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Stewart Mine (MS 6162; Stewart Lithia mine), Tourmaline Queen Mountain (Pala Mtn; Queen Mtn), Pala, Pala Mining District, San Diego County, California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Stewart Mine (MS 6162; Stewart Lithia mine)Mine
Tourmaline Queen Mountain (Pala Mtn; Queen Mtn)Mountain
Pala- not defined -
Pala Mining DistrictMining District
San Diego CountyCounty
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
33° 22' 51'' North , 117° 3' 45'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Rainbow1,832 (2011)8.6km
Temecula112,011 (2017)14.8km
Fallbrook30,534 (2011)17.5km
Hidden Meadows3,485 (2011)17.9km
Valley Center9,277 (2011)18.3km


Summary:
A complex and highly mineralized granitic pegmatite-aplite dike, located near the village of Pala. The pegmatite was originally mined during the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a source of lithium from massive pods of lepidolite that occur in the dike. Was reopened in the late 1960s as a gem mine and has periodically produced specimens and gem material of elbaite, as well as morganite and kunzite. The mine is particularly known for its reddish-pink elbaite.

The deposit is on private land, patented in 1949 by Blanche C. Crane.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

45 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. 1951. Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: pages 59-61.
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: San Diego Mining Company, 2008.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Reference: Kunz, G. F. (1905), Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: 124-125.
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'
Reference: Van King
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Fisher, J. 2002. Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record, Volume 33, Number 5: pages 376-378, photographs.
Bermanite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Seaman, 1976. Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. 1951. Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: pages 59-61.
Beryl var: Goshenite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. 1951. Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: pages 59-61.
Beryl var: Heliodor
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. 1951. Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: pages 59-61.
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. 1951. Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: pages 59-61.
Beyerite
Formula: Ca(BiO)2(CO3)2
Colour: Greenish gray
Description: Compact masses in pegmatite as a possible alteration product of bismuthinite.
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 282.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Reference: Seaman, 1976. Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Reference: www.gemandmineral.com/stewartmine.html.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: [Mineralogical Record 29:164]; Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 387-388
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Nb2O6
Reference: Fisher, J. 2002. Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record, Volume 33, Number 5: pages 376-378, photographs.
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: www.gemandmineral.com/stewartmine.html.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: www.gemandmineral.com/stewartmine.html.
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Fisher, J. 2002. Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record, Volume 33, Number 5: pages 376-378, photographs.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. 1951. Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: pages 59-61.
'Feldspar Group var: Perthite'
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. 1951. Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: pages 59-61.
Greifensteinite
Formula: Ca2Fe2+5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
Habit: mostly feathery milky tan masses, the best few microscopic crystals were flat monoclinic translucent tan, ~100µm in size
Colour: tan, milky tan
Description: Found by microscope examination of a large piece of purple phosphosiderite purchased from Gems of Pala in Jan 2018, also associated with yellow stewartite. Analyzed by Bob Housley and myself at Caltech Raman spectroscopy lab.
Reference: MarekC collection, purchased from Gems of Pala, 2018
Hureaulite
Formula: (Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 730; Seaman, 1976. Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
'Indicolite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1905. Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 124-125.
Jahnsite-(MnMnMn) (TL)
Formula: {Mn2+}{Mn2+}{Mn2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Min Mag 42 (1978), 309
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Lepidolite'
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1905. Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 55-57.
Leucophosphite
Formula: KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Reference: Van King
Lithiophilite
Formula: LiMn2+PO4
Reference: Seaman, 1976. Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: Fisher, J. 2002. Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record, Volume 33, Number 5: pages 376-378, photographs.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Blue Shepard
'Microlite Group'
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Colour: Pale honey-yellow to very dark.
Description: Small crystals in pocket aggregates of quartz, lepidolite, muscovite, albite, and tourmaline. Crystals are octahedral and dodecahedral, with maximum dimensions that rarely exceed 1/16 inch.
