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Emigrant Springs mine, Carlin District, Elko Co., Nevada, USAi
Regional Level Types
Emigrant Springs mineMine
Carlin DistrictMining District
Elko Co.County

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Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
40° 36' 50'' North , 115° 58' 12'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Owned/operated by:
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
Carlin2,302 (2017)15.8km
Elko20,279 (2017)29.9km
Spring Creek12,361 (2011)34.7km
Lamoille105 (2011)43.3km
Osino709 (2011)43.9km

Open pit heap leach operation started production in 2012.

The mine is expected to produce between 70,000 and 80,000 ounces of gold per year.

According to Newmont (2009), the undeveloped reserves at the Emigrant deposit consist of 1.2 million ounces of gold (37.3 t Au).
Structure: The Emigrant Springs fault is filled with jasperoidal breccia over a 50-foot width for 2200 feet along strike. The sense of movement on the fault is reverse. The property lies just beyond the easternmost limit of the Roberts Mountains Thrust. Emigrant Springs occurs on the NW limb of the Pinon Range anticline.

Alteration: The north-trending Emigrant fault zone hosts the Emigrant Springs deposit in mudstone of the Webb Formation along the contact of the Devils Gate Limestone. The Emigrant Springs fault is highly silicified with minor barite, alunite, jarosite, and kaolinite. The bedding parallel jasperoid which constitutes the ore zone is typically massive, waxy, tan to maroon, and fine-grained. Liesegang banding of unsilicified Webb Formation rocks above the jasperoid is common.

Commodity: Ore Materials: gold Gangue Materials: barite, alunite, jarosite, kaolinite, limonite

Deposit: Emigrant is an oxide gold deposit exposed at the surface with a low strip ratio. Newmont?s current feasibility study assumes simple processing by run-of-mine heap leaching. The north-trending Emigrant fault zone hosts the Emigrant Springs deposit in mudstone of the Webb Formation along the contact of the Devils Gate Limestone.

Deposit type: Sediment-hosted Au

Development: For the portion of the deposit in section 26: Homestake Mining was the first to conduct exploration on the property. Activities in 1981 consisted of grid soil and rock chip sample surveys, and two outcropping gold-bearing jasperoid zones were tested with rotary drilling. Homestake terminated their lease and the property then passed to Tarpon Oil Company who drilled an additional 22 holes in 1983 and 1984. Western States Minerals Company optioned the property in 1985 and drilled 20 holes in an effort to expand the known mineralization. Teck Resources acquired the property in 1987 and conducted detailed geologic mapping, soil sampling, and IP geophysical surveys. 41 holes were drilled between 1987 and 1989, both to fill in the known mineralization and to test new targets. A total of 136 holes had been drilled by 1989. For the portion of the deposit in section 35: this portion of the deposit was discovered by Newmont in the early 1980s during exploration peripheral to the Rain deposit 1.5 miles to the west. In 2002, Newmont Mining Corp. continued to evaluate the Emigrant project on the Carlin trend, where they feel there is potential for expanding the old Emigrant Mine. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management has been working on an environmental assessment of a proposed project there for several years, and Emigrant is scheduled to be in production in 2008, with a 7 year mine life. In spring 2004 BLM publicized a notice that Newmont Mining Corporation has submitted a Plan of Operations to open the Emigrant Mine which would include developing and operating an open pit mine; constructing a waste rock disposal facility, storing oxide waste in mined areas of the pit; developing an oxide heap leach pad; and constructing ancillary facilities and concurrent reclamation. Proposed mining operations would last for approximately 9 years through the year 2013. In 2005, a reverse-circulation drilling program of more than 60 holes was aimed at delineating potential mineralization to the east of the defined Emigrant deposit.

Ore(s): The Emigrant Springs fault, a north-striking reverse fault is the conduit for gold-bearing hydrothermal fluids. Au occurs disseminated in jasperoid that has developed at and above the contact between massive limestones of the Devils Gate Formation and siliciclastic rocks of the overlying Webb Formation. This mineralized jasperoid forms a bedding parallel dip slope now exposed at surface, resulting in strip ratios of essentially 0:1. Proximity to the hinge of the Pinon Range anticline may have influenced localization of gold.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.

