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White Queen Mine (Queen mine; White Queen prospect), Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill), Pala, Pala Mining District, San Diego County, California, USAi
Regional Level Types
White Queen Mine (Queen mine; White Queen prospect)Mine
Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill)Mountain
Pala- not defined -
Pala Mining DistrictMining District
San Diego CountyCounty
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
33° 22' 35'' North , 117° 2' 17'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Rainbow1,832 (2011)10.9km
Temecula112,011 (2017)16.6km
Valley Center9,277 (2011)17.6km
Aguanga1,128 (2011)17.7km
Hidden Meadows3,485 (2011)18.2km


"It's out of temper, I think, I've pinned it here, and I've pinned it there, but there's no pleasing it!"
—Lewis Carroll [Charles Lutwidge Dodgson] (1832–1898), British writer, mathematician. Alice and the White Queen, in Through the Looking-Glass, “Wool and Water,” (1872).

Setting:
The White Queen mine is situated in the center of the W2SE4 Sec. 24 T9S R2W SBM, on the upper western slope of Hiriart Mountain.

History:
The deposit was located by Frederick M. Sickler on June 8th of 1901. According to Fred, several years before the turn of the century, he and his brother Allan had been hunting for mineral specimens on a unnamed mountain, east of Pala. At that time they found quartz crystals, lepidolite, pink and blue tourmaline, and a bit of lilac colored mineral about 3 inches long[1]. When news that two sheep herders had located a mining claim on the mountain[2], Fred returned to the spot where he had found lepidolite years before, and subsequently staked his claim.

Not long after the date of the White Queen location, the surrounding vacant public lands were temporarily withdrawn and removed from mineral entry under the United States land and mineral laws pursuant to Secretarial Order dated January 24, 1903. This order was a temporary withdrawal pending acquisition of all private inholdings, including valid existing rights, for the benefit of the Pala Tribe, under Indian tract allotment pursuant to the Act of January 12, 1891.

In 1906, Kunz described further development as an open cut in the main ledge, which revealed lepidolite and gem pockets. The primary production was described as Salmon-pink lithium beryls, some being very fine specimens. Minor amounts of gem tourmaline were encountered, but no kunzite production was reported.

On August 27th, 1938, Marion M. Sickler deeded the mine to his son Fred for 1 dollar and 'love and affection'. Fred eventually sold the mine to George Ashley in 1947, whom subsequently sold the mine to Norman E. Dawson of San Marcos in 1948. Dawson did a small amount of work on the claim due to its location on the top of the mountain. Around 1959 a road was built beginning on the Fargo at the base of the mountain, extending across the El Molino, and up to the White Queen, for a total distance of 1.25 miles of roadway which took nearly a year to construct.

In the course of road building on the White Queen claim, a deposit of lepidolite was encountered. An open pit was developed which produced several quartz pockets and some morganite crystals. Later attempts to develop a drift at this point were unsuccessful due to the broken structure of the pegmatite. With the help of his sons, Kenneth and Robert, and son-in-law Roger Helsel, a new location was established approximately 150 feet above the open cut. Soon after breaking the surface, a pocket containing over 100 pounds of dark blue tourmaline was discovered.

By 1963, A small exploratory drift was developed for 25 feet along the pegmatite using a pneumatic hammer and mucking by hand-pail; encountering increasing amounts of lepidolite, albite, orthoclase, amblygonite and quartz. At this point a pocket was encountered that began to yield ton after ton of large tan and pink montmorillonite-coated quartz crystals (lithia quartz). As the workings progressed deeper, the pocket clay of cookeite, montmorillonite, and iron-stained kaolinite, began to yield several morganite crystals.

In 1966, another adit was constructed further down the mountain to access the pocket zone at depth, which when encountered yielded several large cathedral-style lithia quartz crystals up to 600 pounds. Several fine peach-colored beryl crystals of exceptional gem-quality were recovered, including many fine morganites on a matrix of cookeite encrusted cleavelandite. A near flawless 178 carat faceted morganite of exceptional orangey pink color was faceted by Spencer Barnhart, was sold to the Smithsonian Institution, together with a 8 x 11 x 5 inch morganite on matirx specimen - the largest beryl measuring 4 inches across by 6 inches long laying at an angle on a group of beryl crystals. The discovery was described as probably the finest examples of morganite to be mined at any time on the North American continent. Other minerals found included dark blue tourmaline, columbite-tantalite group minerals, phosphates including fluorapatite crystals and massive lithophilite and amblygonite. In 1973, another large pocket was discovered which yielded about 6000 kg of quartz crystals and 30 kg of morganite. Occasional finds of smaller morganite crystals on cleavelandite matrix were made between 1974 and 1989 while scavenging within the old underground workings.

