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Alta Mine, Hardshell Gulch, Harshaw, Harshaw Mining District, Patagonia Mountains, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona, USAi
Regional Level Types
Alta MineMine
Hardshell GulchGulch
Harshaw- not defined -
Harshaw Mining DistrictMining District
Patagonia MountainsMountain Range
Santa Cruz Co.County
ArizonaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
31° 27' 40'' North , 110° 43' 2'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Patagonia890 (2017)9.5km
Kino Springs136 (2011)14.0km
Beyerville177 (2011)17.2km
Francisco Miguel Cárdenas Valdez (Mascareñas)541 (2014)21.9km
Nogales20,252 (2017)24.6km


‡Ref.: The Resources of Arizona - A Manual of Reliable Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Scottsdale, AZ: 42-43.

Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 271-272.

Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in Arizona, University of Arizona Bull. 41 (1916-17): 58.

Schrader, F.C. (1917), The geologic distribution and genesis of the metals in the Santa Rita-Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, Economic Geology: 12: 237-269.

Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 153: 26.

Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 44.

Baker (1962).

Moores, R.C., III (1972) The geology and ore deposits of a portion of the Harshaw district, Santa Cruz County, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, M.S. thesis, 98 p.: 73.

Simons, F.S. (1972) Mesozoic stratigraphy of the Patagonia Mountains and adjoining areas, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, in Mesozoic stratigraphy in southeastern Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 658-E.

Simons, F.S. (1974) Geologic map and sections of the Nogales and Lochiel quadrangles, Santa Cruz County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-762, 9 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:48,000.

Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 56.

Phillips, K.A. (1987), Arizona Industrial Minerals, 2nd. Edition, Arizona Department of Mines & Minerals Mineral Report 4, 185 pp.

U.S. Bureau of Mines staff (1994) U.S. Bureau of Mines Open File Report MLA XX-94.

Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 224, 340, 393.

Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.

MRDS database Dep. ID file #10048359, MRDS ID #M899948; and, Dep. ID #10210677, MAS ID #0040230015.

A former small underground Pb-Ag-Zn-Cu-Au-Mn-Fluorspar mine located in the center of sec. 4, T.23S., R.16E., 1/3 mile NNW of the Hardshell mine, in the mouth of a southwestern tributary of Hardshell Gulch, at an elevation of about 5,050 feet, 6 miles E of Patagonia, on private (patented) land. Discovered 1875. Worked intermittently in 1877 & 1878, in the 1880's and a little in the 1900's; closed in 1952. Owned/operated by the Melba Mining Co. (1897-circa 1915)(acquired property in 1897 and worked it for a few years).

Mineralization is narrow, spotty, and lensing ore shoots of argentiferous galena, other sulfides, specularite and ruby silver in a fault-fissure vein and wall rock breccia in Jurassic-Triassic rhyolitic volcanics. Mineralization occurs along the hanging wall side of a rhyolite dike emplaced in a fault fissure. The lensing ore shoots are at greater depths. The ore zone is 402.34 meters long with a dip of 40NNE. Gangue is quartz and reddish colored fluorite. Minor amounts of Chalcopyrite. High-grade silver halides in the oxidized surface zone. Alteration includes quartz-fluorite gouge replacements of rhyolite. Surface oxidation exists to unknown depths.

Country rock is the dark-reddish, medium-grained quartz diorite or quartz monzonite, that is cut by a 20 foot dike of light bluish-gray, flow-banded rhyolite breccia at the mine. This dike, as seen in the gulch on the east, is heavily bedded, dips 40ºNNE, and weathers yellowish-brown with limonite stain.

The deposits are obviously associated in origin with the rhyolite dike and seem to occur in its hanging wall side or in the adjoining portion of the wall rock diorite, which is silicified and mineralized for 200 feet back from the dike. Horizontally the lode seems to extend for at least ¼ mile westward. The rhyolite dike dips 40 NNE, and weathers yellowish brown with limonite stain. The rhyolite is locally much altered to sericite, epidote, carbonate, and chlorite.

The argentiferous galena is the principal ore mineral, contained in a gangue of quartz and reddish fluorite, mostly replacing rhyolite.