Mineral List

9 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference:; U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: NBMG Bull 106 Geology and Mineral Resources of Elko County, Nevada;; U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Formula: Au
Reference: NBMG Bull 106 Geology and Mineral Resources of Elko County, Nevada;; U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Formula: Fe2O3
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference:; U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference:; U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: NBMG Bull 106 Geology and Mineral Resources of Elko County, Nevada; U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Formula: FeS2
Reference: NBMG Bull 106 Geology and Mineral Resources of Elko County, Nevada;
Formula: SiO2

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.

List of minerals for each chemical element

H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O BaryteBaSO4
O HematiteFe2O3
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O QuartzSiO2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si QuartzSiO2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
S PyriteFeS2
S BaryteBaSO4
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Au GoldAu

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Quaternary - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma

ID: 3185380
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Early Mississippian - Devonian
346.7 - 419.2 Ma

ID: 2754895
Slope Assemblage - Shale, graywacke, siltstone, chert, conglomerate, and limestone

Age: Paleozoic (346.7 - 419.2 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Slaven Chert; Waterpipe Canyon Formation; Webb Formation; Woodruff Formation

Description: Carbonaceous shale, black chert and argillite, graywacke, chert-pebble conglomerate, and detrital limestone are the primary lithologies described from all of the rocks assigned to this unit, representing a mixed slope and basinal facies. On other maps these rocks have been included in a variety of units including the foreland basin and Devonian siliceous and transitional rocks. Mapping and new biostratigraphic data gathered in the last 30 years have shown that many of these rocks mapped only as Devonian also contain Early Mississippian fossils, thus making it difficult to distinguish them from known lithologically similar Lower Mississippian rocks. Although this unit is everywhere structurally bounded by faults, a stratigraphic link to older Slope assemblage rocks is possible. These rocks are imbricated with units DCs, IPMcl, OCc, Ocq, DSt, Dc, and MDcl. Whether there is a definable continuous Early Mississippian through Devonian sequence within this unit is unknown, but is suggested in the Carlin-Piñon Range (Smith and Ketner, 1978). The Slaven Chert first described in the Shoshone Range (Gilluly and Gates, 1965) is black chert with carbonaceous shale beds 4–10 feet thick, limy brown-weathering sandstone as much as four ft thick with coarse fragments of chert, shale, greenstone, limestone, graywacke, feldspathic siltstone, and brown-weathering limestone 2–20 ft thick, and contains Late Devonian radiolarians (Boundy-Sanders, Sandberg, and others, 1999). The Mississippian Waterpipe Canyon Formation is a similar formation with basal medium-grained graywacke with interlayered black, carbonaceous shale; chert-pebble conglomerate; and bedded chert grading upward into sandstone layers with black, well-rounded quartz and a black, pyritic, phosphate- and barite-bearing, argillaceous matrix interlayered with black, platy, quartz siltstone and fine-grained graywacke interbeds. It contains Early Mississippian radiolarians (Peters, Armstrong, and others, 2003). In the HD Range in northeastern Elko County, an undated, light-gray weathering, brittle, black shale, structurally underlies the other thrust sheets and was referred to as the Chainman Shale by Riva (1970), but is included here in unit MDst. In the Windermere Hills a fissile black argillite with sporadic interbeds of quartz-chert arenite is poorly exposed with variable dips suggesting a complex structure (Oversby, 1972). In the Cockalorum Wash quadrangle along the Eureka-Nye County boundary, a pale yellow-brown, organic-detrital limestone contains quartz and chert grains locally interbedded with and succeeded upward by light-colored siliceous mudstone, claystone, and siltstone. The basal limestone contains mixed Mississippian and Devonian faunas; a thin chert from a higher zone has Osagean radiolarians (Hose, 1983). In the northern Adobe Range, this unit is recognized as dark siliceous rocks consisting of shale, argillite, and bedded chert. They are faulted and folded with sparse collections of Kinderhookian and Famennian radiolarians and conodonts (Ketner and Ross, 1990). The Webb Formation in the Carlin-Piñon Range is a gray siliceous mudstone with black to gray, tan-weathering, dense limestone in lenses near the top (Smith and Ketner, 1978). The argillite of Lee Canyon is a black siliceous argillite with a little black chert and very little conglomerate and sandstone near the top (Smith and Ketner, 1978). In the Sulphur Spring Range, the Bruffey sequence (Carlisle and Nelson, 1990) is a black chert pebble to boulder conglomerate and well-bedded gritty limestone, chert and limestone conglomerate, gray limy shale, and minor sandstone. Smith and Ketner (1978) describe the same rocks as gray limestone, sandy limestone, chert, and chert-pebble conglomerate. The Woodruff Formation from the same area is described by Carlisle and Nelson (1990) as a gray fissile shale, dolomitic siltstone, and black and brown bedded chert. Smith and Ketner (1978) describe the Woodruff as dark gray to black siliceous mudstone and chert, with lesser amounts of shale, siltstone, dolomitic siltstone, dolomite, and limestone. In the Shoshone Range, pale-red to pale-brown weathering, platy, silty dolomite interbedded with black chert in the basal 50 ft of rocks referred to as the Pilot Shale by both Gilluly and Gates (1965) and Wrucke (1974) is included here. In the southern Independence Range, this unit consists of fine-grained limestone, bedded chert, shale, conglomerate, and prominent ledges of limy sandstone with Famennian and Frasnian (Late Devonian) conodonts (Ketner, 1998). In Welches Canyon northwest of Carlin, this unit is gray to black limestone, fine grained, and thin to thick bedded with common sand- and silt-size clasts of quartz and chert grains. It also contains pebbles and cobbles of chert, and interlayered chert and siliceous shale as much as 50 feet thick (Evans, 1974). In the Snake Mountains, the unit is dark carbonaceous limestone apparently overlain by a light-gray, siliceous platy siltstone. Other outcrops that belong with unit MDst, but are not mapped separately on a regional scale from Slope or Basin assemblage units DCs and DOts include the Pinecone sequence in the Toquima Range (Coles and Snyder, 1985), and gold-bearing chert (Theodore, T., oral commun., 2006) mapped informally as the “Rodeo Creek Formation” (Peters, 1997b) in the Carlin area.