In 1990, Robert and Kenneth Dawson, together with several partners, developed a new adit below the previous openings to intersect the system of pockets exploited earlier at greater depth. In September, and soon after reaching the pegmatite, they encountered a large pocket from which they obtained around 200 specimens of peach to salmon colored morganite measuring between 2-3 inches diameter and about 1.5 inches in thickness. Specimens from this pocket are widely regarded as the finest produced from the mine.

In the early 1990's the Secretary of the Interior, through the delegation to the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), investigated the bona fides of the mining claim to determine any encumbrance of an allotment application (trust patent) filed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs on behalf of the Pala Tribe on June 19, 1980. The claim was adjudicated and in 1992 it was declared invalid from the beginning, or void ab initio. The land is now managed for the benefit of the Pala Band of Mission Indians by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).

Footnotes:

1. Reputed by Frederick M. Sickler to be the first discovery of Kunzite in the area.

2. The nearby Sempe lode was discovered and first located under the general mining laws by Bernardo Hiriart and Pedro Peiletch on June 7th of 1901 (one day prior to the location of the White Queen lode by Frederick M. Sickler). According to Kunz and others, the two Basque Frenchmen, Bernardo Hiriart and Pedro Peiletch, were active gem prospectors and miners in the Pala area between 1901 and 1912.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


20 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Fisher, J., 2002, Mineralogical Record 33(5), 363-407
Albite var. Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Jesse Fisher (2011) Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals 86:14-34.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 38, pp. 1399-1408 (2000)
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Reference: Dawson, N. E. (1963), Development of the White Queen Mine. Lapidary Journal Magazine, Volume 17, Number 5: pages 522-525, photographs.
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'
Reference: Van King
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Description: Contains Rb & Sr.
Reference: Lapidary Journal, (1966), Morganite: aquamarine's peachy-colored cousin found at Pala, Calif. Vol. 19, No. 11: p. 1220, 1222, illust.; Riley, G. H. (1970b), Excess 87Sr in pegmatitic phosphates. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 34: 729.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Fisher, J., 2002, Mineralogical Record 33(5), 363-407
Beryl var. Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Min.Rec.: 20(5):399.; Jesse Fisher (2011) Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals 86:14-34.
Beyerite
Formula: Ca(BiO)2(CO3)2
Reference: [Mineralogical Record 29:164]
Clinobisvanite
Formula: Bi(VO4)
Reference: [Mineralogical Record 29:164]
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Nb2O6
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 38, pp. 1399-1408 (2000)
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Novák, M. & Taylor, M.C. (2000): Foitite: formation during late stages of evolution of complex granitic pegmatites at Dobrá Voda, Czech Republic, and Pala, California, U.S.A. Canadian Mineralogist 38, 1399-1408.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 31-32.
'Feldspar Group var. Perthite'
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 31-32.
Foitite
Formula: (◻,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Reference: Novák, M. & Taylor, M.C. (2000): Foitite: formation during late stages of evolution of complex granitic pegmatites at Dobrá Voda, Czech Republic, and Pala, California, U.S.A. Canadian Mineralogist 38, 1399-1408.; Fisher, J., 2002, Mineralogical Record 33(5), 363-407
Lithiophilite
Formula: LiMn2+PO4
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 38, pp. 1399-1408 (2000)
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Fisher, J., 2002, Mineralogical Record 33(5), 363-407
Montebrasite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Van King
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Fisher, J., 2002, Mineralogical Record 33(5), 363-407
Namibite
Formula: Cu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
Reference: [Mineralogical Record 29:164]
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Description: Orthoclase and microcline are widespread constituents of the pocket zones in the pegmatites where they generally form large, equant crystals with well-developed faces. The orthoclase is intimately associated with perthite, and is more abundant than the perthite in the pocket pegmatite of some dikes. In general, however, the orthoclase constitutes only a small fraction of the total potash feldspar within the dikes as a whole.
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 31-32; Dawson, N. E. (1963), Development of the White Queen Mine. Lapidary Journal Magazine, Volume 17, Number 5: pages 522-525, photographs.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Fisher, J., 2002, Mineralogical Record 33(5), 363-407; Jesse Fisher (2011) Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals 86:14-34.
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Fisher, J., 2002, Mineralogical Record 33(5), 363-407
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 38, pp. 1399-1408 (2000)
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 38, pp. 1399-1408 (2000)
Spodumene var. Kunzite ?
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1905. Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: p. 86.
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Reference: http://minerals.gps.caltech.edu/FILES/DENDRITE/Index.htm

