SUPPORT US. Covid-19 has significantly affected our fundraising. Please help!
登录注册
主页关于 MindatMindat手册Mindat的历史版权Who We Are联系我们于 Mindat.org刊登广告
捐赠给 MindatCorporate Sponsorship赞助板页已赞助的板页在 Mindat刊登 广告的广告商于 Mindat.org刊登广告
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe Elements书籍及杂志
搜索矿物的性质搜索矿物的化学Advanced Locality Search随意显示任何一 种矿物Random Locality使用minID搜索邻近产地Search Articles搜索词汇表更多搜索选项
搜索:
矿物名称:
地区产地名称:
关键字:
 
Mindat手册添加新照片Rate Photos产区编辑报告Coordinate Completion Report添加词汇表项目
Mining Companies统计会员列表Mineral Museums矿物展及活动The Mindat目录表设备设置The Mineral Quiz
照片搜索Photo GalleriesSearch by Color今天最新的照片昨天最新的照片用户照片相集过去每日精选照片相集Mineral Photography

Hindukush Himalayan Region, Asiai
Regional Level Types
Hindukush Himalayan RegionGroup of Mountain Ranges
AsiaContinent

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Key
Locality type:
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Kunming3,855,346 (2014)
Kabul3,043,532 (2018)
Kathmandu1,442,271 (2015)
Srinagar975,857 (2015)
Muzaffarābād725,000 (2014)
Battagram700,000 (2016)
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
HKH; Hindukush-Himalaya


No description has been added for this locality. Can you add one?

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

604 valid minerals. 32 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc. 6 erroneous literature entries.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

'Adakite'

'Adamellite'

'Albite-granite'

'Albitite'

Amphibolite

Andesite

'Andesitic tuff'

'Aplite'

'Argillite'

'Augen gneiss'

Basalt

Basaltic-trachyandesite

Bauxite

'Biotite granite'

'Biotite schist'

Black shale

Blueschist

Breccia

Calc-silicate rock

Carbonatite

Chert

Chromitite

Clinopyroxenite

Coal

Conglomerate

'Covite'

Dacite

Diatomite

'Diopsidite'

Diorite

'Dolerite'

Dolomite-carbonatite

Dolostone

Dunite

Eclogite

'Endoskarn'

Evaporite

'Exoskarn'

'Felsite'

Fenite

'Flint'

'Foyaite'

Gabbro

'Geyserite'

Gneiss

Granite

'Granitic gneiss'

Granitoid

Granodiorite

Granofels

Granulite

'Graphitic schist'

Greenschist

Greisen

Harzburgite

Hornblendite

Hornfels

'Ignimbritic tuff'

Ijolite

'Jacupirangite'

'Jade'

L5 chondrite meteorite

LL3 chondrite meteorite

LL6 chondrite meteorite

Lamprophyre

'Lapis lazuli'

Latite

'Leucocratic nephelinolite'

'Leucogabbro'

'Leucogranite'

Lherzolite

Lignite

Limestone

Listvenite

'Litchfieldite'

'Magnesian Limestone'

Marble

'Marl'

'Melagabbro'

'Melanocratic nephelinolite'

Melilitolite

Meta-arenite

Metamorphic rock

'Mica schist'

'Microgranite'

Migmatite

Monzodiorite

Monzogranite

'Mud-grade dolostone'

Mudstone

Nepheline-syenite

Nephelinite

Nephrite

'Nordmarkite'

Olivine-gabbro

'Ophiolite'

Orthogneiss

'Pegmatite'

'Pegmatitic Ijolite'

'Pegmatitic granite'

'Pegmatoid'

'Peralkaline alkali-feldspar-granite'

'Peralkaline syenite'

Peridotite

'Perovskite clinopyroxenite'

Phonolite

Phonolitic-tephrite

Phosphorite

Phyllite

'Porphyritic rhyolite'

'Porphyry'

Pyroclastic-rock

Pyroxenite

'Quartz porphyry'

'Quartz schist'

Quartz-diorite

Quartz-monzonite

Quartzite

Rhyolite

'Rhyolitic tuff'

'Riebeckite granite'

Sandstone

Schist

Serpentinite

Shale

Shonkinite

Shoshonite

Siltstone

Skarn

Slag

Slate

Sodalitite

Syenite

Søvite

Tephrite

Tephritic-phonolite

'Tinguaite'

Tonalite

Trachyandesite

Trachybasalt

Trachyte

Travertine

Tuff

Tuffite

Uncompahgrite

'Ungrouped C3 chondrite meteorite'

