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World's Fair Mine (Henry Ford Mine; Bonnie Carrie Mine), Alum Gulch, Harshaw Mining District, Patagonia Mountains, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona, USAi
Regional Level Types
World's Fair Mine (Henry Ford Mine; Bonnie Carrie Mine)Mine
Alum GulchGulch
Harshaw Mining DistrictMining District
Patagonia MountainsMountain Range
Santa Cruz Co.County
ArizonaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
31° 28' 46'' North , 110° 44' 16'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Patagonia890 (2017)6.9km
Kino Springs136 (2011)14.6km
Beyerville177 (2011)16.6km
Rio Rico18,962 (2011)22.6km
Francisco Miguel Cárdenas Valdez (Mascareñas)541 (2014)23.4km


‡Ref.: Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 248-251.

Arizona Mining Journal (1920) Worlds Fair: 4(5): 10.

Tenney, J.B. (1927-1929) History of Mining in Arizona, Special Collection, University of Arizona Library & Arizona Bureau of Mines Library: 301-303.

Blanchard, R. & P.F. Boswell (1930), Limonite types derived from bornite and tetrahedrite, Econ.Geol. 25: 557-580.

Kartchner, W.E. (1944) The geology and ore deposits of a portion of the Harshaw district, Patagonia Mountains, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, Ph.D. dissertation, 100 p.

Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 153: 9.

Simons, F.S. (1974) Geologic map and sections of the Nogales and Lochiel quadrangles, Santa Cruz County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-762, 9 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:48,000.

Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 60 (Table 4).

Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 104, 259, 323, 373, 393.

U.S. Bureau of Mines - Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology file data.

Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.

MRDS database Dep. ID file #10109888, MRDS ID #M899917; and, Dep. ID #10283913, MAS ID #0040230413.

A former small surface and underground Ag-Pb-Cu-Zn-Au-Sb mine located on 8 claims (19 unpatented lode claims ?) in West-central (S½NW¼) sec. 32, T.22S., R.16E., near the center of the western part of the district, 2 miles west of Harshaw, and ½ mile N or the Trench Mine and mill, on Alum Gulch, at an elevation of about 4,680 feet, on National Forest land. It was located in 1879 by Mr. McNamee, who reportedly abandoned it in 1881. It was relocated in 1883 by Mr. William Moran, who sold it to Frank Powers in 1884 who still held it circa 1915. Produced 1879-1954. Also owned at times, or in part, by the World's Fair Development Co.; World's Fair Mining Co. (1909); Zero Mining Co. (1928); and the Trench Mining Co. (1929). Owned and operated by the Platoro Corp. (1964). Owners and operators also included Mr. McNamee (1879-1881); Mr. W. Moran (1883-1884); Mr. Frank Powers (1884-1904); Phelps Dodge Co. (1912); the Commonwealth Development Co. of Pearce (1917-1918); the Bachman-Merritt Metals Co.; Mr. L.L. Ferry; Mr. C. Scheler; Mr. M. Hogan (1923-1926); Richey, Mr. Max Drachman, the Gold Canyon Mining Co. (1936); Mr. J.C. Schell (1937-1941); A. Griffith and Kramer, the American Smelting and Refining Co. (ASARCO)(1952); and, Kelsey (1954).

Mineralization is narrow fissure veins with rich argentiferous cerussite in the oxidized zone and argentiferous galena and other sulfides & sulfosalts and silver antimonides, with quartz and barite in depth. The veins are along the contact between Cretaceous andesite and Laramide rhyolitic volcanics containing some limestone blocks. The ore zone is 4.27 meters wide, with a depth to bottom of 304.8 meters, striking NNW and dipping 45-80 WSW. Wall rocks are strongly propylitized and pyritized. Some antimonial silver ore rich in gold. Strong pyrite gossan. Disseminated silver values in the wall rocks. Some native silver. An associated rock unit is the Josephine Canyon Diorite.

Chalcopyrite and pyrite are finely disseminated in wall rock; ores are rich and spotty. The N-S-trending vein developed on two slips that converge and diverge, forming pinch and swell structures. Swells are wholely or partially mineralized. The pinch and swell structures succeed each other at intervals usually under 50 feet. Vein croppings extend 660 feet or more to the south of the mine. Vein deposits have a known vertical range of 1000 feet, 400 feet of which is seen in croppings and 600 feet seen in the mine. Croppings average 10-14 feet wide while the vein in the mine is about 6 feet wide.

The country rock is a small area of diorite which forms the northward continuation of the Harshaw belt, but which at the mine is almost surrounded, overlain, and intruded by rhyolite and is more or less pyritic and mineralized. The rhyolite, which is also considerably mineralized and altered, seems to be similar to that at Red Mountain, with which it is apparently connected. Just across the canyon east of the mine the surface is underlain by a purple altered andesitic volcanic rock composed almost wholly of oligoclase-andesine and a little biotite or altered hornblende.

The deposits are apparently about all on or associated with the contact of the rhyolite intruded into the diorite. The workings trend NNW and the deposits seem to dip about 80º WSW, into the mountain, but in the mine the dip is reportedly about 45º. The deposits have a known vertical range of about 1,000 feet. The croppings are irregular and in places difficult to identify and follow.
The cropping range from 10 to 14 feet in width, and the average width of the vein in the mine is reported to be about 6 feet (2 meters). The metalliferous minerals are said to occur mostly in the rhyolite or hanging wall side of the contact.

