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Okiep Copper District, Namakwa, Northern Cape, South Africai
Regional Level Types
Okiep Copper DistrictMining District
NamakwaDistrict Municipality
Northern CapeProvince
South AfricaCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude:
30° South , 19° East (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
~368km
Locality type:


No description has been added for this locality. Can you add one?

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

78 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Maier, W.D. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 422-429.
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1934-1954
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1934-1954
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Axinite-(Fe)
Formula: Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Description: Azurite is a rare accessory mineral in the copper mines in this area.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 43. Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Reference: Raith, J.G., and Stein, H.J. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 741-753.; P. G. Sonhnge (1950) The Nababeep Near West Tungsten Mine, South Africa. American Mineralogist 35:931-940
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Reference: P. G. Sonhnge (1950) The Nababeep Near West Tungsten Mine, South Africa. American Mineralogist 35:931-940
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Cassiterite ?
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1934-1954
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
'Chlorite Group'
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Coloradoite
Formula: HgTe
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1934-1954
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Reference: Bannister, F.A., Hey, M.H., and Claringbull, G.F. (1950) Connellite, buttgenbachite, and tallingite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 29, n° 211, 280-286.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1934-1954
Cornetite
Formula: Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
Reference: Windisch, W. (2014) An introduction to micromounting.; Thomas Kleser collection.; Leon Hupperichs collection.
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1934-1954
Covellite
Formula: CuS
'Cualstibite-1M'
Formula: (Cu,Al)3(OH)6[Sb5+(OH)6]
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Cyanotrichite
Formula: Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Min Rec 35:4 pp289-317
Enstatite
Formula: Mg2Si2O6
Reference: Maier, W.D. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 422-429.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Galena
Formula: PbS
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Hessite
Formula: Ag2Te
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
'Hornblende'
Reference: Ronaldson, J. H. (1905) Notes on the Copper Deposits of Little Namaqualand. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 8:158-166.
Hübnerite
Formula: MnWO4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Ronaldson, J. H. (1905) Notes on the Copper Deposits of Little Namaqualand. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 8:158-166.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Jacobsite ?
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: P. G. Sonhnge (1950) The Nababeep Near West Tungsten Mine, South Africa. American Mineralogist 35:931-940
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: P. G. Sonhnge (1950) The Nababeep Near West Tungsten Mine, South Africa. American Mineralogist 35:931-940
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Leon Hupperichs collection
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: P. G. Sonhnge (1950) The Nababeep Near West Tungsten Mine, South Africa. American Mineralogist 35:931-940
Linnaeite
Formula: Co2+Co3+2S4
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Melonite
Formula: NiTe2
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: P. G. Sonhnge (1950) The Nababeep Near West Tungsten Mine, South Africa. American Mineralogist 35:931-940
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
'Monazite'
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1934-1954
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1934-1954
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Maier, W.D. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 422-429.
Plancheite
Formula: Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
'Pumpellyite'
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Quartz var: "Herkimer-style" Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: biterminated (doubly terminated)
Colour: water-clear
Description: Small crystals that occasionally have small fluid hydrocarbon inclusions which fluoresce bright yellow are found in the Springbok area.
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.
Reichenbachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Leon Hupperichs collection
Rickardite
Formula: Cu7Te5
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Raith, J.G., and Stein, H.J. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 741-753.
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
'Stilbite subgroup'
Sylvanite
Formula: (Au,Ag)2Te4
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.; Ronaldson, J. H. (1905) Notes on the Copper Deposits of Little Namaqualand. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 8:158-166.
Tetradymite
Formula: Bi2Te2S
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
'Tetrahedrite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Reference: Ronaldson, J. H. (1905) Notes on the Copper Deposits of Little Namaqualand. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 8:158-166.
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Reference: Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1934-1954
Thorite var: Uranothorite
Formula: (Th,U)SiO4
Reference: Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1934-1954
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Tony Peterson specimen - minID 5TU-G69.
Valleriite
Formula: (Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Reference: Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1934-1954
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Bismuth1.CA.05Bi
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Coloradoite2.CB.05aHgTe
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Cubanite2.CB.55aCuFe2S3
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Hessite2.BA.60Ag2Te
Linnaeite2.DA.05Co2+Co3+2S4
Mackinawite2.CC.25(Fe,Ni)9S8
Melonite2.EA.20NiTe2
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Rickardite2.BA.30Cu7Te5
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Sylvanite2.EA.05(Au,Ag)2Te4
Tetradymite2.DC.05Bi2Te2S
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Valleriite2.FD.30(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Group 3 - Halides
Connellite3.DA.25Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite ?4.DB.05SnO2
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Ferberite4.DB.30FeWO4
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Hübnerite4.DB.30MnWO4
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Jacobsite ?4.BB.05Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: "Herkimer-style" Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Cyanotrichite7.DE.10Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Cornetite8.BE.15Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Libethenite8.BB.30Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Reichenbachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Xenotime-(Y)8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Allophane9.ED.20(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Axinite-(Fe)9.BD.20Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Clinozoisite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Cordierite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Enstatite9.DA.05Mg2Si2O6