Wacke

Websterite

Wehrlite

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Reference: Congde Chen and Guangping Pu (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(5), 18-23
Actinolite
Formula: ◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Localities: Reported from at least 75 localities in this region.
Reference: www.chinamining.org/Facts/2006-10-17/1161064020d1618.html
'Actinolite-Tremolite Series'
Reference: Xu, J.; Ciobanu, C.L.; Cook, N.J.; Slattery, A. (2019) Crystals from the Powellite-Scheelite Series at the Nanoscale: A Case Study from the Zhibula Cu Skarn, Gangdese Belt, Tibet. Minerals 9, 340.
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: Shihong Tian, Zhongxin Yuan, Guilan Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Tiping Ding, Ge Bai, Tianren Zou, and Yuling Xie (2006): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 25(2), 110-118
Aegirine-augite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: Shihong Tian, Guilan Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Tiping Ding, Yuling Xie, Zhongxin Yuan, Ge Bai, and Tianren Zou (2005): Mineral Deposits 24(6), 647-655; Shihong Tian, Zhongxin Yuan, Guilan Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Tiping Ding, Ge Bai, Tianren Zou, and Yuling Xie (2006): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 25(2), 110-118; Yuling Xie, Shihong Tian, Jiuhua Xu, Longsheng Yi, and Shuping Yin (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 197-200
Aenigmatite
Formula: Na4[Fe2+10Ti2]O4[Si12O36]
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
'Aeschynite'
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
Afghanite (TL)
Formula: (Na,K)22Ca10(Si24Al24O96)(SO4)6Cl6
Habit: terminated hexagonal prisms
Colour: colourless, white, blue grey, blue
Fluorescence: yellow. orange in LW
Reference: Bariand,P. Cesbron, F. & Giraud, R. (1968): Une nouvelle espèce minérale: l`afghanite de Sar-e-sang, Badakhshan, Afghanistan. Comparaison avec les minéraux du groupe de la cancrinite. Bulletin de la Société Francaise de Minéralogie et Christallographie. 91:34-42; Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52
Aikinite
Formula: PbCuBiS3
Reference: Lijuan Ying, Denghong Wang, Juxing Tang, Huan Wang, Zhenyu Chen, Wenbao Zheng, and Fengji Li (2010): Journal of Jilin University, Earth Science Edition 55(4),801-809; Wenbao Zheng, Juxing Tang, Fengji Li, Lijuan Ying, Huan Wang, and Xiaoqian Tang (2011): Geological Journal of China Universities 17(2), 337-350; Zhenghua Hu, Juxing Tang, Feng Ding, Wenbao Zheng, Shilin Deng, Yi Yang, Zhi Zhang, Yiyun Wang, Bin Lin, and Shuai Ding (2011): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 32(6), 668-680
'Aikinite-Bismuthinite Series'
Reference: Kouzmanov, K., I. K. Bonev, R. D. Vassileva (2009): Moraine-hosted Cu-Bi-mineralization from the Modi-Khola valley, southwestern flank of Annapurna-III, central Himalaya. Geochem., Mineral. and Petrol., 47, 11-30.
Åkermanite
Formula: Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Reference: Xiyue Wang, Huimin Zhang, Sichao Wang, and Yuezhen Wu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 296-306
Aktashite
Formula: Cu6Hg3As4S12
Reference: http://www.idm.gov.vn/Nguon_luc/Xuat_ban/2004/B23/b42.htm
Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Reference: Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 271 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28; Li, J., Chou, I., Yuan, S., & Burruss, R. C. (2009, December). Homogenization Temperature Measurements in Hydrothermal Diamond-Anvil Cell for Melt and Fluid Inclusions from the Jiajika Pegmatite Deposit, China. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 1, p. 2234).; Jiankang Li, Denghong Wang, Dehui Zhang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 131-134; Li, P.; Li, J.; Chou, I.-M.; Wang, D.; Xiong, X. (2019) Mineralization Epochs of Granitic Rare-Metal Pegmatite Deposits in the Songpan–Ganzê Orogenic Belt and Their Implications for Orogeny. Minerals 9, 280.
Albite var. Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Yan Liu, Yuanyi Zhao, Ruijiang Wang, Yubin Cui, Liang Song, and Changqing Yang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(6), 1054-1078
Albite var. Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Albite var. Low Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: RWMW Collection
Albite var. Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28
Albite var. Oligoclase-Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Shihong Tian, Zhongxin Yuan, Guilan Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Tiping Ding, Ge Bai, Tianren Zou, and Yuling Xie (2006): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 25(2), 110-118
Albite var. Pericline
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Amir Akhavan
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 46 localities in this region.
Reference: Tongzhu Li, Xiaoliang Feng, Huihua Zhang, Gaolin Tang, Zhengbo Wu, and Xiangbiao Xia (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(5), 921-930; Xiaogang Wang, Gen Chen, and Yunfeng Yan (2010): Modern Mining 11(11), 44-48
'Alkali Feldspar'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Kempe, D. R. C. & Jan, M.Q. (1980). The Peshawar plain alkaline igneous province, NW Pakistan. Geological Bulletin, University of Peshawar, 13, 71-77.
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Ge X., Fan G., Li G., Shen G., Chen Z., Ai Y. (2017): Mianningite, (□,Pb,Ce,Na)(U4+,Mn,U6+)Fe3+2(Ti,Fe3+)18O38, a new member of the crichtonite group from Maoniuping REE deposit, Mianning county, northwest Sichuan, China. European Journal of Mineralogy: 29: 331-338.
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28
Alleghanyite
Formula: Mn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Yang Yuchun (1996): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 15(2), 186-190
Allendeite
Formula: Sc4Zr3O12
Reference: Wang, Y., Hsu, W. (2009) Petrology and Mineralogy of the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science: 44(5): 763-780.
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: National Geological Archives of China database, record no. X00043161
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28
'Almandine-Pyrope Series'
Reference: Jingsui Yang, Shuguang Song, Zhiqin Xu, Fulai Liu, Shigenori Maruyama, Liou, J.G., Jianxin Zhang, Cailai Wu, Haibing Li, and Rendeng Shi (2001): Presented at the 11th Annual V.M. Goldschmidt Conference, Abstract no. 3088.; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 222–228, 2009
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 36, Part 1, 1998, pp. 1-47.
Altaite
Formula: PbTe
Reference: Zhimin Cao (1991): Journal of Chengdu College of Technology 18(4), 26-36
'Alum Group'
Formula: XAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Aluminium
Formula: Al
Reference: Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121
Alum-(K) ?
Formula: KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: M. Qasim Jan, P.S.B. Colback & Masood Ahmad , (1985) Low-temperature Secondary Minerals from Tarbela. Geol. Bull. Univ. Peshawar, 18:189-197
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: WANG, Y., TANG, J., WANG, Q., DUAN, J., FANG, X., SUN, X. and YIN, X. (2014), The Mineralized Features and Prospecting Breakthrough of Southern Tiegelong Giant Epithermal Copper (Gold, Silver) Deposit, Tibet. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 802–803.; Song, Y., Yang, C., Wei, S., Yang, H., Fang, X., & Lu, H. (2018). Tectonic Control, Reconstruction and Preservation of the Tiegelongnan Porphyry and Epithermal Overprinting Cu (Au) Deposit, Central Tibet, China. Minerals, 8(9), 398.
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: Xiaofeng Li, Jingwen Mao, Chunzeng Wang, and Yasushi Watanabe (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 30(3/4), 244-256.
'Amphibole Supergroup var. Byssolite'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Shengwu Zhao (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(5), 24-28
'Amphibole Supergroup var. Uralite'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Yan Liu, Yuanyi Zhao, Ruijiang Wang, Yubin Cui, Liang Song, and Changqing Yang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(6), 1054-1078
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Reference: Siping Liao, Zhenhua Chen, Xiaochuan Luo, and Aijian Zhou (2002): Geological Bulletin of China 21(11), 735-738
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Habit: tetragonal
Colour: orange to red
Description: New find, dating from October/November 2009. First occurence ever found in Tormiq valley (if not whole Northern Areas). Crystals are translucent to transparent with a firey orange/red color. Found associated with ilmenite and gem albite crystals.
Reference: In early 2010, Aymeric Longi bought specimen bearing anatase crystals, associated with ilmemite & gem albite crystals.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28; Jiankang Li, Denghong Wang, Dehui Zhang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 131-134; Li, P.; Li, J.; Chou, I.-M.; Wang, D.; Xiong, X. (2019) Mineralization Epochs of Granitic Rare-Metal Pegmatite Deposits in the Songpan–Ganzê Orogenic Belt and Their Implications for Orogeny. Minerals 9, 280.
'Andorite'
Formula: AgPbSb3S6
Reference: Jianfang Zhang, Youye Zheng, Gangyang Zhang, Shunbao Gao, Xianren Ye, Zhong Zhang, Minyuan Liu, and Jiqiu Li (2010): Earth Science - Journal of China University of Geosciences 35(6), 1000-1010; Wei Liang, Yuanchuan Zheng, Zhusen Yang, Zhenqing Li, Yingchao Liu, Yunfei Liu, Qiuyun Li, Qingzhong Sun, Qiang Fu, and Zengqian Hou (2014): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 33(1), 64-78; Bin Lin, Juxing Tang, Wenbao Zheng, Qiufeng Leng, Yiyun Wang, MinYuan Liu, Huanhuan Yang, Shuai Ding, Lihua Zhang, and Hongzhang Yang (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(5), 899-914
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: Zhenghua Hu, Juxing Tang, Feng Ding, Wenbao Zheng, Shilin Deng, Yi Yang, Zhi Zhang, Yiyun Wang, Bin Lin, and Shuai Ding (2011): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 32(6), 668-680; Huan Wang, Liqiang Wang, Lijuan Ying, and Wenbao Zheng (2011): Mineral Deposits 30, 305-317
Andradite var. Melanite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Zhang, Y., Luo, Y., & Yang, C. (Eds.). (1990). Panxi Rift and its geodynamics. Geological Publishing House.
'Andradite-Grossular Series'
Reference: Canhai Jin, Yuanshan Yu, Bin Zhang, Zhongxi Pan, and Fawei Tang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(3), 385-391
Anduoite (TL)
Formula: (Ru,Os)As2
Type Locality:
Reference: Yu, T., and Chou, H. (1979): Kexue Tongbao 15, 704-708.
Angelellite
Formula: Fe3+4(AsO4)2O3
Reference: Suiliang Dong, Hanxiao Huang, Bo Liu, Li Zhang, and Hui Zhang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(2), 207-213; Yunfei Liu, Zhiming Yang, Yuling Xie, Ping Zhou, Denghu Du, Yingxu Li, Qiuyun Li, Huanchun Qu, and Bo Xu (2012): Mineral Deposits 31(4), 727-744
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Qingmin Jin, Huaguang Xie, and Wenguang Wang (1992): Volcanology and Mineral Resources 13(2), 48-58
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Huijuan Peng, Xiongwu Wang, Lin Hou, Zhipeng Qin, and Yun Zhou (2012): Mineral Deposits 31(3), 465-47
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 47 localities in this region.
Reference: Qingzhong Sun, Yuanchuan Zheng, Zengqian Hou, Zhusen Yang, Wei Li, Kexian Huang, and Song Zhang (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(2), 353-366
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Dill, H. G., Weber, B., & Botz, R. (2013). Metalliferous duricrusts. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 190(2), 123-195.
Annite
Formula: KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Melluso, L., Srivastava, R. K., Guarino, V., Zanetti, A., & Sinha, A. K. (2010). Mineral compositions and petrogenetic evolution of the ultramafic-alkaline–carbonatitic complex of Sung Valley, northeastern India. The Canadian Mineralogist, 48(1), 205-229.
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Jiankang Li, Denghong Wang, Dehui Zhang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 131-134
Anorthite var. Bytownite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Reference: Bao Peisheng, Xiao Xuchang, Su Li, and Wang Jun (2007): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 50(5), 660-671.
Anorthite var. Labradorite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Reference: Huiwen Liu, Xueping Wang, Ji Shao, Kesi Lu, Fanglian Tian, and Shuya Xiong (2014): Mineral Deposits 33(1), 87-103
'Anorthoclase'
Formula: (Na,K)AlSi3O8
Reference: Merkel, S., Bräutigam, B., Klein, S., & Hauptmann, A. (2013). The Analysis of Slag from the Panjhır Mining Region, Afghanistan: An Investigation of (Medieval) Silver Production Technology. Archäologische Mitteilungen, 45, 231-250.
Antarcticite
Formula: CaCl2 · 6H2O
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Bojun Huang and Yushun Min (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(3), 202-210; Tossavainen, A., Kotilainen, M., Takahashi, K., Guowei Pan, and Vanhala, E. (2001): Annales of Occupational Hygiene 45(2), 145-152; Xiaofen Su, Kaicai Zhou, Lijian Qi, and Xiangli Qian (2006): China Mining Magazine 15(5), 73-75