Local structures include 300 to 400 foot thick lava flows of Hardshell-Hardshaw Creek area. Normal faulting. Slickensides indicate post-vein movement.

Tectonic elements include the Corral Canyon Falt Block with downthrow to the SW.

Workings include an inclined shaft several hundred feet deep. Developed to 300 feet or more by shafts and drifts Worked intermittently in the late 1870's, early 1880's, and to a minor degree into the 1900's. Overall workings total 1219.2 meters in length and 91.44 meters in depth. Developments included a shaft inclined to the N (shaft presently caved in and workings are inaccessible). Workings at 250 feet exposed a 45 foot long, 3 foot wide ore shoot of lead; workings at 300 feet exposed a 4 inch vein of pyrargyrite.

Estimated production is some 3,500 tons of ore averaging about 35% lead, 10 oz. Ag/T, 1% copper and minor gold (17,500 OZ. AG; 2,590,000 LBS PB). At 250 feet depth, a high-grade ore body 2-3 feet wide contains values of 37% Pb with 2 oz. Au, 1% Cu, and 15 oz/ton Ag.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


13 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Description: A little occurs.
Reference: The Resources of Arizona - A Reliable Manual of Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Prescott, AZ: 42; Ref.: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 56; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 272; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 224.
Chlorargyrite var: Bromian Chlorargyrite
Formula: Ag(Cl,Br)
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 340; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 272; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 153: 26; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 44.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10048359.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10048359.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Colour: Reddish.
Description: As a gangue mineral.
Reference: The Resources of Arizona - A Reliable Manual of Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Prescott, AZ: 42; Ref.: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 56; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 340; Schrader (1915): 271-272; Schrader, F.C. (1917), The geologic distribution and genesis of the metals in the Santa Rita-Patagonia Mts, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 12: 237-269; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mts, AZ, USGS Bull.430: 154-163; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 153: 26; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 272; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 44; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: The Resources of Arizona - A Reliable Manual of Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Prescott, AZ: 42; Ref.: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 56; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 272; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Galena var: Argentiferous Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: The Resources of Arizona - A Reliable Manual of Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Prescott, AZ: 42; Ref.: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 56; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 272; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: The Resources of Arizona - A Reliable Manual of Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Prescott, AZ: 42; Ref.: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 56; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 272; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Hematite var: Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: The Resources of Arizona - A Reliable Manual of Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Prescott, AZ: 42; Ref.: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 56; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 272; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10048359, MRDS ID #M899948.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 272.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Fleetwood R. Koutz (1984), Arizona Geological Society Digest Volume 15, 1984,
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10048359.
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10048359.
Pyrargyrite
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Description: Occurs in deeper levels as a 4 inch wide oreshoot.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 340; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 272; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), Minerals of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 153: 26; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 44;
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: The Resources of Arizona - A Reliable Manual of Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Prescott, AZ: 42; Ref.: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 56; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 272; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: Fleetwood R. Koutz (1984), Arizona Geological Society Digest Volume 15, 1984,
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: The Resources of Arizona - A Reliable Manual of Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Prescott, AZ: 42; Ref.: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 56; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 272; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
'Tetrahedrite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 393; Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in AZ, Univ. of AZ Bull. 41 (1916-17): 58.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
var: Argentiferous Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrargyrite2.GA.05Ag3SbS3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite3.AA.15Ag(Cl,Br)
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var: Specularite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
'Tetrahedrite'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
ø = 3
Pyrargyrite3.4.1.2Ag3SbS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Chlorargyrite
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite
-Ag(Cl,Br)
'Chlorite Group'-
Galena
var: Argentiferous Galena
-PbS
Hematite
var: Specularite
-Fe2O3
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
OOxygen
O Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O HematiteFe2O3
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
AlAluminium
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
S TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
S GalenaPbS
ClChlorine
Cl Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
MnManganese
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
BrBromine
Br Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
AgSilver
Ag Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
Ag PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
SbAntimony
Sb PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
Sb TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
PbLead
Pb Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb GalenaPbS

Other Databases

USGS MRDS Record:10048359

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