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Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel Mine (Apex Lead & Vanadium Mining Corp Mine; Quarelli group), San Manuel, San Manuel District, Pinal Co., Arizona, USAi
Regional Level Types
Kalamazoo orebodyOre Body
San Manuel Mine (Apex Lead & Vanadium Mining Corp Mine; Quarelli group)Mine
San Manuel- not defined -
San Manuel DistrictMining District
Pinal Co.County
ArizonaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
32° 40' 12'' North , 110° 40' 12'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Mammoth1,487 (2017)6.5km
San Manuel3,551 (2011)8.6km
Oracle3,686 (2011)11.5km
Saddle Brooke9,614 (2017)24.3km
Catalina7,569 (2011)29.8km


The Kalamazoo is a detached portion of the San Manuel orebody. Originally, there was a single orebody that was subsequently cut in half by a fault some 28-29 million years ago. The Kalamazoo was originally the top portion of the San Manuel orebody that was down-faulted several thousand feet. It is now the lower orebody that tops out at about 2,600 feet below surface. It is comprised essentially of sulfides, mainly chalcopyrite, with only a trace of oxidized minerals (Gary Alexander, former Geologist, San Manuel Mine - thanks Gary!)

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
Sonoran Desert, North AmericaDesert

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


31 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Description: Occurs in inner altered zone of mineralized monzonite & quartz monzonite porphyry associated with quartz, sericite & sulfides.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 113; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Description: Seconary mineral occurrence. Occurs in hydrothermally altered quartz monzonite & monzonite porphyries associated with the less-intensely altered areas.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 215; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654; Schwartz, G.M. (1947), Hydrothermal alteration in the 'porphyry copper' deposits, Econ.Geol.: 42, 319-352; Creasey, S.C. (1959), Some phase relations in the hydrothermally altered rocks of porphyry copper deposits, Econ.Geol.: 54: 351-373.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: G. Alexander, Geologist, San Manuel Mine.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 215; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654; Schwartz, G.M. (1947), Hydrothermal alteration in the 'porphyry copper' deposits, Econ.Geol.: 42, 319-352; Creasey, S.C. (1959), Some phase relations in the hydrothermally altered rocks of porphyry copper deposits, Econ.Geol.: 54: 351-373.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: Occurs in hydrothermally altered quartz monzonite & monzonite porphyries associated with the less-intensely altered areas.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 215; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654; Schwartz, G.M. (1947), Hydrothermal alteration in the 'porphyry copper' deposits, Econ.Geol.: 42, 319-352; Creasey, S.C. (1959), Some phase relations in the hydrothermally altered rocks of porphyry copper deposits, Econ.Geol.: 54: 351-373.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Hematite var: Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Hydrobiotite
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Description: Occurs in hydrothermally altered quartz monzonite & monzonite porphyries associated with the less-intensely altered areas.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 215; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654; Schwartz, G.M. (1947), Hydrothermal alteration in the 'porphyry copper' deposits, Econ.Geol.: 42, 319-352; Creasey, S.C. (1959), Some phase relations in the hydrothermally altered rocks of porphyry copper deposits, Econ.Geol.: 54: 351-373.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 302; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Occurs in inner altered zone of mineralized monzonite & quartz monzonite porphyry associated with quartz, anhydrite & sulfides.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 113, 309; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654.
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 257; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654.
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Occurs in inner altered zone of mineralized monzonite & quartz monzonite porphyry associated with quartz, anhydrite & sulfides.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 113, 309; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 341; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654.
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: Occurs in inner altered zone of mineralized monzonite & quartz monzonite porphyry associated with quartz, sericite & sulfides.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 113; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): USGS Open-File Report 05-1060
Zoisite
Formula: Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Description: Occurs in hydrothermally altered quartz monzonite & monzonite porphyries associated with the less-intensely altered areas.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 215; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654; Schwartz, G.M. (1947), Hydrothermal alteration in the 'porphyry copper' deposits, Econ.Geol.: 42, 319-352; Creasey, S.C. (1959), Some phase relations in the hydrothermally altered rocks of porphyry copper deposits, Econ.Geol.: 54: 351-373.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Gold1.AA.05Au
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Enargite2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Atacamite3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var: Specularite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Allophane9.ED.20(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Dickite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Hydrobiotite9.EC.60K(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pyrophyllite9.EC.10Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Zoisite9.BG.10Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 4
Enargite3.2.1.1Cu3AsS4
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Zoisite58.2.1b.1Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Allophane71.1.5.1(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Dickite71.1.1.1Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Hydrobiotite71.2.2d.1K(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Pyrophyllite71.2.1.1Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
Hematite
var: Specularite
-Fe2O3
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
H HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
O HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O CupriteCu2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O HematiteFe2O3
O Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F FluoriteCaF2
MgMagnesium
Mg HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
AlAluminium
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Al HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Si HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S CovelliteCuS
S EnargiteCu3AsS4
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
FeIron
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2O
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe SideriteFeCO3
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu EnargiteCu3AsS4
AsArsenic
As EnargiteCu3AsS4
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
AuGold
Au GoldAu

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Schwartz, G.M. (1947), Hydrothermal alteration in the 'porphyry copper' deposits, Economic Geology: 42, 319-352.
Creasey, S.C. (1959), Some phase relations in the hydrothermally altered rocks of porphyry copper deposits, Economic Geology: 54: 351-373.
Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, Arizona, Economic Geology: 63: 645-654;
Welty, J.W. (1988) Strontium isotopic compositions of igneous rocks at the San Manuel-Kalamazoo porphyry copper deposit, Pinal County, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, M.S. prepublication manuscript, 27 p.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 113, 215, 257, 302, 309, 341.
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2005): Porphyry Copper Deposits of the World: Database, Map, and Grade and Tonnage Models. USGS Open-File Report 05-1060.


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