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Sweetwater Mine (Milliken Mine; Frank R. Milliken; Blair Creek; Ozark Lead Company Mine; Adair Creek; Logan Creek), Ellington, Reynolds Co., Missouri, USAi
Regional Level Types
Sweetwater Mine (Milliken Mine; Frank R. Milliken; Blair Creek; Ozark Lead Company Mine; Adair Creek; Logan Creek)Mine
Ellington- not defined -
Reynolds Co.County
MissouriState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
37° 21' 32'' North , 91° 8' 48'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Bunker400 (2017)12.1km
Centerville188 (2017)18.7km
Ellington960 (2017)20.4km
Eminence587 (2017)29.7km
Viburnum662 (2017)39.6km


A Pb-Zn occurrence/mine located about 12 miles NW of Ellington. Formerly owned & operated by Ozark Lead Company from 1968 to 1986 (although it was not in production from 1983 - 1986 due to low lead prices). Sold to ASARCO in 1986, reopened December 1987. Sold to the Doe Run Company in 1997, and presently in operation.

Reserves in 1988 amounted to 22.6 million tons of ore at an average of 4.84% Pb & 0.59% Zn.

Mining Method: Room and Pillar. Drill+Blast with LHD or mine truck haulage to ore chutes below. After crushing underground, the ore is hauled to a 20-foot diameter x 1,250 foot deep, central 3-compartment hoisting shaft.

Regional Geology: The Viburnum Trend is a 6-mile x 40-mile North-trending deposit discovered in the late 1950's and early 1960's whose Pb-Ag-Zn deposits are exploited by the Brushy Creek, Buick, Fletcher, Magmont, Sweetwater, West Fork, and Viburnum mines Nos. 27, 28, 29, and 35 at depths ranging from 1,000-1,450 feet.

The Viburnum Trend deposits differ from other Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc ore deposits in that ores are shallower, they include nickel and cobalt minerals, and some copper-iron sulfides. Also, while ores were formed from hot, saline brines, it is generally accepted that for the Viburnum Trend, this was a repetitive precipitation and dissolution process for the sulfides, particularly galena and suggests that the ore-forming base metal constituents were transported with reduced sulfur in the same solutions, with precipitation initiated by a change in pH, dilution, and/or a decrease in temperature. For the Sweetwater ores, the repetitive precipitations comprised decreasing base metal concentrations in the mineralizing fluids.

Most ore minerals are found as sulfides such as galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. Gangue minerals associated with the economic minerals include pyrite, calcite, dolomite, and quartz.

Sweetwater Geology: There are 8 distinct ore bodies distributed at depth within the Bonneterre formation. The Bonneterre itself comprises four facies; fore reef, reef complex, back reef, and shelf. These facies are petrographic units developed in response to sea level fluctuations and the distribution of Precambrian knobs and ridges in a shallow Cambrian sea. Oolitic and digitate stromatolite facies predominate in the mine, and stratigraphic relationships record a prograding sedimentary pattern during lower Bonneterre sedimentation that expresses as an interfingering of the planar stromatolitic burrowed lime mudstone (reef complex) facies with the digitate (back reef) facies.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