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Plancheite9.DB.35Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Sillimanite9.AF.05Al2(SiO4)O
Thorite9.AD.30Th(SiO4)
var: Uranothorite9.AD.30(Th,U)SiO4
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Cualstibite-1M'-(Cu,Al)3(OH)6[Sb5+(OH)6]
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Monazite'-
'Pumpellyite'-
'Stilbite subgroup'-
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Semi-metals and non-metals
Bismuth1.3.1.4Bi
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Hessite2.4.2.1Ag2Te
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Mackinawite2.7.2.1(Fe,Ni)9S8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Coloradoite2.8.2.5HgTe
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Cubanite2.9.13.1CuFe2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Linnaeite2.10.1.1Co2+Co3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
Tetradymite2.11.7.1Bi2Te2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Melonite2.12.14.1NiTe2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Sylvanite2.12.13.3(Au,Ag)2Te4
Hydroxysulfides and Hydrated Sulfides
Valleriite2.14.1.1(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Miscellaneous
Rickardite2.16.15.1Cu7Te5
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
'Tetrahedrite'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Cassiterite ?4.4.1.5SnO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Jacobsite ?7.2.2.2Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Connellite31.1.1.1Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
(AB)6(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Cyanotrichite31.2.1.1Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)Zq
Cornetite41.3.2.1Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Reichenbachite41.4.3.2Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
A2(XO4)Zq
Libethenite41.6.6.2Cu2(PO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Ferberite48.1.1.2FeWO4
Hübnerite48.1.1.1MnWO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Thorite51.5.2.3Th(SiO4)
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Sillimanite52.2.2a.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Axinite-(Fe)56.2.2.1Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Enstatite65.1.2.1Mg2Si2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Ca subgroup
Plancheite66.2.1.1Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Allophane71.1.5.1(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Cualstibite-1M'-(Cu,Al)3(OH)6[Sb5+(OH)6]
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Monazite'-
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Pumpellyite'-
Quartz
var: "Herkimer-style" Quartz
-SiO2
'Stilbite subgroup'-
Thorite
var: Uranothorite
-(Th,U)SiO4
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Xenotime-(Y)-Y(PO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H Cualstibite-1M(Cu,Al)3(OH)6[Sb5+(OH)6]
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
H CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
H ReichenbachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
BBoron
B Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
OOxygen
O QuartzSiO2
O CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O CalciteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O BaryteBaSO4
O Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O CupriteCu2O
O Cualstibite-1M(Cu,Al)3(OH)6[Sb5+(OH)6]
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O TenoriteCuO
O Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O FerberiteFeWO4
O HübneriteMnWO4
O PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
O ReichenbachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
O SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O EnstatiteMg2Si2O6
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O RutileTiO2
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Thorite (var: Uranothorite)(Th,U)SiO4
O ThoriteTh(SiO4)
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O CorundumAl2O3
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
O ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Quartz (var: "Herkimer-style" Quartz)SiO2
O CassiteriteSnO2
O JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg EnstatiteMg2Si2O6
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
AlAluminium
Al CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al Cualstibite-1M(Cu,Al)3(OH)6[Sb5+(OH)6]
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Si SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si EnstatiteMg2Si2O6
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Thorite (var: Uranothorite)(Th,U)SiO4
Si ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Quartz (var: "Herkimer-style" Quartz)SiO2
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
P ReichenbachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
P LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
SSulfur
S ChalcociteCu2S
S CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S PyriteFeS2
S BaryteBaSO4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S CubaniteCuFe2S3
S LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
S Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
S MilleriteNiS
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S TetradymiteBi2Te2S
S Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S CovelliteCuS
S TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
S ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Cl ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
KPotassium
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
MnManganese
Mn HübneriteMnWO4
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Mn JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
FeIron
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Fe CubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Fe FerberiteFeWO4
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Fe JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
CoCobalt
Co LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
NiNickel
Ni Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Ni MeloniteNiTe2
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
CuCopper
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu CubaniteCuFe2S3
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu Cualstibite-1M(Cu,Al)3(OH)6[Sb5+(OH)6]
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu RickarditeCu7Te5
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu Valleriite(Fe2+,Cu)4(Mg,Al)3S4(OH,O)6
Cu PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Cu CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
Cu ReichenbachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Cu ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
YYttrium
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
AgSilver
Ag HessiteAg2Te
Ag Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
SbAntimony
Sb Cualstibite-1M(Cu,Al)3(OH)6[Sb5+(OH)6]
Sb TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
TeTellurium
Te ColoradoiteHgTe
Te HessiteAg2Te
Te MeloniteNiTe2
Te RickarditeCu7Te5
Te Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
Te TetradymiteBi2Te2S
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
WTungsten
W FerberiteFeWO4
W HübneriteMnWO4
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
AuGold
Au Sylvanite(Au,Ag)2Te4
HgMercury
Hg ColoradoiteHgTe
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
BiBismuth
Bi TetradymiteBi2Te2S
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi BismuthBi
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
ThThorium
Th Thorite (var: Uranothorite)(Th,U)SiO4
Th ThoriteTh(SiO4)
UUranium
U Thorite (var: Uranothorite)(Th,U)SiO4