Comments: Original map source: Crafford, A.E.J., 2007, Geologic Map of Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 249, 1 CD-ROM, 46 p., 1 plate; Scale 1:250,000.

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Jackson, P., (1992), Geology and mineralization of the Emigrant Springs Project, Elko County, Nevada, in Buffa, R. and Coyner, A., eds., The Geology and Ore Deposits of the Great Basin-Field Trip Guidebook Compendium, The Geological Society of Nevada, Reno, p. 125-130.
Thoreson, R., (1991), Geology and gold deposits of the Rain subdistrict, Elko County, Nevada, in Raines, G.L., et al., eds., Geology and Ore Deposits of the Great Basin, The Geological Society of Nevada, Reno, p. 635-643.
Thoreson, R., (1990), Geology and Ore Deposits of the Rain Subdistrict, Elko County, Nevada, Oral Presentation at Great Basin Symposium, The Geological Society of Nevada, Reno/Sparks, April 4.
Newmont Gold (1993) Sec Form 10k;
Long, K.R., DeYoung, J.H., Jr., and Ludington, S.D., (1998), Significant deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-206A, 33 p.; 98-206B. one 3.5 inch diskette.
Newmont 5-Year Business Plan Update (September 24, (2003)) ? Supplemental Information.
Anthony A. Longo, Tommy B. Thompson, and J. Bruce Harlan, (2002), Geologic Overview of the Rain Subdistrict, in NBMG Bull 111.

USGS MRDS Record:10310411
This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
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