Antimonselite
Formula: Sb2Se3
Reference: Jiajun Liu, Jianming Liu, Wenquan Lu, Minghua Zheng, Yufeng Zhou, Xuexiang Gu, and Bin Zhang (1998): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 18(4), 445-451
Antimony
Formula: Sb
Reference: Quan Liu (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(2), 121-128; Hanlong Ying, Denghong Wang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(2), 135-146; Guangfu Zou, Rongcai Zheng, Shihua Hu, Caijing Chen, Hongchang Jiang, and Hongbang Wu (2008): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology, Science & Technology Edition 35(1), 93-102
Antimony var. Bismuthian Antimony
Formula: (Sb,Bi)
Reference: Guangfu Zou, Shihua Hu, Dequan Shuai, Caijin Chen, Hongchang Jiang, and Quan Liu (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 804-807; Quan Liu (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(2), 121-128; Hanlong Ying, Denghong Wang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(2), 135-146
Antlerite
Formula: Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Reference: Dill, H. G., Weber, B., & Botz, R. (2013). Metalliferous duricrusts. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 190(2), 123-195.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 126 localities in this region.
Colour: from colorless to dark lead, with pink, blue, purple hues, some dichroic
Description: Most of the cristals are gemmy and included with dark green to black needles or hairs.
Reference: personnal observation on field (in Peshawar)
'Apatite var. Collophane'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Bo Yuan, Jingwen Mao, Xinghu Yan, Yue Wu, Feng Zhang, and Liangliang Zhao (2014): Acta Petrologica Sinica 30(1), 209-220
Aphthitalite
Formula: (K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Chang Xu (1985): Scientia Geologica Sinica 1(1), 87-96
Arfvedsonite
Formula: [Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Shihong Tian, Zhongxin Yuan, Guilan Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Tiping Ding, Ge Bai, Tianren Zou, and Yuling Xie (2006): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 25(2), 110-118
'Argentine'
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Armalcolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
Reference: Lin, Y. T. & Kimura, M. (1996). Discovery of Complex Titanium Oxide Associations in a Plagioclase-Olivine Inclusion (POI) in the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite. Lunar and Planetary Science, vol. 27, pages 755-756. (1996).
Arsenic
Formula: As
Reference: Zhiping Li, and S.G. Peters (1998): USGS Open-File Report 98-466.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 151 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Arsenopyrite var. Danaite
Formula: (Fe0.90Co0.10)AsS - (Fe0.65Co0.35)AsS
Reference: Yan Liu, Yuanyi Zhao, Ruijiang Wang, Yubin Cui, Liang Song, and Changqing Yang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(6), 1054-1078
'Asbestos'
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Aspidolite
Formula: NaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.
Astrophyllite
Formula: K2NaFe2+7Ti2Si8O26(OH)4F
Reference: Yan Liu, Zhesheng Ma, Xiuling Han, Huyun Zhou, Peishan Zhang, and Dalai Zhong (1997): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 16(4), 338-340
Atheneite
Formula: Pd2As0.75Hg0.25
Reference: Miller, D., & Loucks, R. R. (1991). Platinum-group Element Mineralization in the Jijal Layered Ultramafic-mafic Complex, Pakistani Himalayas. Economic Geology, 86:1093-1102.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Congde Chen and Guangping Pu (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(5), 18-23
Augite var. Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Reference: Wang, Y. & Hsu, W. (2009). Petrology and Mineralogy of the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Vol. 44, #5, 763-780. (May 2009).
Augite var. Soda-Augite
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1991, 3, pp. 613-618.
Augite var. Titanian Augite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Ti, Fe,Al,)(Si,Al)2O6
Reference: Bordet, P., Colchen, M., Le Fort, P., & Pecher, A. (1981). The geodynamic evolution of the Himalaya. Ten years of research in Central Nepal Himalaya and some other regions. Gupta and Delany (Editors), Zagros-Hindu Kush-Himalaya Geodynamic Evolution. Am. Geophys. Union, Geodyn. Ser, 3, 149-168. Dhital, M. R. (1995). Mode of occurrence of nepheline syenites in the Gorkha-Ampipal area, central Nepal, Lesser Himalaya. Journal of the Nepal Geological Society, 11, 159-170. Lasserre, J. L., & JL, L. (1977). AMPHIBOLITES AND ALKALINE GNEISSES IN THE MIDLAND FORMATIONS OF NEPAL PETROGRAPHY GEOCHEMISTRY, GEODYNAMIC INVOLVEMENTS. Paper presented at the Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France, No. 268, Ecologie et Geologie de l'Himalaya, 213-236.
Aurostibite
Formula: AuSb2
Reference: Minghua Zheng, Jiajun Liu, Jianming Liu, and Wenquan Lu (1993): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 13(2)
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10-12H2O
Reference: Chengjiang Zhang and Youliang Chen (2010): Geology and Prospecting 46(3), 434-441
Avdeevite (TL)
Formula: (Na,Cs)(Be2Li)Al2(Si6O18)
Type Locality:
Reference: Agakhanov, A.A., Stepanenko, D.A., Zubkova, N.V., Pekov, I.V., Pautov, L.A., Kasatkin, A.V., Karpenko, V.Y., Agakhanova, V.A., Škoda, R. and Britvin, S.N. (2019) Avdeevite, IMA 2018-109. CNMNC Newsletter No. 47, February 2019, page 199; European Journal of Mineralogy, 31: 199–204.
Avicennite
Formula: Tl2O3
Reference: Shuihe Mao, Wenquan Lu, Youfu Yang, and Yongming Wu (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(3), 253-256
Awaruite
Formula: Ni3Fe
Reference: Xiyue Wang, Huimin Zhang, Sichao Wang, and Yuezhen Wu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 296-306; Xin, H., Eisenhour, D.D., and Buseck, P.R. (1995): Meteoritics 30(1), 106-109.
Axinite-(Fe)
Formula: Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Specimen obtained from Dudley Blauwet in now in my personal collection
'Axinite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 93 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Baddeleyite
Formula: ZrO2
Reference: Heaman, L. M., Srivastava, R. K., & Sinha, A. K. (2002). A precise U–Pb zircon/baddeleyite age for the Jasra igneous complex, Karbi–Analong District, Assam, NE India. Current Science, 744-748. Kumar, D., Mamallan, R., & Dwivedy, K. K. (1996). Carbonatite magmatism in northeast India. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 13(2), 145-158. Melluso, L., Srivastava, R. K., Guarino, V., Zanetti, A., & Sinha, A. K. (2010). Mineral compositions and petrogenetic evolution of the ultramafic-alkaline–carbonatitic complex of Sung Valley, northeastern India. The Canadian Mineralogist, 48(1), 205-229. Srivastava, R. K., & Sinha, A. K. (2004). Geochemistry of Early Cretaceous alkaline ultramafic-mafic complex from Jasra, Karbi Anglong, Shillong plateau, northeastern India. Gondwana Research, 7(2), 549-561. Srivastava, R. K., & Sinha, A. K. (2007). Nd and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of a plume-related Early Cretaceous alkaline-mafic-ultramafic igneous complex from Jasra, Shillong Plateau, northeastern India. SPECIAL PAPERS-GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 430, 815-830.
Badengzhuite (TL)
Formula: TiP
Type Locality:
Reference: Xiong, F., Xu, X., Mugnaioli, E., Gemmi, M., Wirth, R., Grew, E. and Robinson, P.T. (2019): Badengzhuite, IMA 2019-076. CNMNC Newsletter No. 52; Mineralogical Magazine: 83; https://doi.org/10.1180/mgm.2019.73; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=15946
'Barkevikite'
Reference: Bordet, P., Colchen, M., Le Fort, P., & Pecher, A. (1981). The geodynamic evolution of the Himalaya. Ten years of research in Central Nepal Himalaya and some other regions. Gupta and Delany (Editors), Zagros-Hindu Kush-Himalaya Geodynamic Evolution. Am. Geophys. Union, Geodyn. Ser, 3, 149-168. Dhital, M. R. (1995). Mode of occurrence of nepheline syenites in the Gorkha-Ampipal area, central Nepal, Lesser Himalaya. Journal of the Nepal Geological Society, 11, 159-170. Lasserre, J. L., & JL, L. (1977). AMPHIBOLITES AND ALKALINE GNEISSES IN THE MIDLAND FORMATIONS OF NEPAL PETROGRAPHY GEOCHEMISTRY, GEODYNAMIC INVOLVEMENTS. Paper presented at the Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France, No. 268, Ecologie et Geologie de l'Himalaya, 213-236.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 137 localities in this region.
Reference: Shihong Tian, Guilan Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Tiping Ding, Yuling Xie, Zhongxin Yuan, Ge Bai, and Tianren Zou (2005): Mineral Deposits 24(6), 647-655; Shihong Tian, Zhongxin Yuan, Guilan Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Tiping Ding, Ge Bai, Tianren Zou, and Yuling Xie (2006): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 25(2), 110-118; Yuling Xie, Shihong Tian, Jiuhua Xu, Longsheng Yi, and Shuping Yin (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 197-200
Baryte var. Strontium-bearing Baryte
Formula: (Ba,Sr)SO4
Reference: Niu Hecai, Shan Qiang, Chen Xiaoming, and Zhang Haixiang (2003): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 46(Suppl.), 41-49.
Bassanite
Formula: Ca(SO4) · 0.5H2O
Reference: Botao Li, Yuanyi Zhao, Zuohua Qian, Pengcheng Jiao, Chenglin Liu, and Shijun Wang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 669-683
'Bastnäsite'
Reference: Shihong Tian, Guilan Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Tiping Ding, Yuling Xie, Zhongxin Yuan, Ge Bai, and Tianren Zou (2005): Mineral Deposits 24(6), 647-655; Shihong Tian, Zhongxin Yuan, Guilan Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Tiping Ding, Ge Bai, Tianren Zou, and Yuling Xie (2006): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 25(2), 110-118; Yuling Xie, Shihong Tian, Jiuhua Xu, Longsheng Yi, and Shuping Yin (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 197-200
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Reference: Congde Chen and Guangping Pu (1991) Geology and Prospecting 27(5), 18-23.; Zhongxin Yuan and Ge Bai (1997) Geology and Prospecting 33(1), 42-48.; Zhengxi Yang, Williams-Jones, A.E., and Guangping Pu (2000) Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(2), 28-34.; Wilson, W.E. and Origlieri, M.J. (2007) Red wulfenite from the Kuruktag Mountains, Xinjiang Uygur, China. The Mineralogical Record 38, 67-71.
Bavenite
Formula: Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Reference: De Ascençao Guedes, R. et Meisser, N. (2015) - La bavénite d'Alchuri, Pakistan. Le Règne Minéral, 122, p.31.
'Beegerite'
Formula: Pb6Bi2S9
Reference: Quan Liu (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(2), 121-128
Bementite
Formula: Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Reference: Yang Yuchun (1996): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 15(2), 186-190
Berthierite
Formula: FeSb2S4
Reference: Houmin Li, Yuanchao Shen, Zhengguo Hu, and Zhuangzhi Qian (2001): Geology and Prospecting 37(1), 65-69; Changyi Zou and Changyi Shi (2004): Geology in China 31(4), 420-423; Wenkai Ren, Shaofeng Wu, Qiang Ma, Haiqing Zhang, and Hongmei Wu (2012): Gansu Science and Technology 28(16), 28-30, 55
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 36, Part 1, 1998, pp. 1-47.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 147 localities in this region.
Habit: prisms
Colour: very deep blue
Description: superb cristals, totally different from what can be found in Northern areas or Afghanistan. unique color.
Reference: Jan, M. Q., & Kazmi, A. H. (2008). Gemstones of Northern Pakistan and their plate tectonic configuration. Bulletin of Nepal Geological Society, Vol. 25, pp. 43–46
Beryl var. Alkali-beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Beryl var. Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Localities: Reported from at least 73 localities in this region.
Habit: prisms
Colour: very deep blue
Description: superb cristals, totally different from what can be found in Northern areas or Afghanistan. unique color.
Reference: Jan, M. Q., & Kazmi, A. H. (2008). Gemstones of Northern Pakistan and their plate tectonic configuration. Bulletin of Nepal Geological Society, Vol. 25, pp. 43–46
Beryl var. Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Arif, M., & Moon, C. J. (1996). Chemistry of tourmaline from the emerald-hosting rocks in Swat, NW Pakistan. Geological Bulletin University of Peshawar, 29, 81-89.; Arif, M., Henry, D. J., & Moon, C. J. (2011). Host rock characteristics and source of chromium and beryllium for emerald mineralization in the ophiolitic rocks of the Indus Suture Zone in Swat, NW Pakistan. Ore Geology Reviews, 39(1), 1-20.
Beryl var. Goshenite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Yan Liu, Bin Zhang, and Xiaoyan Yu (2001): Geology and Prospecting 37(2), 55-57
Beryl var. Heliodor
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Description: Note that recent information suggests that it is highly likely that all Pakistani Heliodor specimens are irradiated Aquamarine.
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Beryl var. Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: H. A. Hänni and M. S. Krzemnicki (2003): Caesium-rich morganite from Afghanistan and Madagascar. Journal of Gemmology, 28, 417-429.