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Proterozoic : 1031 Ma to 950 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded on mindat.org for this locality and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Precambrian
 Proterozoic
  Neoproterozoic
   Tonian
ⓘ Molybdenite (youngest age)950 MaNarrap Mine, Okiep Copper District, Namakwa, Northern Cape, South Africa
  Mesoproterozoic
   Stenian
ⓘ Molybdenite (oldest age)1031 MaNarrap Mine, Okiep Copper District, Namakwa, Northern Cape, South Africa

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Ronaldson, J. H. (1905) Notes on the Copper Deposits of Little Namaqualand. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 8:158-166.
Lombaard, A. F. and the Exploration Staff Of The Okiep Copper Company Limited (1986): The copper deposits of the Okiep district, Namaqualand. In: Anhaeusser, C. R. and Maske, S. (Editors). Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa, Volume II, 1421-1445.
Wilson, M.G.C. (1998). Copper. In: Wilson, M.G.C. and Anhaeusser, C.R. (Editors). The Mineral Resources of South Africa (6th Edition). Handbook 16. Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 209-227.
Maier, W.D. (2000): Platinum-group elements in Cu-sulphide ores at Carolusberg and East Okiep, Namaqualand, South Africa. Mineralium Deposita 35, 422-429.
Raith, J.G., and Stein, H.J. (2000): Re-Os dating and sulphur isotope composition of molybdenite from tungsten deposits in western Namaqualand, South Africa: implications for ore genesis and the timing of metamorphism. Mineralium Deposita 35, 741-753.
Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Maier, W.D., Andreoli, M.A.G., Groves,D.I. and Barnes, S-L. (2012). Petrogenesis of Cu-Ni sulphide ores from O'Okiep and Kliprand, Namaqualand, South Africa: Constraints from chalcophile metal contents. South African Journal of Geology, 115, 499-514.

Localities in this Region

Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

African PlateTectonic Plate

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