Gallery:

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Columbite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Nb2O6
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Beyerite5.BE.35Ca(BiO)2(CO3)2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Amblygonite8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)F
Clinobisvanite8.AD.65Bi(VO4)
Lithiophilite8.AB.10LiMn2+PO4
Montebrasite8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Namibite8.BB.50Cu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var. Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var. Morganite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Foitite9.CK.05(◻,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
var. Kunzite ?9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'-
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Feldspar Group'-
'var. Perthite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification


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Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB3X7
Todorokite7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
AB2O6
Columbite-(Mn)8.3.2.4Mn2+Nb2O6
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Beyerite16a.2.3.1Ca(BiO)2(CO3)2
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
ABXO4
Lithiophilite38.1.1.2LiMn2+PO4
AXO4
Clinobisvanite38.4.7.1Bi(VO4)
Miscellaneous
Namibite38.5.9.1Cu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Amblygonite41.5.8.1LiAl(PO4)F
Montebrasite41.5.8.2LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Foitite61.3.1.1(◻,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var. Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'-
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Beryl
var. Morganite
-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Feldspar Group'-
'var. Perthite'-
Spodumene
var. Kunzite ?
-LiAlSi2O6

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Foitite(◻,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
LiLithium
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Li LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Li AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Li MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li Spodumene var. KunziteLiAlSi2O6
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl var. MorganiteBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Foitite(◻,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
CCarbon
C BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
OOxygen
O ClinobisvaniteBi(VO4)
O BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
O NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
O Beryl var. MorganiteBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O QuartzSiO2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Foitite(◻,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
O Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
O MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
O Albite var. CleavelanditeNa(AlSi3O8)
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Spodumene var. KunziteLiAlSi2O6
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Na Albite var. CleavelanditeNa(AlSi3O8)
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
AlAluminium
Al Beryl var. MorganiteBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Foitite(◻,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Al MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
Al Albite var. CleavelanditeNa(AlSi3O8)
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Spodumene var. KunziteLiAlSi2O6
SiSilicon
Si Beryl var. MorganiteBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Foitite(◻,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Albite var. CleavelanditeNa(AlSi3O8)
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Spodumene var. KunziteLiAlSi2O6
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
P AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
P MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
CaCalcium
Ca BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
VVanadium
V ClinobisvaniteBi(VO4)
V NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
MnManganese
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Mn Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
FeIron
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe Foitite(◻,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
CuCopper
Cu NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
SrStrontium
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
NbNiobium
Nb Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
BaBarium
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
BiBismuth
Bi ClinobisvaniteBi(VO4)
Bi BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
Bi NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Kunz, G. F. (1905), Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 31, 84-87, 133.
Kunz, G. F. (1906), The Production of Precious Stones in 1905. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Division of Mining and Mineral Resources. GPO, Washington: pages 26-27; 40 pp.
Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 72 p.
Dawson, N. E. (1963), Development of the White Queen Mine. Lapidary Journal Magazine, Volume 17, Number 5: pages 522-525, photographs.
Weber, F. H. (1963), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 115.
Lapidary Journal, (1966), Morganite: aquamarine's peachy-colored cousin found at Pala, Calif. Vol. 19, No. 11: p. 1220, 1222, illust.
Riley, G. H. (1970b), Excess 87Sr in pegmatitic phosphates. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 34: 729.
Sinkankas, J. (1976), Gemstones of North America. Vol. 2. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 494 p.
Robinson, George W. & King, Vandall T. (1989), What's New in Minerals? Sixteenth Annual Rochester Academy of Science Mineralogical Symposium. Mineralogical Record, Volume 20, Number 5: p. 399.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, (1994), Directory of Principal U.S. Gemstone Producers in 1993; U.S. Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, P. 16.
Todd, W. R. & Waiwood, R. M. (1996), Mineral Report: Validity Examination of the Katerina Lode; Bureau of Land Management, United States Department of the Interior, Oct. 30; 71 p., maps/plats, photos, legal/technical data.
Sinkankas, J. (1997), Gemstones of North America. Vol. 3. Beryl; Tucson, Arizona: Geoscience Press Inc.; pages 58-59, 480.
Dunning, Gail E. & Cooper, Joseph F. Jr. (1998), Namibite: A Summary of World Occurrences. Mineralogical Record, Volume 29, Number 3: p. 164.
Fisher, J. (2002), Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record 33(5): 363-407.
Fisher, Jesse (2011), Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals: 86: 14-34.
Mauthner, M. H. F. (2011), The History of Kunzite and the California Connection. Rocks & Minerals: 86(2): 112-131.

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Pacific PlateTectonic Plate

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