Beryllonite
Formula: NaBePO4
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Berzelianite
Formula: Cu2Se
Reference: Minzhi Yang (2000): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 19(4), 381-383; Caixia Feng, Jiajun Liu, and Shen Liu (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 812-815; Hanjie Wen, Yuzhuo Qiu, and Shirong Liu (2003): Geochimica 32(1), 21-28
'Betafite Group'
Formula: A2(Ti,Nb)2O6Z
Reference: Zhang, M., Suddaby, P., Thompson, R. N., Thirlwall, M. F., & Menzies, M. A. (1995). Potassic volcanic rocks in NE China: geochemical constraints on mantle source and magma genesis. Journal of Petrology, 36(5), 1275-1303. Zhang, Y., Luo, Y., & Yang, C. (Eds.). (1990). Panxi Rift and its geodynamics. Geological Publishing House.
Billwiseite (TL)
Formula: Sb3+5Nb3WO18
Type Locality:
Reference: Hawthorne, F.C., Cámara, F., Cooper, M.A., Ball, N.A., Černý, P. and Laurs, B.M. (2011) Billwiseite, IMA 2010-053. CNMNC Newsletter No. 9, August 2011, page 2535; Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 2535-2540; Hawthorne, F.C., Cooper, M.A., Ball, N.A., Abdu, Y.A., Černý, P., Cámara, F., Laurs, B.M. (2012): Billwiseite, ideally Sb3+5Nb3WO18, a new oxide mineral species from the Stak Nala pegmatite, Nanga Parba – Haramosh massif, Pakistan: description and crystal structure. Canadian Mineralogist, 50, 805-814.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 172 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28; Aina Su, Shihong Tian, Zengqian Hou, Jiankang Li, Zhenzhen Li, Kejun Hou, Yanhe Li, Wenjie Hu, and Zhusen Yang (2011): Geoscience 25(2), 236-242; Jiankang Li, Denghong Wang, Dehui Zhang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 131-134; Li, P.; Li, J.; Chou, I.-M.; Wang, D.; Xiong, X. (2019) Mineralization Epochs of Granitic Rare-Metal Pegmatite Deposits in the Songpan–Ganzê Orogenic Belt and Their Implications for Orogeny. Minerals 9, 280.
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Reference: Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Bischofite
Formula: MgCl2 · 6H2O
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Mily Wang, Yijie Wang, Chenglin Liu, and Yongzhi Chen (1993): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 15(1)
Bismite
Formula: Bi2O3
Reference: Liangsheng Ge, Hanguang Li, Keqiang Wang, Yilin Zou, Zhihua Wang, Xuejun Zhang, Shisong Yuan, and Junbing Xing (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 345-348; Zhihua Wang, Xingquan Wu, Keqiang Wang, Wanqiang Yu, Hui Huang, and Dexi Ma (2007): Geology and Prospecting 43(3), 6-10
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Xiaogang Wang, Gen Chen, and Yunfeng Yan (2010): Modern Mining 11(11), 44-48
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Reference: Guibing Dan, Dahong Yang, and Shiri Shen (2007): Acta Geologica Sichuan 27(2), 96-98
'Bitumen'
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Zejiang Wang and Anru Wang (1985): Geology and Prospecting 21(10), 8-15; Wen Qi, Mantang Hou, and Genbao Wang (2006): Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment 28(2), 30-36
Blödite
Formula: Na2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
Böhmite
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: Xinhui Liu, Mingshen Feng, Jiajun Liu, Minwu Liu, and Yongwen Zhang (2011): Gold Science and Technology 19(4), 6-12
Borax
Formula: Na2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: Junfeng Yang, Xiaofeng Cui, Shuwei Lu, and Qiusheng Li (2005): Xinjiang Geology 23(1), 59-63
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 145 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Borovskite
Formula: Pd3SbTe4
Reference: Yao, Y., and Viljoen, M.J. (2003): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2003, A560
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang Shihui, Su Junming, Zhang Hanqing, Fu Deming, and Xu Mingji (1991): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 10(4), 379-382.
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang Shihui, Su Junming, Zhang Hanqing, Fu Deming, and Xu Mingji (1991): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 10(4), 379-382.
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
'Bravoite'
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Peters, S.G. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-131.
'Bravoite var. Hengleinite'
Formula: (Ni,Fe,Co)S2
Reference: Duan Guolian (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(2), 20-24
Breithauptite
Formula: NiSb
Reference: Quan Liu (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(2), 121-128
Britholite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Dill, H. G., Weber, B., & Botz, R. (2013). Metalliferous duricrusts. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 190(2), 123-195.
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Siping Liao, Zhenhua Chen, Xiaochuan Luo, and Aijian Zhou (2002): Geological Bulletin of China 21(11), 735-738
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Zhaobin Su and Shaoying Jiang (1984): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 5(3), 102-108
'Bursaite'
Formula: Pb5Bi4S11 (?)
Reference: Hanlong Ying, Denghong Wang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(2), 135-146
Bustamite
Formula: CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Reference: YANG, YU-LONG & Ye, Lin & BAO, TAN & GAO, WEI & LI, ZHEN-LI. (2018). Mineralization of Luziyuan Pb–Zn skarn deposit, Baoshan, Yunnan Province, SW China: evidence from petrography, fluid inclusions and stable isotopes. Geological Magazine. 1-20. 10.1017/S001675681700111X.
'Caichengyunite' (FRL)
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SO4)6 · 30H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Am.Min. 89,894(2004)
Calaverite
Formula: AuTe2
Reference: Baohua Li, Zhimin Cao, Jingfu Jin, and Chunqi Wen (1999): Scientia Geologica Sinica 34(4), 463-472; Minzhi Yang (2000): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 19(4), 381-383; Chunqi Wen, Zhimin Cao, Baohua Li, and Xiaojun Luo (2002): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 29(5), 526-532; Caixia Feng, Jiajun Liu, and Shen Liu (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 812-815
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 391 localities in this region.
Reference: Amir Akhavan collection
Calcite var. Iceland Spar
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Calcite var. Iron-bearing Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Fe)CO3
Reference: Hanxiao Huang, Guangming Li, Bo Liu, Zhilin Zhang, Dong Ma, Za Qu, Wanfeng Xiao, and Hong Liu (2014): Mineral Deposits 33(3), 486-496
Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Reference: Bing Zhou, Chengjiang Zhang, Changhua Huang, and Houliang Zhang (2007): Acta Geologica Sichuan 27(4), 255-258
Cancrinite
Formula: (Na,Ca,◻)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
Canfieldite
Formula: Ag8SnS6
Reference: Zhixing Feng, Xinbiao Lü, and Tao Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(4), 628-633; Zhixing Feng, Xinbiao Lü, and Tao Wang (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(3), 469-476
Carnallite
Formula: KMgCl3 · 6H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Mili Wang, Yijie Wang, Chenglin Liu, and Yongzhi Chen (1993): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 15(1); Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275
Carrollite
Formula: Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Reference: Zhang Dequan, Wang Yan, Feng Chengyou, Li Daxin, Yan Shenghao, and Cui Yanhe (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(3), 213-222
Caryopilite
Formula: Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Reference: Yang Yuchun (1996): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 15(2), 186-190
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Localities: Reported from at least 118 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28
Cattierite
Formula: CoS2
Reference: Houmin Li, Yuanchao Shen, and Zhengguo Hu (2000): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 19(4), 321-322; Zhang Dequan, Wang Yan, Feng Chengyou, Li Daxin, Yan Shenghao, and Cui Yanhe (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(3), 213-222
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Xu Jiuhua, Xie Yuling, Li Jianping, and Hou Zengqian (2001): Progress in Natural Science 11(11), 833-837; Yuling Xie, Zengqian Hou, Jiuhua Xu, Zhongxin Yuan, Ge Bai, and Xiaoyu Li (2005): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences) 35(6), 572-577
Celestine var. Barium-rich Celestine
Formula: (Sr,Ba)SO4
Reference: Congde Chen and Guangping Pu (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(5), 18-23
Celsian
Formula: Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Can. J. Earth Sci. 44: 479–492 (2007)
Cerianite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce4+,Th)O2
Reference: Zhang Peishan, Yang Zhuming, Tao Kejie, and Yang Xueming (1996): "Mineralogy and Geology of Rare Earths in China", Science Press (Beijing), 226 pp.; Yuling Xie, Zengqian Hou, Jiuhua Xu, Zhongxin Yuan, Ge Bai, and Xiaoyu Li (2005): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences) 35(6), 572-577
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Cervantite
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+O4
Reference: Yi Yang, Xuanhua Chen, Hong Ji, Qiang Li, and Rui Wang (2006): Xinjiang Geology 24(3), 261-266
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: National Geological Archives of China database, record no. X00042618
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 103 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Chalcophyllite
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Colour: Bluish Green
Fluorescence: No Fluorescence under LWUV
Reference: Sapphirious Collection
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 454 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Chalcostibite
Formula: CuSbS2
Reference: Qingmin Jin, Huaguang Xie, and Wenguang Wang (1992): Volcanology and Mineral Resources 13(2), 48-58
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Reference: Van King
Chevkinite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La,Ca,Th)4(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe2+,Ti,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)2O8
Reference: Congde Chen and Guangping Pu (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(5), 18-23; Zhongxin Yuan and Ge Bai (1997): Geology and Prospecting 33(1), 42-48; Yang Zhuming, Fleck, M., Smith, M., Tao Kejie, Song Renkui, and Zhang Peishan (2002): European Journal of Mineralogy 14, 969-975
'Chevkinite Group'
Reference: Zhang, M., Suddaby, P., Thompson, R. N., Thirlwall, M. F., & Menzies, M. A. (1995). Potassic volcanic rocks in NE China: geochemical constraints on mantle source and magma genesis. Journal of Petrology, 36(5), 1275-1303. Zhang, Y., Luo, Y., & Yang, C. (Eds.). (1990). Panxi Rift and its geodynamics. Geological Publishing House.
Childrenite
Formula: Fe2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Lyckberg, P. (2011): Edelstein-Pegmatite in Afghanistan: Paprok. Mineralien-Welt. 22 (3): 46-57
'Childrenite-Eosphorite Series'
Reference: William A. Thomas Collection
Chlorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Rubin, A. E., Wang, D., Kallemeyn, G. W. & Wasson, J. T. (1988). The Ningqiang meteorite: Classification and petrology of an anomalous CV chondrite. Meteoritics 23, #1, 13–23. (March 1988).
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: Jiajun Liu, Degao Zhai, Zhiming Li, Mingqin He, Yuping Liu, and Chaoyang Li (2010): Acta Petrologica Sinica 26(6), 1646-1660
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 319 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
'Chlorite Group var. Brunsvigite'
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Reference: Zhi Zhang, Juxing Tang, Yuchuan Chen, Zhijun Li, Junlong Song, Xiaofeng Yao, Yi Yang, Zhenghua Hu, Wei Chen, and Hongxing Wang (2013): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 32(3), 305-317
Chloritoid
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Reference: Herb Obodda
Chondrodite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Reference: Sieghard Ellenberger data; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
'Chrome-Spinel (of Dana)'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Shaoying Jiang, Guangrong Zhang, Hui'e Liang, and Weiqi Huang (1984): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 4(4), 296-302
Chromferide
Formula: Fe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)
Reference: Norman King specimen
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 40 localities in this region.
Reference: Jan, M. Q., & Khan, M. A. (1996). Petrology of gem peridot from Sapat mafic-ultramafic complex, Kohistan, NW Himalaya. Geological Bulletin, University of Peshawar, 29, 17-26.
Chromite var. Ferrichromite
Formula: Fe2+(Cr3+,Fe3+)2O4
Reference: Jan, M. Q., & Khan, M. A. (1996). Petrology of gem peridot from Sapat mafic-ultramafic complex, Kohistan, NW Himalaya. Geological Bulletin, University of Peshawar, 29, 17-26.
Chromium (TL)
Formula: Cr
Reference: Mingyu Zhu and Yunxiang Liu (1981): Chinese Science Bulletin 26(11), 1014-1017
'Chromium-dravite'