23 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anilite
Formula: Cu7S4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.
'Bitumen'
Reference: Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: Hexagonal prisms with simple rhomb terminations to 7 cm
Colour: slight yellowish white
Fluorescence: SW- dull orange; MW- magenta-pink; LW- dull orange
Description: If only these perched doubly terminated xls were water clear like the Big Rig specimens
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960
Carrollite
Formula: Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Reference: Sherwood, M. D., & Williams, G. A. (1998). Missouri mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 73(2), 98-117.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Habit: simple sphenoids and twins to several mm
Colour: yellow
Fluorescence: none
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960; Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1875-1910
Chalcopyrite var: Blister Copper
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Kevin Conroy Collection
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Sherwood, M. D., & Williams, G. A. (1998). Missouri mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 73(2), 98-117.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Description: Crystals to 0.75 inches
Reference: Rocks & Min.:72:417.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Habit: simple rhombs to several mm
Colour: white
Reference: Rocks & Min.:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960; Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1875-1910
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Sherwood, M. D., & Williams, G. A. (1998). Missouri mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 73(2), 98-117.
Fletcherite
Formula: Cu(Ni,Co)2S4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Habit: cubes and cube-octos to several cm
Colour: lead grey
Fluorescence: none
Description: The cube faces are often bright and lustrous, while the octahedral faces are dull
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960; Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1875-1910; Hagni, R. (2018). Platy Galena from the Viburnum Trend, Southeast Missouri: Character, Mine Distribution, Paragenetic Position, Trace Element Content, Nature of Twinning, and Conditions of Formation. Minerals, 8(3), 93.
Linnaeite
Formula: Co2+Co3+2S4
Description: Mineralogical Record article indicates that the Linnaeite Group here is siegenite
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey,2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S Geological Survey,Reston, Virginia
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Norman King (see www.mindat.org/mesg-11-287183.html)
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Polydymite
Formula: Ni2+Ni3+2S4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Sherwood, M. D., & Williams, G. A. (1998). Missouri mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 73(2), 98-117.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Siegenite
Formula: CoNi2S4
Habit: octos and spinel twins to several mm
Colour: grey
Fluorescence: none
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960
Vaesite
Formula: NiS2
Reference: MinRec 9:111-112; Rocks & Min.:64:22&26.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Anilite2.BA.10Cu7S4
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Carrollite2.DA.05Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
var: Blister Copper2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Djurleite2.BA.05Cu31S16
Fletcherite2.DA.05Cu(Ni,Co)2S4
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Linnaeite ?2.DA.05Co2+Co3+2S4
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Polydymite2.DA.05Ni2+Ni3+2S4
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Siegenite2.DA.05CoNi2S4
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Vaesite2.EB.05aNiS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Erythrite8.CE.40Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Dickite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Bitumen'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Anilite2.4.7.5Cu7S4
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
Djurleite2.4.7.2Cu31S16
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Carrollite2.10.1.2Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Fletcherite2.10.1.3Cu(Ni,Co)2S4
Linnaeite ?2.10.1.1Co2+Co3+2S4
Polydymite2.10.1.7Ni2+Ni3+2S4
Siegenite2.10.1.6CoNi2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Vaesite2.12.1.2NiS2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Erythrite40.3.6.3Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Dickite71.1.1.1Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Bitumen'-
Chalcopyrite
var: Blister Copper
-CuFeS2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O CalciteCaCO3
O DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S GalenaPbS
S SiegeniteCoNi2S4
S DjurleiteCu31S16
S PyriteFeS2
S VaesiteNiS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S DigeniteCu9S5
S CovelliteCuS
S AniliteCu7S4
S FletcheriteCu(Ni,Co)2S4
S MilleriteNiS
S PolydymiteNi2+Ni23+S4
S MarcasiteFeS2
S CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
S Chalcopyrite (var: Blister Copper)CuFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Chalcopyrite (var: Blister Copper)CuFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CoCobalt
Co SiegeniteCoNi2S4
Co FletcheriteCu(Ni,Co)2S4
Co CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
Co ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Co LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
NiNickel
Ni SiegeniteCoNi2S4
Ni VaesiteNiS2
Ni FletcheriteCu(Ni,Co)2S4
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni PolydymiteNi2+Ni23+S4
Ni CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
CuCopper
Cu DjurleiteCu31S16
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu AniliteCu7S4
Cu FletcheriteCu(Ni,Co)2S4
Cu CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu Chalcopyrite (var: Blister Copper)CuFeS2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (1970) A.I.M.E. World Symposium on Mining and Metallurgy of Lead and Zinc, D.O. Rausch and B.C. Mariacher, editors, A.I.M.E., New York, New York, Volume I: 483-498.
Christiansen, C.R. and Scott, J.J. (1970) Mining Systems in the New Lead Belt of Southeast Missouri, chapter 11, volume 1, of Lead & Zinc, A.I.M.E. Symposium, 1970: 206-217.
Engineering and Mining Journal (1970) The New Lead Belt (October 1970): 67-78.
Ryan, J.P. and Martin, J.A. (1971) The Mineral Industry of Missouri. U.S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook, volume 2, Area Reports, Domestic: 423-435.
U.S. Bureau of Mines Yearbook (1971) Volume 2: 431.
Gerity, C.E. (1972) Ozark's Haulage System Gets the Lead Out. Mining Engineering (November 1972): 41-44.
Lagergren, M.A. and Griffith, A.W. (1973) Design Construction and Operation of Ozark Lead Company's Tailings Disposal System. Proceedings (entitled "Tailings Disposal Today") of the First International Tailing Symposium, October 31 - November 3, 1972, Miller Freeman Publications, San Francisco, California, 1973: 714-733.
Mouat, M.M. and Clendenin, C.W. Jr. (1975) Ozark Lead Company Mine, Viburnum Trend, Southeast Missouri, chapter in Guidebook to the Geology and Ore Deposits of Selected Mines, Missouri Department of Natural Resources Report of Investigations No. 58, 1975: 48-56.
Mouat, M.M. and Clendenin, C.W. (1977) Geology of the Ozark Lead Company Mine, Viburnum Trend, Southeast Missouri. Economic Geology, 72(3), 398-407.
Seeger, C.M. (2008) History of Mining in the Southeast Missouri Lead District and Description of Mine Processes, Regulatory Controls, Environmental Effects, and Mine Facilities in the Viburnum Trend Subdistrict.
White, T.G. and Clifford, K.L. (1977) Milling of Lead-Zinc Ores - USA, chapter in Lead-Zinc Update, D.O. Rausch, F.M. Stephens, Jr., and B.C. Mariacher, editors, Society of Mining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, New York, New York: 125, 127, 135, 137, 140-143.
Mineralogical Record (1978) 9, 111-112.
Dressel, W.M. (1979) former state liaison officer, personal communications, August 2, 1979.
Weakly, L.A. (1982) Ore Moving Logistics for Room and Pillar Mines in the Viburnum Trend. Mining Engineering (April 1982), 406-407.
Skillings Mining Review Magazine (1987) ASARCO Slates Sweetwater Mine for Limited Production (August 8, 1987), 3.
Economic Geology (1988) 83, 355-376.
U.S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook - Zinc (1988) 2.
Mineralogical Record (1989) 20, 481.
Mining Magazine (January 1989) 45.
Rocks & Minerals (1989) 64, 22 & 26.
ASARCO Incorporated (1993) Securities and Exchange Commission Form 10-K Report (December 31, 1993): A16-A18.
Economic Geology (1993) 88, 957-960.
ASARCO Incorporated (1995) Securities and Exchange Commission Form 10-K Report.
USGS (2005) Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS). U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10293984 & 10085082 (& 10196555 = mill).
American Mineral Treasures (2008) Lithographie, LLC, 66-73.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0291790008 (& 0291790009 = mill).
Hagni, R.D. (2018) Platy Galena from the Viburnum Trend, Southeast Missouri: Character, Mine Distribution, Trace Element Content, Nature of Twinning and Condition of Formation. Minerals, 8, 93, 16 pp.

Other Databases

USGS MRDS Record:10293984

External Links


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