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Galactic open pit, Summitville, Summitville District (Summit District), Rio Grande Co., Colorado, USAi
Regional Level Types
Galactic open pitPit
Summitville- not defined -
Summitville District (Summit District)Mining District
Rio Grande Co.County
ColoradoState
USACountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 37° 25' North , 106° 35' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 37.41667,-106.58334
GeoHash:G#: 9wshyekru
Locality type:Pit
Köppen climate type:Dfc : Subarctic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
South Fork362 (2017)28.6km
Gerrard278 (2011)29.0km
Alpine174 (2011)30.3km
Del Norte1,604 (2017)35.5km
Pagosa Springs1,756 (2017)41.1km


The Summitville mine is a classic high-sulphidation, acid-sulphate ore deposit. It is well known for three main reasons. First, it was recognized in the 1980's that the mine area was of considerable scientific interest. Earlier mining, deep exploratory drilling and geologic mapping provided a record of the hydrothermal plumbing system over a vertical 2/3 mile. It contained porphyry copper/molybdenum mineralization at depth, epithermal precious metal concentrations deposited at shallow depths and remnants of siliceous hot spring deposits.

Secondly the site became a large environmental problem after mining ended.

Third, during an earlier phase of exploration the site that later became the Summitville mine produced a 140 pound float boulder that became known as “The Gold Boulder of Summitville”.

In the mid 1980's the Summitville property was acquired by a Canadian company, Galactic Resources. Galactic created a subsideary, Summitville Consolidated Mining Co., to work the acquisition. The mining took place between 1986 and 1991 and produced approximately 9.25 million tons of ore averaging 0.047 oz/t (Gray, et al, 1993). The ore was processed by a cyanide heap leach process producing a yield of 302,000 oz. Most of the gold came from the intensely altered vuggy silicified volcanic rocks. Minor, but significant amounts of gold came from late barite-bearing veins in the upper part of the ore deposit. The late barite veins were what was worked underground beginning in then 19th century and are the source of “The Gold Boulder of Summitville”.

Cavities in the vuggy gold-bearing zone often copper sulphides and other minerals. More detailed treatments of the Summitville mine are given by Bethke, et al, (2005) and Gray, et al (1993).

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
Rocky Mountains, North AmericaMountain Range

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


21 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Rocks & Min.:64:500.; Gray, et al (1993)
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Hinsdalite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Luzonite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rocks & Min.:64:500.; Gray, et al (1993)
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Reference: Gray, et al (1993)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Enargite2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Luzonite2.KA.10Cu3AsS4
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Hinsdalite8.BL.05PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 4
Enargite3.2.1.1Cu3AsS4
Luzonite3.2.2.1Cu3AsS4
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Hinsdalite43.4.1.5PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
OOxygen
O QuartzSiO2
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O BaryteBaSO4
O HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
AlAluminium
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
PPhosphorus
P HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
SSulfur
S CovelliteCuS
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S PyriteFeS2
S EnargiteCu3AsS4
S LuzoniteCu3AsS4
S SulphurS8
S MarcasiteFeS2
S BaryteBaSO4
S HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
KPotassium
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe HematiteFe2O3
CuCopper
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu EnargiteCu3AsS4
Cu LuzoniteCu3AsS4
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As EnargiteCu3AsS4
As LuzoniteCu3AsS4
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Miocene - Eocene
5.333 - 56 Ma



ID: 3190650
Cenozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Cenozoic (5.333 - 56 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: San Juan Mountains

Comments: Southern Rocky Mountains

Lithology: Intermediate-felsic volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Oligocene
23.03 - 33.9 Ma



ID: 2813928
Intra-ash flow andesitic lavas

Age: Oligocene (23.03 - 33.9 Ma)

Comments: Original map source: Green, G.N., 1992, The Digital Geologic Map of Colorado in ARC/INFO Format: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-0507, 9 p., scale 1:500,000.

Lithology: Major:{andesite}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Rocks & Minerals (1989): 64: 500.
Gray, J.E., Coolbaugh, M.F., and Plumlee, G.S. (1993), Geologic Framework and environmental geology of the Summitville, Colorado acid-sulfate mineral deposit: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 93-677, 29 p.
Bethke, P.M., Rye, R.O, Stoffregen, R.E., and Vikre, P.G. (2005), Evolution of the magmatic-hydrothermal acid-sulfate system at Summitville, Colorado: integration of geological, stable-isotope, and fluid-inclusion evidence: Chemical Geology: 215: 281-315.


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