Formula: Na(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: Mentioned as inclusions in emeralds from this deposit. (extraLapis v.2, p.24)
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]
Chrysoberyl
Formula: BeAl2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Chrysoberyl var. Alexandrite
Formula: BeAl2O4
Reference: Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: LENG, Q., TANG, J., ZHENG, W., LIN, B. and TANG, P. (2014), Geological Features of the Jiama Porphyry Deposit in Tibet. Acta Geologica Sinica
'Chrysoprase'
Reference: Harald Schillhammer collection
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Tossavainen, A., Kotilainen, M., Takahashi, K., Guowei Pan, and Vanhala, E. (2001): Annales of Occupational Hygiene 45(2), 145-152.
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Localities: Reported from at least 75 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Clausthalite
Formula: PbSe
Reference: Jiajun Liu, Jianming Liu, Wenquan Lu, Minghua Zheng, Yufeng Zhou, Xuexiang Gu, and Bin Zhang (1998): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 18(4), 445-451
'Clays'
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Reference: Guibing Dan, Dahong Yang, and Shiri Shen (2007): Acta Geologica Sichuan 27(2), 96-98
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Jan, M. Q., & Khan, M. A. (1996). Petrology of gem peridot from Sapat mafic-ultramafic complex, Kohistan, NW Himalaya. Geological Bulletin, University of Peshawar, 29, 17-26.
Clinochlore var. Pennine
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Changhua Huang, Chengjiang Zhang, and Zhiheng Liu (2010): Geoscience 24(1), 18-25
Clinochlore var. Pyknochlorite
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Yushuai Yu, Zhusen Yang, Yingchao Liu, Shihong Tian, Can Zhao, Yuan Gao, Xianhua Ji, Weizheng Hu, and Shenghua Cao (2012): Mineral Deposits 31(4), 775-790
Clinochlore var. Ripidolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Reference: Zhi Zhang, Juxing Tang, Yuchuan Chen, Zhijun Li, Junlong Song, Xiaofeng Yao, Yi Yang, Zhenghua Hu, Wei Chen, and Hongxing Wang (2013): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 32(3), 305-317
Clinoenstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: P Haas collection; Thomas P.Moore (2016) Moore`s Compendium of Mineral Discoveries. Vol. 1, p.8
Clinohedrite
Formula: CaZn(SiO4) · H2O
Reference: Hanjie Wen, Carignan, J., Yuzhuo Qiu, and Shirong Liu (2006): Environmental Science and Technology 40(4), 1126-1132.
Clinohumite
Formula: Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Reference: RWMW Collection
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Gao, Y., Hou, Z., Kamber, B. S., Wei, R., Meng, X., & Zhao, R. (2007). Lamproitic rocks from a continental collision zone: evidence for recycling of subducted Tethyan oceanic sediments in the mantle beneath southern Tibet. Journal of Petrology, 48(4), 729-752. Gao, Y., Wei, R., Ma, P., Hou, Z., & Yang, Z. (2009). Post-collisional ultrapotassic volcanism in the Tangra Yumco-Xuruco graben, south Tibet: constraints from geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Pb isotope. Lithos, 110(1-4), 129-139. Ding, L., Kapp, P., Zhong, D., & Deng, W. (2003). Cenozoic volcanism in Tibet: evidence for a transition from oceanic to continental subduction. Journal of Petrology, 44(10), 1833-1865.
Clino-suenoite
Formula: ◻{Mn2+2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Xu, J.; Ciobanu, C.L.; Cook, N.J.; Slattery, A. (2019) Crystals from the Powellite-Scheelite Series at the Nanoscale: A Case Study from the Zhibula Cu Skarn, Gangdese Belt, Tibet. Minerals 9, 340.
'Clinozoisite-Epidote Series'
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Zaw, K., Meffre, S., Lai, C. K., Burrett, C., Santosh, M., Graham, I., ... & Cromie, P. (2014). Tectonics and metallogeny of mainland Southeast Asia—A review and contribution. Gondwana Research, 26(1), 5-30.
Cobaltpentlandite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Reference: Duan Guolian (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(2), 20-24; Jingsui Yang and Wenji Bai (1987): Geology and Prospecting 23(5), 7-10
Coesite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Robinson, P.T., Jingsui Yang, Wenji Bai, and Qingsong Fang (2006): 3rd Annual Meeting of the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS), July 10-14, 2006, Abstract 59-SE-A0857.
Coffinite
Formula: U(SiO4) · nH2O
Reference: K.K. Dwivedy (1993) Possibility Of New Uranium Discoveries In The Environs Of Domiasiat, Meghalaya, India. in IAEA-TECDOC-823 pp145-161
Colemanite
Formula: Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Reference: Rathore, I.S. (2015) Exploration Potential and Economic Significance of Puga Valley Borax Deposit, Ladakh, India. International Journal for Scientific Research & Development 3:1, 191-195.
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Nb2O6
Reference: Rucheng Wang, Fuyuan Wu, Lei Xie, Xiaochi Liu, Cheng Liu (2018) Pegmatites on the Mount Qomolangma, Tibet. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 290
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Colusite
Formula: Cu13VAs3S16
Description: Composition similar To Carara Colusites
Reference: Moore, T.P.,Woodside, R.M.W. (2014): The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines, Kuran Wa Munjan district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Record 45 (3), 280-336.
Conichalcite
Formula: CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Mu Yang and Shenglin Peng (2006): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 21(4), 227-231
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Ding, X., Li, J., Chou, I-M., Chen, Z., Li, S. (2020) Raman spectroscopic identification of cookeite in the crystal-rich inclusions in spodumene from the Jiajika lithium pegmatite deposit, China, and its geological implications. European Journal of Mineralogy, 32:1, 67–75.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Reference: Guangfu Zou and Ying Mao (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 395-398
Copper var. Stanniferous Copper
Formula: (Cu,Sn)
Reference: Yuling Xie, Zengqian Hou, Jiuhua Xu, Zhongxin Yuan, Ge Bai, and Xiaoyu Li (2005): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences) 35(6), 572-577
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Cordierite var. Iolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 78 localities in this region.
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Corundum var. Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 58 localities in this region.
Reference: Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.; Krebs, M.Y.; Hardman, M.F.; Pearson, D.G.; Luo, Y.; Fagan, A.J.; Sarkar, C. (2020) An Evaluation of the Potential for Determination of the Geographic Origin of Ruby and Sapphire Using an Expanded Trace Element Suite Plus Sr–Pb Isotope Compositions. Minerals 10, 447.
Corundum var. Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Corundum var. Star Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Corundum var. Star Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Cosalite
Formula: Pb2Bi2S5
Reference: Dianhao Huang and Shihua Hu (2000): Mineral Deposits 19(4), 363-375; Quan Liu (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(2), 121-128; Hanlong Ying, Denghong Wang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(2), 135-146
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Localities: Reported from at least 94 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Covellite var. Selenian Covellite
Formula: Cu(S,Se)
Reference: Jiajun Liu, Minghua Zheng, Jianming Liu, and Wenchao Su (2000): Ore Geology Reviews 17, 91-111.
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Li, J., Chou, I., Yuan, S., & Burruss, R. C. (2009, December). Homogenization Temperature Measurements in Hydrothermal Diamond-Anvil Cell for Melt and Fluid Inclusions from the Jiajika Pegmatite Deposit, China. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 1, p. 2234).
'Crossite'
Reference: Kapp, P., Yin, A., Manning, C.E., Murphy, M., Harrison, T.M., Spurlin, M., Lin, D., Xiguang, D., and Cunming, W. (2000): Geology 28(1), 19-22.
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: Xingyu Yang (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(8), 23-27; Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang Weihua (1996): Geochemistry of Strata-Bound Copper Deposits. In: Tu Guangzhi and Xu Zhonglun, eds.: Geochemistry of Strata-Bound Deposits in China. Science Press, Beijing (1996), pp. 470-507.; Xiaogang Wang, Gen Chen, and Yunfeng Yan (2010): Modern Mining 11(11), 44-48
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Reference: Zhenghua Hu, Juxing Tang, Feng Ding, Wenbao Zheng, Shilin Deng, Yi Yang, Zhi Zhang, Yiyun Wang, Bin Lin, and Shuai Ding (2011): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 32(6), 668-680; LENG, Q., TANG, J., ZHENG, W., LIN, B. and TANG, P. (2014), Geological Features of the Jiama Porphyry Deposit in Tibet. Acta Geologica Sinica
Cuprite var. Tile ore
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Bugao Xue (1996): Mineral Resources and Geology 10(6), 388-394; Dongmei Tang, Zhuangzhi Qian, Zhengjun Zhang, and Shuguang Hou (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 371-374
Cuproauride ?
Formula: Cu3Au
Description: From the context of the paper, it is not entirely sure whether copper-gold minerals in general or cuproauride specifically are meant (while 铜金矿 is cuproauride, it also literally translates to copper-gold mineral).
Reference: Zhijun Li, Juxing Tang, Xiaofeng Yao, Ji Duo, Hongfei Liu, Shilin Deng, Zhi Zhang, Jinshu Zhang, and Zhenghua Hu (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(6), 1149-1153
Cuprocopiapite
Formula: Cu2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Dill, H. G., Weber, B., & Botz, R. (2013). Metalliferous duricrusts. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 190(2), 123-195.
'Cymatolite'
Reference: Li, P.; Li, J.; Chou, I.-M.; Wang, D.; Xiong, X. (2019) Mineralization Epochs of Granitic Rare-Metal Pegmatite Deposits in the Songpan–Ganzê Orogenic Belt and Their Implications for Orogeny. Minerals 9, 280.
Cymrite
Formula: BaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Reference: Can. J. Earth Sci. 44: 479–492 (2007)
Danbaite (TL)
Formula: CuZn2
Type Locality:
Reference: American Mineralogist 69, 566 (1984)
Danburite
Formula: CaB2Si2O8
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Ikram Mineralogy (Wholly owned & manage by Ikram Nature Exploration (Pvt) Ltd)
Delafossite
Formula: CuFeO2
Reference: Dunmo Cheng, Mangen Zhou, and Benxian Wu (1982): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 2(3), 213-216
'Delessite'
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(O,OH)8
Reference: Miao Yu, Chengyou Feng, Guangying Bao, Hongchuan Liu, Yiming Zhao, Daxin Li, Ye Xiao, and Jiannan Liu (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(1), 55-76
Descloizite
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Reference: Qingmin Jin, Huaguang Xie, and Wenguang Wang (1992): Volcanology and Mineral Resources 13(2), 48-58
Diamond
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
Diaphorite
Formula: Ag3Pb2Sb3S8
Description: This mineral is reported as occurring here in the English abstract of the paper by Qu et al. (2001). However, the name used for this mineral in the Chinese text is 辉锑银铅矿, which translates as ramdohrite, and the analytical data also indicate ramdohrite rather than diaphorite (辉锑铅银矿). Note that the Chinese names only differ by the order of the characters 银 (silver) and 铅 (lead).
Reference: Xiaoming Qu, Qiling Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Yuanping Xu, and Jinzhong Li (2001): Mineral Deposits 20(3), 199-207
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: Dongmei Tang, Zhuangzhi Qian, Zhengjun Zhang, and Shuguang Hou (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 371-374
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: WANG, Y., TANG, J., WANG, Q., DUAN, J., FANG, X., SUN, X. and YIN, X. (2014), The Mineralized Features and Prospecting Breakthrough of Southern Tiegelong Giant Epithermal Copper (Gold, Silver) Deposit, Tibet. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 802–803.; Song, Y., Yang, C., Wei, S., Yang, H., Fang, X., & Lu, H. (2018). Tectonic Control, Reconstruction and Preservation of the Tiegelongnan Porphyry and Epithermal Overprinting Cu (Au) Deposit, Central Tibet, China. Minerals, 8(9), 398.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Qingmin Jin, Huaguang Xie, and Wenguang Wang (1992): Volcanology and Mineral Resources 13(2), 48-58
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 140 localities in this region.
Habit: Terminated prisms
Reference: Moore, T.P.,Woodside, R.M.W. (2014): The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines, Kuran Wa Munjan district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Record 45 (3), 280-336.
Diopside var. Chromium-bearing Diopside
Formula: Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Reference: Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 186 localities in this region.
Reference: Ni Yan, Jing Zhang, Wanming Yuan, Qingjie Gong, Qingfei Wang, and Jianhong Luo (2013): Acta Petrologica Sinica 29(4), 1347-1357