In the upper workings the ores, it is said, were mostly rich lead-silver sulphides, but below water level, in the unoxidized zone, they carry besides galena consioderable copper, mostly in the form of tetrahedrite, with some chalcocite and antimonial silver, in places rich in gold. There is also a sprinkling of finely disseminated chalcopyrite and pyrite.

The vein is cut off by a flat-dipping fault at the south end of the tunnel. The upper fault block is probably moved east but no exploration has been done in order to locate the offset upper portion of the vein beyond the flat fault. Ore minerals along the contact concentrate mainly in rhyolite or the hanging wall side of the contact. Baryte forms seams, blades, and plates filling fractures and cavities (indicating late or post-vein age). Hydrothermal alteration and limonite mineralization appear to extend beyond the limits of narrow veins on the property.

Tectonic elements include the Meadow Valley Trachyandesite flow; thick lava flows of the Harshaw-Trench Camp area.

Workings include extensive tunnel and shaft operations with development to the 600 level (182.8 meters)(circa 1915). It contained about 15,000 feet (4572 meters) of drifts, tunnels, stopes, shafts, and winzes. The main entrance is a crosscut tunnel at an elevation of 4,680 feet. A winze was sunk a reported 600 feet from this tunnel, with drifting 1,000 feet each way from the winze on the vein at levels spaced 100 feet apart. Shallow openings to the south of the mine are along N-S rhyolite dike cutting diorite. A 10-stamp mill was erected on the property, Worked from the early 1880's to 1954 and produced some 13,000 tons of ore averaging about 58 oz. Ag/T, 6.6% Pb, 0.7% Cu, and minor Au and Zn.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


13 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 104.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Description: Barite is the dominant gangue mineral in places. Occurs as seams, blades, and plates filling fractures and cavities, indicating that much of it is of late or post-vein age.
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 60 (Table 4); Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 250; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 60 (Table 4); Schrader (1915): 248-251; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Cerussite var: Argentiferous Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 60 (Table 4); Schrader (1915): 248-251; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 250.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Description: Occurs as sprinklings of finely disseminated material.
Reference: Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 250.
Freibergite
Formula: (Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe2+2Sb4S12
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 60 (Table 4); Schrader (1915): 248-251; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 60 (Table 4); Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 250; ; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Galena var: Argentiferous Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 60 (Table 4); Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 250; ; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Iodargyrite
Formula: AgI
Habit: Small, isolated
Description: Globules & specks in "contour boxwork" limonite deposits.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 259; Blanchard, R. & P.F. Boswell (1930), Limonite types derived from bornite and tetrahedrite, Econ.Geol. 25: 557-580;
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 259; Blanchard, R. & P.F. Boswell (1930), Limonite types derived from bornite and tetrahedrite, Econ.Geol. 25: 557-580.
Pearceite
Formula: [Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 323.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Description: Occurs as sprinklings of finely disseminated material.
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 60 (Table 4); Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 250; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Rhodonite
Formula: Mn2+SiO3
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 104.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Description: Occurs with tetrahedrite.
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 60 (Table 4); Schrader (1915): 248-251; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 373; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 153:9.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 60 (Table 4); Schrader (1915): 248-251; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
'Tetrahedrite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 60 (Table 4); Schrader (1915): 248-251; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 373, 393; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 251; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 153:9.
'Tetrahedrite var: Argentian Tetrahedrite'
Formula: (Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 60 (Table 4); Schrader (1915): 248-251; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 373, 393; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 251; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 153:9.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Alabandite2.CD.10MnS
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Freibergite2.GB.05(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe2+2Sb4S12
Galena2.CD.10PbS
var: Argentiferous Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pearceite2.GB.15[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
'var: Argentian Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Iodargyrite3.AA.10AgI
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
var: Argentiferous Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Rhodonite9.DK.05Mn2+SiO3
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Alabandite2.8.1.4MnS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø > 4
Pearceite3.1.8.1[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
3 <ø < 4
Freibergite3.3.6.3(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe2+2Sb4S12
'Tetrahedrite'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Iodargyrite9.1.5.1AgI
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Rhodonite65.4.1.1Mn2+SiO3
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Cerussite
var: Argentiferous Cerussite
-PbCO3
Galena
var: Argentiferous Galena
-PbS
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Tetrahedrite
var: Argentian Tetrahedrite'
-(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
CCarbon
C Cerussite (var: Argentiferous Cerussite)PbCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
OOxygen
O Cerussite (var: Argentiferous Cerussite)PbCO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O CerussitePbCO3
SiSilicon
Si RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
SSulfur
S Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
S PyriteFeS2
S Tetrahedrite (var: Argentian Tetrahedrite)(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
S SphaleriteZnS
S BaryteBaSO4
S AlabanditeMnS
S Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
MnManganese
Mn AlabanditeMnS
Mn RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Tetrahedrite (var: Argentian Tetrahedrite)(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CuCopper
Cu Tetrahedrite (var: Argentian Tetrahedrite)(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
Cu Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn Tetrahedrite (var: Argentian Tetrahedrite)(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
Ag Tetrahedrite (var: Argentian Tetrahedrite)(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Ag Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
Ag IodargyriteAgI
Ag Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
SbAntimony
Sb Tetrahedrite (var: Argentian Tetrahedrite)(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Sb Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
Sb Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Sb TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
IIodine
I IodargyriteAgI
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
PbLead
Pb Cerussite (var: Argentiferous Cerussite)PbCO3
Pb Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb GalenaPbS

Other Databases

USGS MRDS Record:10109888

Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

North America
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