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 40.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: www.gemandmineral.com/stewartmine.html.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Namibite
Formula: Cu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
Reference: [Mineralogical Record 29:164]; Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 387-388
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Description: Orthoclase and microcline are widespread constituents of the pocket zones in the pegmatites where they generally form large, equant crystals with well-developed faces. The orthoclase is intimately associated with perthite, and is more abundant than the perthite in the pocket pegmatite of some dikes. In general, however, the orthoclase constitutes only a small fraction of the total potash feldspar within the dikes as a whole.
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1905. Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 124-125; Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 31-32.
Phosphosiderite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 673.
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: [Mineralogical Record 29:164]; Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 387-388
Pucherite
Formula: Bi(VO4)
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1051; Seaman, 1976. Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
Purpurite
Formula: Mn3+(PO4)
Reference: Fisher, J. 2002. Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record, Volume 33, Number 5: pages 376-378, photographs.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1905. Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 124-125.
'Salmonsite'
Description: Discredited = mixture of hureaulite and jahnsite [probably jahnsite-(MnMnMn)]
Reference: Moore, Paul B. & J. Ito (1978): I. Whiteite, a new species, and a proposed nomenclature for the jahnsite-whiteite complex series. I. New data on xanthoxenite. III. Salmonsite discredited. Min. Magazine 42: 309-323
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. 1951. Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: pages 59-61.
Sicklerite (TL)
Formula: Li1-x(Mn3+xMn2+1-x)PO4
Type Locality:
Reference: Journal of the Washington Academy of Science (1912): 2: 145.
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: www.gemandmineral.com/stewartmine.html.
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1905. Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 124-125.; Fisher, J. 2002. Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record, Volume 33, Number 5: pages 376-378, photographs.
Spodumene var: Kunzite
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Merrill, F. J. H. 1914. Geology and Mineral Resources of San Diego and Imperial Counties: Gems, Lithia Minerals. California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, Cal. California State Printing Office, December. Chapter 1, pages 61-110.
Stewartite (TL)
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Journal of the Washington Academy of Science (1912): 2: 143-145; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 730.
Stibiotantalite
Formula: Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Reference: No reference listed
Strengite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Seaman, 1976. Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
Strunzite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Van King
Tantalite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Ta2O6
Reference: Fisher, J. 2002. Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record, Volume 33, Number 5: pages 376-378, photographs.
Tosudite
Formula: Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
Reference: Gaines et al. 1997, Dana's System of Mineralogy.
Tosudite var: Lithium Tosudite
Formula: Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
Reference: Gaines et al. 1997, Dana's System of Mineralogy.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1905. Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 55-57.
'Tourmaline var: Rubellite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 63:21.
'Tourmaline var: Verdelite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1905. Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 124-125.
Triphylite
Formula: LiFe2+PO4
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1905. Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 124-125.
Triplite
Formula: Mn2+2(PO4)F
Habit: Tabular and fracture-filling masses with rough faces; cleavage is fairly well developed.
Colour: Deep-tan to dark reddish-brown on freshly broken surfaces; resinous luster.
Description: Triplite occurs sparingly in the Stewart pegmatite, where it is associated with lithiophilite and triphylite. It forms crystals with rough faces, measuring 1/4 inch to 5 inches in diameter, with an average of about an inch. The mineral also occurs as tabular, fracture-filling masses within quartz, and rarely within coarse quartz-spodumene or quartz-perthite varieties of pegmatite. Most crystals are heavily stained with manganese oxides, and many are coated with a blue-gray film of very finely crystalline vivianite. The vivianite appears to have been derived from the triplite crystals.
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1905. Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 124-125; Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 31, 41.
Vivianite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: www.gemandmineral.com/stewartmine.html.