Dolomite var. Iron-bearing Dolomite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Ni Yan, Jing Zhang, Wanming Yuan, Qingjie Gong, Qingfei Wang, and Jianhong Luo (2013): Acta Petrologica Sinica 29(4), 1347-1357
Doyleite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Reference: Dongmei Tang, Zhuangzhi Qian, Zhengjun Zhang, and Shuguang Hou (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 371-374
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Zhu, X.; Raschke, M.B.; Liu, Y. (2020) Tourmaline as a Recorder of Ore-Forming Processes in the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be Deposit, Sichuan Province, China: Evidence from the Chemical Composition of Tourmaline. Minerals 10, 438.
'Dravite-Schorl Series'
Reference: Xiangping Zhu, Mingjie Wang, Peng Yao, Jinsha Xu, Jianzhong Li, Minhua Chen, and Gaolin Tang (2008): Acta Petrologica Sinica 24(3), 562-568
'Dravite-Uvite Series'
Habit: trigonal prism
Colour: blue and green
Description: Ian Nicastro notes at https://www.mindat.org/forum.php?read,105,414229,414229,page=1#msg-414229 that "Dravite and Dravite-Uvite attributed to Koksha Valley are likely from Hazrat Saeed specifically, since multiple specimens attributed to Koksha Valley have turned up with both sapphire and blue dravite in the same mica matrix. And Hazrat Saeed appears to be the only Sapphire source in Koksha Valley."
Reference: https://www.gia.edu/gems-gemology/winter-2016-gemnews-blue-dravite-uvite-tourmaline-koksha-valley-afghanistan
Dyscrasite
Formula: Ag3Sb
Reference: Xiaogang Wang, Gen Chen, and Yunfeng Yan (2010): Modern Mining 11(11), 44-48
Dzhalindite
Formula: In(OH)3
Reference: Yan Liu, Yuanyi Zhao, Ruijiang Wang, Yubin Cui, Liang Song, and Changqing Yang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(6), 1054-1078
Eastonite
Formula: KMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Reference: Xianfan Liu, Fufeng Zhao, Zhuan Tao, Xiangfeng Song, Yongwen Cai, and Feiyue Cai (2009): Mineral Deposits 28(2), 185-194
Edenite
Formula: NaCa2Mg5(Si7Al)O22OH2
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ekanite
Formula: Ca2ThSi8O20
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, Sieghard Ellenberger specimens
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Reference: Blauwet, D., et al, 2004, Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains and Majesty. Lapis International, 96p.
Elbaite var. Chromium-bearing Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
'Elbaite-Schorl Series'
Reference: Jamison K. Brizendine collection
Emplectite
Formula: CuBiS2
Reference: Zhou, H., Sun, X., Fu, Y., Lin, H., Jiang, L. (2016): Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of Bi-minerals: Constraints on ore genesis of the Beiya giant porphyry-skarn gold deposit, southwestern China. Ore Geology Reviews (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12853 (2016)
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Weiguang Zhu, Chaoyang Li, Hailin Deng, Wenlan Zhang, Guofu Hou, Yuanping Xu, Jinzhong Li, and Jing Li (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(4)
Enstatite
Formula: Mg2Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]
Enstatite var. Bronzite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
Reference: Huiwen Liu, Xueping Wang, Ji Shao, Kesi Lu, Fanglian Tian, and Shuya Xiong (2014): Mineral Deposits 33(1), 87-103
Eosphorite
Formula: Mn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Harvard Museum of Natural History specimen no. 138184.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 171 localities in this region.
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Mianping Zheng and Xifang Liu (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 84(11), 1585-1600
Erlichmanite
Formula: OsS2
Reference: Guo, G., Yang, J., Robinson, P.T., Liu, X., Xu, X., Xiong, F. (2016): Platinum-group Mineral (PGM) and Base-metal Sulphide (BMS) Inclusions in Chromitites of the Zedang Ophiolite, Southern Tibet, China and their Petrogenetic Significance. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition): 90: 900–912; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12863 (2016)
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Dill, H. G., Weber, B., & Botz, R. (2013). Metalliferous duricrusts. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 190(2), 123-195.
Euclase
Formula: BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
Eulytine
Formula: Bi4(SiO4)3
Reference: Natural History Museum Vienna collection
Famatinite
Formula: Cu3SbS4
Reference: Jiajun Liu, Jianming Liu, Wenquan Lu, Minghua Zheng, Yufeng Zhou, Xuexiang Gu, and Bin Zhang (1998): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 18(4), 445-451
Famatinite var. Seleniferous Famatinite
Formula: Cu3Sb(S,Se)4
Reference: Jiajun Liu, Jianming Liu, Wenquan Lu, Xianfan Liu, and Hongfei Ling (2000): Geological Journal of China Universities 6(2), 210-214
Fayalite
Formula: Fe2+2SiO4
Reference: No reference listed
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 42 localities in this region.
Reference: Gao, Y., Hou, Z., Kamber, B. S., Wei, R., Meng, X., & Zhao, R. (2007). Lamproitic rocks from a continental collision zone: evidence for recycling of subducted Tethyan oceanic sediments in the mantle beneath southern Tibet. Journal of Petrology, 48(4), 729-752. Gao, Y., Wei, R., Ma, P., Hou, Z., & Yang, Z. (2009). Post-collisional ultrapotassic volcanism in the Tangra Yumco-Xuruco graben, south Tibet: constraints from geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Pb isotope. Lithos, 110(1-4), 129-139. Ding, L., Kapp, P., Zhong, D., & Deng, W. (2003). Cenozoic volcanism in Tibet: evidence for a transition from oceanic to continental subduction. Journal of Petrology, 44(10), 1833-1865.
'Feldspar Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 57 localities in this region.
Reference: Shihong Tian, Zhongxin Yuan, Guilan Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Tiping Ding, Ge Bai, Tianren Zou, and Yuling Xie (2006): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 25(2), 110-118
'Feldspar Group var. Perthite'
Reference: Shihong Tian, Zhongxin Yuan, Guilan Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Tiping Ding, Ge Bai, Tianren Zou, and Yuling Xie (2006): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 25(2), 110-118
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Reference: Ikram Mineralogy
'Fergusonite'
Reference: Congde Chen and Guangping Pu (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(5), 18-23
Ferrisepiolite (TL)
Formula: (Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg)4((Si,Fe3+)6O15)(O,OH)2 · 6H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Xiangping Gu, Xiande Xie, Xiangbin Wu, Jianqing Lai, Hoshino Kenich, and Guchang Zhu (2010): CNMNC Newsletter 7, 30
'Ferritchromit'
Reference: Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Ferro-actinolite
Formula: ◻Ca2Fe2+5(Si8O22)OH2
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
'Ferro-actinolite-Tremolite Series'
Reference: Xiaofen Su, Kaicai Zhou, Lijian Qi, and Xiangli Qian (2006): China Mining Magazine 15(5), 73-75
Ferro-edenite
Formula: NaCa2Fe2+5(Si7Al)O22OH2
Reference: Yu, M., Feng, C. Y., Zhu, Y. F., Mao, J. W., Zhao, Y. M., & Li, D. X. (2016). Multistage amphiboles from the Galinge iron skarn deposit in Qiman Tagh, western China: evidence of igneous rocks replacement. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-17.
Ferro-glaucophane
Formula: ◻[Na2][Fe2+3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: Kapp, P., Yin, A., Manning, C.E., Murphy, M., Harrison, T.M., Spurlin, M., Lin, D., Xiguang, D., and Cunming, W. (2000): Geology 28(1), 19-22.
Ferroselite
Formula: FeSe2
Reference: Hanjie Wen, Yuzhuo Qiu, and Shirong Liu (2003): Geochimica 32(1), 21-28
Ferrowodginite
Formula: Fe2+Sn4+Ta2O8
Reference: Mark Mauthner
'Fluocerite'
Reference: Xu Jiuhua, Xie Yuling, Li Jianping, and Hou Zengqian (2001): Progress in Natural Science 11(11), 833-837.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Reference: various correctly added photos
Fluorapatite var. Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Reference: S. C. Tripathi (1985) Framboidal pyrite from Mussoorie phosphorite and its geological implication — Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Earth and Planetary Sciences, 94, 315-321.
Fluor-dravite ?
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Description: Analyses by several different researchers (see discussion of the deep blue "fluor-dravite" composition at https://www.mindat.org/mesg-506047.html ) suggest little F is present in these samples, and so the tourmalines fall along the dravite/oxy-dravite/uvite nomenclature boundaries. Specific references with compositional data include: https://www.gia.edu/doc/Gems-Gemology-Winter-2016v4.pdf and https://www.rockptx.com/fkm-251-to-fkm-275/#FKM-268 .
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Fluor-elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Reference: Natkaniec-Nowak, L., Dumańska-Słowik, M. & Ertl, A. (2009): “Watermelon” tourmaline from the Paprok mine (Nuristan, Afghanistan). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 186, 185-193.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Localities: Reported from at least 128 localities in this region.
Reference: Li, P.; Li, J.; Chou, I.-M.; Wang, D.; Xiong, X. (2019) Mineralization Epochs of Granitic Rare-Metal Pegmatite Deposits in the Songpan–Ganzê Orogenic Belt and Their Implications for Orogeny. Minerals 9, 280.
Fluornatromicrolite
Formula: (Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
Reference: Lyckberg, P. (2011): Edelstein-Pegmatite in Afghanistan: Paprok. Mineralien-Welt. 22 (3): 46-57
Fluornatropyrochlore
Formula: (Na,Pb,Ca,REE,U)2Nb2O6F
Reference: Yin Jingwu, Li Guowu, Yang Guangming, Xiong Ming, Ge Xiangkun und Pan Baoming (2013) Fluornatropyrochlore, IMA 2013-056. CNMNC Newsletter No. 17, October 2013, page 3003; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2997 - 3005.
Fluoro-edenite
Formula: NaCa2Mg5(Si7Al)O22F2
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, Sieghard Ellenberger material
Fluoro-richterite
Formula: {Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
Habit: Prismatic xls to a few cm
Colour: white
Fluorescence: none
Description: A translucent white 'richterite' with purple hackmanite under Raman analysis gave a tiny Hydroxyl peak characteristic of Fluorine replacement making the 'richterite', fluororichterite
Reference: RWMW Collection;
'Fluor-uvite-Uvite Series'
Reference: [MinRec 25:61, 25:301]
Foitite
Formula: (◻,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Reference: Zhu, X.; Raschke, M.B.; Liu, Y. (2020) Tourmaline as a Recorder of Ore-Forming Processes in the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be Deposit, Sichuan Province, China: Evidence from the Chemical Composition of Tourmaline. Minerals 10, 438.
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Habit: The crystals are often sharp and well formed, typically stubby, displaying prominent prisms (100) and (110), basal pinacoid (001), and pyramidal (021) and (1 1 1) faces. The faces lack overgrowths and are smooth, but in a few cases the prismatic faces hav
Colour: light yellow-green to deep yellow-green
Reference: Jan, M. Q., & Khan, M. A. (1996). Petrology of gem peridot from Sapat mafic-ultramafic complex, Kohistan, NW Himalaya. Geological Bulletin, University of Peshawar, 29, 17-26.
Forsterite var. Peridot
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Habit: Crystals to 15cm
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Jan, M. Q., & Khan, M. A. (1996). Petrology of gem peridot from Sapat mafic-ultramafic complex, Kohistan, NW Himalaya. Geological Bulletin, University of Peshawar, 29, 17-26.
'Freibergite Subgroup'
Formula: ([Ag6]4+,(Ag,Cu)6)((Cu,Ag)4$c2+2)Sb4S12S0-1
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Gui He and Xipeng Hu (2009): Acta Geologica Sichuan 30(4), 409-411
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 332 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Galena var. Silver-bearing Galena
Formula: PbS with Ag
Reference: Beaudoin, G., Hébert, R., Wang, C., and Tang, J. (2000): Presented at the China & East Asia Symposium 2000.
Galenobismutite
Formula: PbBi2S4
Reference: Guangfu Zou, Rongcai Zheng, Shihua Hu, Caijing Chen, Hongchang Jiang, and Hongbang Wu (2008): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology, Science & Technology Edition 35(1), 93-102
Ganomalite
Formula: Pb9Ca5Mn(Si2O7)4(SiO4)O
Reference: Qiliang Chen (2002): Geology and Prospecting 38(1), 22-26; Changqing Zhang, Jingwen Mao, Suoping Wu, Houmin Li, Feng Liu, Baojian Guo, and Derong Gao (2005): Mineral Deposits 24(3), 336-348
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 122 localities in this region.
Reference: Tongzhu Li, Xiaoliang Feng, Huihua Zhang, Gaolin Tang, Zhengbo Wu, and Xiangbiao Xia (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(5), 921-930; Xiaogang Wang, Gen Chen, and Yunfeng Yan (2010): Modern Mining 11(11), 44-48
'Garnierite'
Reference: Myanmar Ministry of Mines web site
Gaylussite
Formula: Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Gedrite
Formula: ◻{Mg2}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Reference: Deer, Howie and Zussman (1978) Rock-forming Minerals, Vol. 2A, Single-Chain Silicates. (2nd ed.)
Geerite
Formula: Cu8S5
Reference: YANG, C., TANG, J., WANG, Y., YANG, H., WANG, Q., DING, S. and FANG, X. (2014), Minerals, Alteration and Fluid Basic Researchonthe First High Sulfidation Epithermal-Porphyry Cu (Au) Deposit (Southern Tiegelong Deposit) in Tibet, China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 817–819.
Gehlenite
Formula: Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Reference: Xiyue Wang, Huimin Zhang, Sichao Wang, and Yuezhen Wu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 296-306
Geikielite
Formula: MgTiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Lin, Y. T. & Kimura, M. (1996). Discovery of Complex Titanium Oxide Associations in a Plagioclase-Olivine Inclusion (POI) in the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite. Lunar and Planetary Science, vol. 27, pages 755-756. (1996).
Genthelvite
Formula: Be3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Reference: Herb Obodda collection MIM Museum collection
Geocronite
Formula: Pb14(Sb,As)6S23
Reference: Weifan Ding (1983): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 3(3), 193-197
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Guangfu Zou and Ying Mao (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 395-398
Getchellite
Formula: AsSbS3
Reference: Ikram Mineralogy (Wholly owned & manage by Ikram Nature Exploration (Pvt) Ltd).
Giessenite
Formula: Pb27Cu2(Bi,Sb)19S57
Reference: Yingchen Ren (1999): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 14(1), 1-12, 38
Gladite
Formula: PbCuBi5S9
Reference: Yueqing Yang and Wenying Wang (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 511-514
'Glass'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Gao, Y., Hou, Z., Kamber, B. S., Wei, R., Meng, X., & Zhao, R. (2007). Lamproitic rocks from a continental collision zone: evidence for recycling of subducted Tethyan oceanic sediments in the mantle beneath southern Tibet. Journal of Petrology, 48(4), 729-752. Gao, Y., Wei, R., Ma, P., Hou, Z., & Yang, Z. (2009). Post-collisional ultrapotassic volcanism in the Tangra Yumco-Xuruco graben, south Tibet: constraints from geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Pb isotope. Lithos, 110(1-4), 129-139. Ding, L., Kapp, P., Zhong, D., & Deng, W. (2003). Cenozoic volcanism in Tibet: evidence for a transition from oceanic to continental subduction. Journal of Petrology, 44(10), 1833-1865.
Glauberite
Formula: Na2Ca(SO4)2
Reference: Wei Dongyan, Deng Xiaolin, Liu Zhenmin, and Yang Gengsheng (2000): On Biochemical Formation of Salt Deposits. Acta Geologica Sinica 74(3), 613-617.
Glaucodot
Formula: (Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Reference: Xingyu Yang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(9), 14-18
'Glauconite' ?
Formula: (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Reference: Zejiang Wang and Anru Wang (1985): Geology and Prospecting 21(10), 8-15
Glaucophane
Formula: ◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: Hongfei Liu and Yan Liu (2009): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 2009(3), 199-214.
'Glockerite'
Formula: Fe3+4(SO4)(OH)10 · 1-3H2O ?
Reference: Jing Xue, Tagen Dai, and Chaozhuang Xi (2012): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 31(1), 28-38
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 41 localities in this region.
Reference: Amir Akhavan collection
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 219 localities in this region.
Reference: Guixi Pang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(9), 18-22, 28
Gold var. Argentian Mercurian Gold
Formula: (Au,Ag,Hg)
Reference: Shihui Yang, Yueying Lin, and Yi Wang (1996): Acta Mineralogica Sinica [Kuangwu Xuebao] 16(3), 304-306
Gold var. Electrum
Formula: (Au,Ag)
Localities: Reported from at least 51 localities in this region.
Reference: Guangming Zhou and Xingren Zhang (1992): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 13(2), 43-52
Gonnardite
Formula: (Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
Habit: Pseudomorphing Hauyne dodecs
Colour: white
Fluorescence: White in LW, MW & SW UV
Description: This was initially called plagioclase, confirmed by EDS. The EDS pattern has the same 1:1 ratio of Al: Si as plagioclase and sodalite group minerals. Gonnardite can have this same EDS. The PXRD of Gonnardite is attached to the Marialite specimen it came from.
Reference: RWMW Collection
Gorceixite
Formula: BaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Qingmin Jin, Huaguang Xie, and Wenguang Wang (1992): Volcanology and Mineral Resources 13(2), 48-58
Goyazite
Formula: SrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: YANG, C., TANG, J., WANG, Y., YANG, H., WANG, Q., DING, S. and FANG, X. (2014), Minerals, Alteration and Fluid Basic Researchonthe First High Sulfidation Epithermal-Porphyry Cu (Au) Deposit (Southern Tiegelong Deposit) in Tibet, China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 817–819.
Graphite
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 32 localities in this region.
Reference: Xiangping Zhu, Mingjie Wang, Peng Yao, Jinsha Xu, Jianzhong Li, Minhua Chen, and Gaolin Tang (2008): Acta Petrologica Sinica 24(3), 562-568
Gratonite
Formula: Pb9As4S15
Reference: Xiaohu Wang, Yucai Song, Zengqian Hou, Hongrui Zhang, Zhe Wang, Tianming Zhuang, Chong Zhang, and Tianfu Zhang (2011): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 30(3), 507-518
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Reference: Zejiang Wang (1981): Geology and Prospecting 17(10), 7-15; Wen Qi, Mantang Hou, and Genbao Wang (2006): Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment 28(2), 30-36; Bo Yuan, Jingwen Mao, Xinghu Yan, Yue Wu, Feng Zhang, and Liangliang Zhao (2014): Acta Petrologica Sinica 30(1), 209-220
Grossite
Formula: CaAl4O7
Reference: Wang, Y. & Hsu, W. (2009). Petrology and Mineralogy of the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Vol. 44, #5, 763-780. (May 2009).
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
Reference: Xiaoming Qu, Zengqian Hou, and Shugui Zhou (2001): Acta Geoscientia Sinica 23(1), 29-34; Zengqian Hou, Khin Zaw, Guitang Pan, Xuanxue Mo, Qiang Xu, Yunzhong Hu, and Xingzhen Li (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31, 48-87
Grossular var. Hessonite
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: TVM Specimen; Lapis 34 (12): 48
Gudmundite
Formula: FeSbS
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Econ Geol (1997) 92:308-324; Seetharam, R. (1981). Gudmundite from Base Metal Sulphide Deposit of Askot, Pithoragarh District,(UP). Geological Society of India, 22(5), 216-219.; Sharma, R., & Rao, D. R. (2008). Stannoidite and cubanite from Askot polymetallic sulphide ores, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, India. Current science, 95(4), 527-531.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 83 localities in this region.
Reference: Xu Jiuhua, Xie Yuling, Li Jianping, and Hou Zengqian (2001): Progress in Natural Science 11(11), 833-837.
'Hackmanite'
Formula: Na8Al6Si6O24(Cl2,S)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Habit: Crude to sharp dodecahedra with trapezohedral modifications
Colour: clear, white, grey, green, lilac, purple
Fluorescence: In Long Wave UV: yellow orange, pink, white
Description: These are some of the best Hackmanites ever found and show a variety of optical properties, such as darkening in the dark after bleaching in Yellow light, Reversible Photochromism (tenebrescence)with UV irradiation and yellow light. The grey sodalites contain significant K.
Reference: RWMW Collection
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Localities: Reported from at least 48 localities in this region.
Reference: Xu Jiuhua, Xie Yuling, Li Jianping, and Hou Zengqian (2001): Progress in Natural Science 11(11), 833-837.
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Zufu Wang, Zhaoying Liu, and Xiasheng Gong (1987): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology (Science & Technology Edition) 28(1)
Halloysite-10Å
Formula: Al2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
Reference: Zengqian Hou, Yuling Xie, Wenyi Xu, Yinqing Li, Xlangkun Zhu, Zaw Khin, Beaudoin, G., Zongyao Rui, Wei Huang, and Ciren Luobu (2007): International Geology Review 49(3), 235-258.
Hambergite
Formula: Be2(BO3)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Krishna P. Kaphle, Himalayan gemstones and their prospects in Nepal, 2011, http://kpkaphle.blogspot.com.es/2011/11/himalayan-gemstones-and-their-prospects.html
Hastingsite
Formula: NaCa2(Fe2+4Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22OH2
Reference: Miao Yu, Chengyou Feng, Guangying Bao, Hongchuan Liu, Yiming Zhao, Daxin Li, Ye Xiao, and Jiannan Liu (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(1), 55-76; Yu, M., Feng, C. Y., Zhu, Y. F., Mao, J. W., Zhao, Y. M., & Li, D. X. (2016). Multistage amphiboles from the Galinge iron skarn deposit in Qiman Tagh, western China: evidence of igneous rocks replacement. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-17.
Hausmannite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Reference: Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
Haüyne
Formula: (Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Habit: Large dodecahedra to several cm
Colour: Dark blue , blue, dark green, light green
Fluorescence: Orangey brown in long-wave UV light.
Description: The blue haüyne has a cell edge of 9.08 A (Fernando Camera, priv. comm. 2013) and the green one 9.05 A (Fernando Camera, priv. comm. 2010). Both have similar modulated structures. A few dozen specimens of green haüyne were recovered. Dudley Blauwet (2008) has photos of the material in situ. Fewer darker green haüynes later emerged. PXRD at the Royal Ontario museum gave Lazurite-C with gypsum for the early green material (Malcolm Back, priv. comm. 2009). Fernando Camara (2010) found it has a cubic cell edge of 9.05 A and a 45 A modulated structure. A Raman analysis at the University of Arizona gave both haüyne and lazurite for the blue hauyne. The problem is that no natural sulfide-dominant lazurite has ever been observed. Such material can be synthesized but is unstable. All 'lazurite' specimens is actually sulfate-dominant haüyne. The specious argument to call some PXRD-analyse samples lazurite stems from the observation that sulfide is smaller than sulfate and so haüynes with small unit cells should have more sulfide, but there is never enough to be sulfide dominant. Furthemore, contents of impurity elements such a K influence the cell parameter.
Reference: Dudley Blauwet (2008) Private Communication; Malcolm Back (2009) Private Communication; Fernando Camara (2010) Private Communication; Fernando Camera (2013) Private Communication
Heazlewoodite
Formula: Ni3S2
Reference: Guo, G., Yang, J., Robinson, P.T., Liu, X., Xu, X., Xiong, F. (2016): Platinum-group Mineral (PGM) and Base-metal Sulphide (BMS) Inclusions in Chromitites of the Zedang Ophiolite, Southern Tibet, China and their Petrogenetic Significance. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition): 90: 900–912; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12863 (2016)
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Zhenhua Zhou, Hongwei Liu, Guoxiong Chang, Linsu Li, Tao Li, Yongjun Yang, Ruijun Zhang, and Xianhe Ji (2011): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 30(1), 97-112
Hedenbergite var. Manganese-bearing Hedenbergite
Formula: Ca(Fe,Mn)2+Si2O6
Reference: Miao Yu, Chengyou Feng, Guangying Bao, Hongchuan Liu, Yiming Zhao, Daxin Li, Ye Xiao, and Jiannan Liu (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(1), 55-76
Helvine
Formula: Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 189 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Hematite var. Martite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Faxin Xu, Shunping Tan, and Yuanjian Fan (2010): Modern Mining 11(11), 41-43
Hematite var. Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Reference: Zengqian Hou, Shihong Tian, Yuling Xie, Zhusen Yang, Zhongxin Yuan, Shuping Yin, Longsheng Yi, Hongcai Fei, Tianren Zou, Ge Bai, and Xiaoyu Li (2009): Ore Geology Reviews (in press)
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Qingmin Jin, Huaguang Xie, and Wenguang Wang (1992): Volcanology and Mineral Resources 13(2), 48-58
Hercynite
Formula: Fe2+Al2O4
Reference: Changbi Li (1991): Tibet Geology 2(1), 75-85
Hercynite var. Picotite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Reference: Zhang Wusheng and Chen Jie (1996): Qinghai Guotu Jinglue 5(1)
Herderite ?
Formula: CaBe(PO4)F
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Description: Reference (Polytika, 2004) has no analysis.
Reference: Polityka, J. (2004): What's New in Minerals. Springfield Show 2003 Mineralogical Record. 35 (2), 148-150; Weerth, A. & Weiß, S. (2016): Neues aus der Grenzregion Pakistan/Afghanistan. Lapis, 41 (10), 30-39 (in German).
'Herderite-Hydroxylherderite Series'
Reference: TVM minerals
Hessite
Formula: Ag2Te
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Minzhi Yang (2000): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 19(4), 381-383; Chunqi Wen, Zhimin Cao, Baohua Li, and Xiaojun Luo (2002): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 29(5), 526-532; Caixia Feng, Jiajun Liu, and Shen Liu (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 812-815
Heterogenite
Formula: Co3+O(OH)
Reference: Bugao Xue (1996): Mineral Resources and Geology 10(6), 388-394
'Heulandite'
Reference: Zhu Bingquan, Hu Yaoguo, Zhang Zhengwei, Cui Xuejun, Dai Tongmo, Chen Guanghao, Peng Jianhua, Sun Yongge, Liu Dehan, and Chang Xiangyang (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 32, 366-380.
Hexahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 6H2O
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
'Hexatestibiopanickelite'
Formula: (Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)
Reference: American Mineralogist (1979), 64, 464; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18
Hibonite
Formula: CaAl12O19
Reference: Wang, Y. & Hsu, W. (2009). Petrology and Mineralogy of the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Vol. 44, #5, 763-780. (May 2009).
'Högbomite'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10
Reference: Changbi Li (1991): Tibet Geology 2(1), 75-85
Hopeite
Formula: Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Runsheng Han, Congqiang Liu, Zhilong Huang, Jin Chen, Deyun Ma, Li Lei, and Gengsheng Ma (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31(1-4), 360-383.
'Hornblende'
Localities: Reported from at least 35 localities in this region.
Reference: Tongzhu Li, Xiaoliang Feng, Huihua Zhang, Gaolin Tang, Zhengbo Wu, and Xiangbiao Xia (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(5), 921-930
Hübnerite
Formula: MnWO4
Reference: Ikram Mineralogy
Humite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
Reference: Yushuai Yu, Zhusen Yang, Yingchao Liu, Shihong Tian, Can Zhao, Yuan Gao, Xianhua Ji, Weizheng Hu, and Shenghua Cao (2012): Mineral Deposits 31(4), 775-790
'Humite Group'
Reference: Dan Weinrich photo
Huntite
Formula: CaMg3(CO3)4
Reference: M. Qasim Jan, P.S.B. Colback & Masood Ahmad , (1985) Low-temperature Secondary Minerals from Tarbela. Geol. Bull. Univ. Peshawar, 18:189-197
Huttonite
Formula: ThSiO4
Reference: Aaron J. Martin, Jibamitra Ganguly, Peter G. DeCelles. (2009) Metamorphism of Greater and Lesser Himalayan rocks exposed in the Modi Khola valley, central Nepal. Springer-Verlag 2009
Hydrocerussite
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Qiliang Chen (2002): Geology and Prospecting 38(1), 22-26
Hydroglauberite
Formula: Na10Ca3(SO4)8 · 6H2O
Reference: Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Mianping Zheng and Xifang Liu (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 84(11), 1585-1600
'Hydrogoethite'
Formula: 3Fe2O3 · 4H2O
Reference: McDonnell, P., & Benham, A. J. (2006). Minerals in Afghanistan: The Hajigak iron deposit. Afghanistan Geological Survey website.
Hydrohalite
Formula: NaCl · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
'Hydrohausmannite'
Reference: Zhangxiang Peng (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(10), 14-18
Hydromagnesite
Formula: Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Zhaobin Su and Shaoying Jiang (1984): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 5(3), 102-108
'Hydromuscovite'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Qingtian Lu, Zengqian Hou, Jinhua Zhao, Fengxiang Wu, and Lijun Huang (2001): Mineral Deposits 20(4), 313-322
Hydroniumjarosite ?
Formula: (H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: M. Qasim Jan, P.S.B. Colback & Masood Ahmad , (1985) Low-temperature Secondary Minerals from Tarbela. Geol. Bull. Univ. Peshawar, 18:189-197
Hydrotalcite
Formula: Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
Reference: Zhaobin Su and Shaoying Jiang (1984): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 5(3), 102-108
Hydroxycalciopyrochlore (TL)
Formula: (Ca,Na,U,◻)2(Nb,Ti)2O6(OH)
Type Locality:
Reference: Yang, G., Li, G., Xiong, M., Pan, B. and Yan, C. (2011): Hydroxycalciopyrochlore, IMA 2011-026. CNMNC Newsletter no. 10, October 2011, page 2554; Yang, G., Li, G., Xiong, M., Pan, B., Yan C. (2014): Hydroxycalciopyrochlore, a new mineral species from Sichuan, China. Acta Geologica Sinica - English Edition, 88, 748–753.
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Reference: Ge X., Fan G., Li G., Shen G., Chen Z., Ai Y. (2017): Mianningite, (□,Pb,Ce,Na)(U4+,Mn,U6+)Fe3+2(Ti,Fe3+)18O38, a new member of the crichtonite group from Maoniuping REE deposit, Mianning county, northwest Sichuan, China. European Journal of Mineralogy: 29: 331-338.
Hydroxylapatite var. Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 1988 52 : 505-508
Hydroxylclinohumite
Formula: Mg9(SiO4)4(OH)2
Habit: monoblinic prisms
Colour: dark red
Fluorescence: none
Description: This material started life as erroneously labelled 'Chondrodite', then analysed as 'Clinohumite' more careful analysis http://rruff.info/hydroxylclinohumite/display=default/ gives Hydroxylclinohumite
Reference: http://rruff.info/hydroxylclinohumite/display=default/
Hydroxylherderite
Formula: CaBe(PO4)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: various added photos
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Guibing Dan, Dahong Yang, and Shiri Shen (2007): Acta Geologica Sichuan 27(2), 96-98
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Xianfan Liu, Fufeng Zhao, Zhuan Tao, Xiangfeng Song, Yongwen Cai, and Feiyue Cai (2009): Mineral Deposits 28(2), 185-194
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 68 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang Weihua (1996): Geochemistry of Strata-Bound Copper Deposits. In: Tu Guangzhi and Xu Zhonglun, eds.: Geochemistry of Strata-Bound Deposits in China. Science Press, Beijing (1996), pp. 470-507.
Ilvaite
Formula: CaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)
Reference: Guosheng Feng, Liugen Liao, Zhenhua Chen, and Zhilian Xiao (2006): Geological Bulletin of China 25(1/2), 267-272
Inderite
Formula: MgB3O3(OH)5 · 5H2O
Reference: Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Mianping Zheng and Wengao Liu (1982): Geological Review 28(3), 263-266; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275; Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612; Mianping Zheng and Xifang Liu (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 84(11), 1585-1600
'Indicolite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 36, Part 1, 1998, pp. 1-47.
Ingodite
Formula: Bi2TeS
Reference: Jinhua Hao, Jingwu Yin, and Jianping Chen (2010): Journal of the Chinese Electron Microscopy Society 29(6)
Inyoite
Formula: Ca(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Reference: Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Irarsite
Formula: (Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Iridarsenite
Formula: (Ir,Ru)As2
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Iridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Reference: Shi, R.D., Zhi, X.C., O'Reilly, S.Y., Griffin, W.L., Pearson, N.J., Bai, W.J., Fang, Q.S., Alard, O., and Zhang, M. (2006): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2006, A 583.
Iridium var. Osmiridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Reference: Shi, R.D., Zhi, X.C., O'Reilly, S.Y., Griffin, W.L., Pearson, N.J., Bai, W.J., Fang, Q.S., Alard, O., and Zhang, M. (2006): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2006, A 583.
Iridium var. Rutheniridium
Formula: (Ir,Ru)
Reference: Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121
Iridium var. Ruthenosmiridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Iron
Formula: Fe
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Zengqian Hou, Shihong Tian, Yuling Xie, Zhusen Yang, Zhongxin Yuan, Shuping Yin, Longsheng Yi, Hongcai Fei, Tianren Zou, Ge Bai, and Xiaoyu Li (2009): Ore Geology Reviews (in press)
Iron var. Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Xiyue Wang, Huimin Zhang, Sichao Wang, and Yuezhen Wu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 296-306; Xin, H., Eisenhour, D.D., and Buseck, P.R. (1995): Meteoritics 30(1), 106-109
Isocubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Isoferroplatinum
Formula: Pt3Fe
Reference: Xuecui Zhou and Shuihe Mao (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(3), 257-261
Ixiolite ?
Formula: (Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Jacobsite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Jadeite
Formula: Na(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Reference: No reference listed
Jamesonite
Formula: Pb4FeSb6S14
Reference: Yan Sun, Chunqi Wen, Ji Duo, and Yan Huo (2008): Geology and Prospecting 52(5)
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: Qingmin Jin, Huaguang Xie, and Wenguang Wang (1992): Volcanology and Mineral Resources 13(2), 48-58
Jeremejevite
Formula: Al6(BO3)5(F,OH)3
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Jingsuiite (TL)
Formula: TiB2
Type Locality:
Reference: Xiong, F., Xu, X., Mugnaioli, E., Gemmi, M., Wirth, R., Grew, E.S., Robinson, P.T. (2019): Jingsuiite, IMA 2018-117b. CNMNC Newsletter No. 52; Mineralogical Magazine: 83; https://doi.org/10.1180/mgm.2019.73; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=15946
Johachidolite
Formula: CaAlB3O7
Reference: Dr. Marcus Origlieri specimens; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Johnkoivulaite (TL)
Formula: Cs[Be2B]Mg2Si6O18
Type Locality:
Reference: Palke, A.C., Henling, L.M., Ma, C., Rossman, G.R., Sun, Z., Renfro, N., Thu, K., Myo, N., Wongrawang, P. Weeramonkhonlert, V. (2019) Johnkoivulaite, IMA 2019-046. CNMNC Newsletter No. 51; European Journal of Mineralogy, 31(4). https://doi.org/10.1127/ejm/2019/0031-2894
Jordanite
Formula: Pb14(As,Sb)6S23
Reference: Xiaohu Wang, Yucai Song, Zengqian Hou, Hongrui Zhang, Zhe Wang, Tianming Zhuang, Chong Zhang, and Tianfu Zhang (2011): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 30(3), 507-518
Jordisite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Li Chaoyang (1996), In: Tu Guangzhi (ed.): "Geochemistry of Strata-Bound Deposits in China", Science Press (Beijing), 508-527.
'Joséite'
Formula: Bi4TeS2
Reference: Yuchuan Chen, Jianzhao Yin, Jianxiong Zhou, Jingwen Mao, Baichuan Yang, and Yaonan Luo (1994): Scientia Geologica Sinica 29(2), 165-167; Jingwen Mao, Yuchuan Chen, Yunfen Lei, Jianxiong Zhou, and Baichuan Yang (1995): Scientia Geologica Sinica 30(1), 47-52; Chunqi Wen, Zhimin Cao, Baohua Li, and Xiaojun Luo (2002): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 29(5), 526-532; Caixia Feng, Jiajun Liu, and Shen Liu (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 812-815
Joséite-A
Formula: Bi4TeS2
Reference: Xinzhi Zhan, Guoxian Jiang, and Yongyi Yang (1995): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 15(4), 422-424
Kainite
Formula: KMg(SO4)Cl · 3H2O
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Kainosite-(Y)
Formula: Ca2(Y,Ce)2(Si4O12)(CO3) · H2O
Reference: Denghong Wang, Yuchuan Chen, Jue Xu, Jianmin Yang, Chunji Xue, and Shenghao Yan (2000): Acta Geologica Sinica 74(3), 478-484.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 111 localities in this region.
Reference: Fuyou Wei (1989): Gold Science and Technology 1989(3), 48-53
Kashinite
Formula: (Ir,Rh)2S3
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mienralogica 26(5), 418-428
Katophorite
Formula: {Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
Description: In quartz-rich samples.
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1991, 3, pp. 613-618.
'K-cymrite'
Formula: KAlSi3O8 · H2O
Description: Raman spectra analysis showed this to be Kokchetavite
Reference: Zhang, R.Y., Liou, Y.G., Iizuka, Y., Yang, J.S. (2009): First record of K-cymrite in North Qaidam UHP eclogite, Western China. American Mineralogist: 94 (2-3): 222-228; DOI: 10.2138/am.2009.2983; Masami Kanzaki, Xianyu Xue, Julien Amalberti, Qian Zhang (2011) Raman spectroscopic characterization of K-cymrite (KAlSi3O8*H2O) and its anhydrous phase (kokchetavite). Abstracts for Annual Meeting of Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences 2011 Session ID: T5-04
Kellyite
Formula: Mn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4
Reference: Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Kermesite
Formula: Sb2S2O
Reference: Su Sun (1993): Gold Science and Technology 1(2), 4-10
Kernite
Formula: Na2[B4O6(OH)2] · 3H2O
Reference: Rathore, I.S. (2015) Exploration Potential and Economic Significance of Puga Valley Borax Deposit, Ladakh, India. International Journal for Scientific Research & Development 3:1, 191-195.
Kësterite
Formula: Cu2ZnSnS4
Habit: pseudo tetrahedral xls to over a cm, coated in mushistonite
Colour: Yellowish mushistonite, black on fresh break
Description: About a dozen or so of these specimens hit the market in two lots in 2001 and 2002. They were called a new mineral and labeled "pandaite" which had been used before and discredited. Then they chemically analysed as Kesterite.
Reference: Hedland, A. (2004): Das Scheelit-Beryll-Kassiterit-Fluorit-Vorkommen von Huya-Zibeisha bei Pingwu, Provinz Sichuan, China. Mineralien Welt 15 (6), 46-57.
'K Feldspar'
Localities: Reported from at least 93 localities in this region.
Reference: Jianzhong Li, Mingjie Wang, Faqing Wang, Peng Yao, Jing Liang, Gaolin Tang, Xiangping Zhu, Guotao Ma, Guangfu Zou, Zhanwu Shen, Minhua Chen, and Guihong Li (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(5), 853-868
'K Feldspar var. Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Tianwei Guo and Zhongwen Han (1990): Northeastern Geological Science and Technology Information 11(2), 1-11; Yuan Dang, Maohong Chen, