex and delay fuses.

Mining operations have continued down dip from a few metres below surface to the current lowest level of 189 m below surface.

Two inclined surface rock-hoisting shafts and one chairlift service the mine. Ore is transported approximately 5 km by road to the concentrator at A Mine.

As the tin mineralization is sporadic, each blast has to be sampled before tramming to ore or to waste. At A Mine, which is close to the assay facilities, a sample taken from the blasted rock at the start of the shift is returned on the same shift. At the other mines, the sample is returned the next day. As a backup, the miner pans a sample and is able, with experience, to get a reasonably accurate value. Samples from cars trammed from the end, from cars tipped on the levels, from the shaft boxes, and at the concentrator tip complete this control.

Rooiberg (A) mine closed in 1993 owing to prevailing low tin prices.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

17 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: John F. Slack and Robert B. Trumbull (2011) Tourmaline as a recorder of ore-forming processes. Elements, 7, #5, 321-326
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Leube, A., & Stumpfl, E. F. (1963). The Rooiberg and Leeuwpoort tin mines, Transvaal, South Africa; part I, General and structural geology. Economic Geology, 58(3), 391-418.
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; John F. Slack and Robert B. Trumbull (2011) Tourmaline as a recorder of ore-forming processes. Elements, 7, #5, 321-326; Leube, A., & Stumpfl, E. F. (1963). The Rooiberg and Leeuwpoort tin mines, Transvaal, South Africa; part I, General and structural geology. Economic Geology, 58(3), 391-418.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Leube, A., & Stumpfl, E. F. (1963). The Rooiberg and Leeuwpoort tin mines, Transvaal, South Africa; part I, General and structural geology. Economic Geology, 58(3), 391-418.
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Coquimbite
Formula: AlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Martini, J.E.J. and Hammerbeck, E.C.I. (1998). Fluospar. In: Wilson, M.G.C. and Anhaeusser, C. Editors The Minerals Resources of South Africa, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, 269-279.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Leube, A., & Stumpfl, E. F. (1963). The Rooiberg and Leeuwpoort tin mines, Transvaal, South Africa; part I, General and structural geology. Economic Geology, 58(3), 391-418.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Melanterite var: Cuprian Melanterite
Formula: (Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Martini, J.E.J. and Hammerbeck, E.C.I. (1998). Fluospar. In: Wilson, M.G.C. and Anhaeusser, C. Editors The Minerals Resources of South Africa, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, 269-279.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Leube, A., & Stumpfl, E. F. (1963). The Rooiberg and Leeuwpoort tin mines, Transvaal, South Africa; part I, General and structural geology. Economic Geology, 58(3), 391-418.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Leube, A., & Stumpfl, E. F. (1963). The Rooiberg and Leeuwpoort tin mines, Transvaal, South Africa; part I, General and structural geology. Economic Geology, 58(3), 391-418.
Römerite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Naude, K. (1994). A mineralogical and geochemical study of the tin deposit at NAD-mine in the Rooiberg tin field (Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University).
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Leube, A., & Stumpfl, E. F. (1963). The Rooiberg and Leeuwpoort tin mines, Transvaal, South Africa; part I, General and structural geology. Economic Geology, 58(3), 391-418.
Szomolnokite
Formula: FeSO4 · H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: John F. Slack and Robert B. Trumbull (2011) Tourmaline as a recorder of ore-forming processes. Elements, 7, #5, 321-326; Leube, A., & Stumpfl, E. F. (1963). The Rooiberg and Leeuwpoort tin mines, Transvaal, South Africa; part I, General and structural geology. Economic Geology, 58(3), 391-418.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Copiapite7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Coquimbite7.CB.55AlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
var: Cuprian Melanterite7.CB.35(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Römerite7.CB.75Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Szomolnokite7.CB.05FeSO4 · H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Szomolnokite29.6.2.2FeSO4 · H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Römerite29.7.2.1Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Coquimbite29.8.3.1AlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Miscellaneous
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Melanterite
var: Cuprian Melanterite
-(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
H CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
H RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
H Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O CassiteriteSnO2
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
O CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
O RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
O Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
S CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
S RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
S Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca FluoriteCaF2
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
Fe CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Fe RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Fe Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
CuCopper
Cu Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
LM Falcon, (1985). Tin In South Africa. Journal South African Mining & Metallurgy, Volume 85 no.10 pp333-345.

Localities in this Region

  • Limpopo
    • Waterberg District

Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

Somali PlateTectonic Plate
South Africa

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