Wardite
Formula: NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
Reference: www.gemandmineral.com/stewartmine.html.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: www.gemandmineral.com/stewartmine.html.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Bismuth1.CA.05Bi
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Columbite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Nb2O6
'Microlite Group'4.00.A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Stibiotantalite4.DE.30Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Tantalite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Ta2O6
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Beyerite5.BE.35Ca(BiO)2(CO3)2
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Amblygonite8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)F
Bermanite8.DC.20Mn2+Mn3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Greifensteinite8.DA.10Ca2Fe2+5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
Hureaulite8.CB.10(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Jahnsite-(MnMnMn) (TL)8.DH.15{Mn2+}{Mn2+}{Mn2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
Leucophosphite8.DH.10KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Lithiophilite8.AB.10LiMn2+PO4
Namibite8.BB.50Cu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
Phosphosiderite8.CD.05FePO4 · 2H2O
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Pucherite8.AD.40Bi(VO4)
Purpurite8.AB.10Mn3+(PO4)
Sicklerite (TL)8.AB.10Li1-x(Mn3+xMn2+1-x)PO4
Stewartite (TL)8.DC.30Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Strengite8.CD.10FePO4 · 2H2O
Strunzite8.DC.25Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Triphylite8.AB.10LiFe2+PO4
Triplite8.BB.10Mn2+2(PO4)F
Vivianite8.CE.40Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Wardite8.DL.10NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Goshenite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Heliodor9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cookeite9.EC.55(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
var: Kunzite9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Tosudite9.EC.60Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
var: Lithium Tosudite9.EC.60Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'-
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
'Indicolite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Lepidolite'-
'Manganese Oxides'-
'Salmonsite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Verdelite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Bismuth1.3.1.4Bi
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
ABO4
Stibiotantalite8.1.6.2Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Microlite Group'8.2.2.1A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
AB2O6
Columbite-(Mn)8.3.2.4Mn2+Nb2O6
Tantalite-(Mn)8.3.2.3Mn2+Ta2O6
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Beyerite16a.2.3.1Ca(BiO)2(CO3)2
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
ABXO4
Lithiophilite38.1.1.2LiMn2+PO4
Sicklerite (TL)38.1.4.2Li1-x(Mn3+xMn2+1-x)PO4
Triphylite38.1.1.1LiFe2+PO4
AXO4
Pucherite38.4.6.1Bi(VO4)
Purpurite38.4.1.2Mn3+(PO4)
Miscellaneous
Namibite38.5.9.1Cu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
Group 39 - HYDRATED ACID PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5[HXO4]2[XO4]2.xH2O
Hureaulite39.2.1.1(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Vivianite40.3.6.1Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Phosphosiderite40.4.3.2FePO4 · 2H2O
Strengite40.4.1.2FePO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Amblygonite41.5.8.1LiAl(PO4)F
A2(XO4)Zq
Triplite41.6.1.2Mn2+2(PO4)F
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Wardite42.7.8.2NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Bermanite42.11.17.1Mn2+Mn3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Jahnsite-(MnMnMn) (TL)42.11.2.4{Mn2+}{Mn2+}{Mn2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
Leucophosphite42.11.6.1KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Stewartite (TL)42.11.10.2Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Strunzite42.11.9.1Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Cookeite71.4.1.2(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Tosudite71.4.2.4Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'-
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Beryl
var: Goshenite
-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Heliodor-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
Greifensteinite-Ca2Fe2+5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
'Indicolite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Lepidolite'-
'Manganese Oxides'-
'Salmonsite'-
Spodumene
var: Kunzite
-LiAlSi2O6
Tosudite
var: Lithium Tosudite
-Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Verdelite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
H Jahnsite-(MnMnMn){Mn2+}{Mn2+}{Mn22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
H StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
H PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
H BermaniteMn2+Mn23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
H Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
H WarditeNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Tosudite (var: Lithium Tosudite)Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
H LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
H StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
H TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
H GreifensteiniteCa2Fe52+Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
LiLithium
Li SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Li Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Li Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Li TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
Li AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be GreifensteiniteCa2Fe52+Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
BBoron
B Tourmaline (var: Rubellite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B Tourmaline (var: Verdelite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
OOxygen
O StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
O SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
O Jahnsite-(MnMnMn){Mn2+}{Mn2+}{Mn22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O QuartzSiO2
O Tourmaline (var: Rubellite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
O StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
O PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
O LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
O BermaniteMn2+Mn23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
O PucheriteBi(VO4)
O BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
O PurpuriteMn3+(PO4)
O Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O Tourmaline (var: Verdelite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O TripliteMn22+(PO4)F
O VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O WarditeNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
O Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
O Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
O Tosudite (var: Lithium Tosudite)Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
O AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
O LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
O StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
O GreifensteiniteCa2Fe52+Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
FFluorine
F TripliteMn22+(PO4)F
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
NaSodium
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na WarditeNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
Na Tosudite (var: Lithium Tosudite)Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
Na TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg Tosudite (var: Lithium Tosudite)Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
Mg TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
AlAluminium
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al WarditeNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Tosudite (var: Lithium Tosudite)Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
Al AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
SiSilicon
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Tosudite (var: Lithium Tosudite)Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
PPhosphorus
P StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
P SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
P Jahnsite-(MnMnMn){Mn2+}{Mn2+}{Mn22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
P Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
P StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
P PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
P LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
P BermaniteMn2+Mn23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
P PurpuriteMn3+(PO4)
P TripliteMn22+(PO4)F
P VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
P WarditeNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
P AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
P LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
P StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
P GreifensteiniteCa2Fe52+Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
SSulfur
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S DigeniteCu9S5
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
CaCalcium
Ca BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca GreifensteiniteCa2Fe52+Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
VVanadium
V NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
V PucheriteBi(VO4)
MnManganese
Mn StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Mn SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
Mn Jahnsite-(MnMnMn){Mn2+}{Mn2+}{Mn22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
Mn Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Mn LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Mn BermaniteMn2+Mn23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Mn PurpuriteMn3+(PO4)
Mn TripliteMn22+(PO4)F
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
Mn Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
Mn StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
FeIron
Fe StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Fe Jahnsite-(MnMnMn){Mn2+}{Mn2+}{Mn22+}{Fe23+}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Fe StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
Fe PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
Fe VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
Fe LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Fe StrunziteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Fe GreifensteiniteCa2Fe52+Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
CuCopper
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
SbAntimony
Sb StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
TaTantalum
Ta StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
Ta Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
Ta Microlite GroupA2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
BiBismuth
Bi NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
Bi BismuthBi
Bi PucheriteBi(VO4)
Bi BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Kunz, G.F. (1905) Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau Bulletin 37, 55-57; 124-125.
Merrill, F.J.H. (1914) Geology and Mineral Resources of San Diego and Imperial Counties: Gems, Lithia Minerals. California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, Cal. California State Printing Office, December. Chapter 1, 61-110.
Jahns, R.H. and Wright, L.A. (1951) Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 59-61.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 282, 730, 1051.
Sinkankas, J. (1988) Beryl: A Summary. Rocks & Minerals, 63(1), 21.
Robinson, George W. and King, Vandall T. (1989) What's New in Minerals? Sixteenth Annual Rochester Academy of Science Mineralogical Symposium. Mineralogical Record, 20(5), 399.
Bartsch, J.A. (1990) Collections and Displays: California State Mining and Mineral Museum, Mariposa, California. Rocks & Minerals, 65(1), 45.
Dunning, Gail E. and Cooper, Joseph F. Jr. (1998) Namibite: A Summary of World Occurrences. Mineralogical Record, 29(3), 164.
Fisher, J. (2002) Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record, 33(5), 376-378, photographs.
Morton, D. et al. (2011) Petrogenesis of the Li-bearing Stewart Pegmatite, Pala, California. Unpublished manuscript: 15 pp., charts and photographs.

Mindat Articles

The Stewart Lithia Tourmaline Mine by E. R. Swoboda 2000 by Scott L. Ritchie


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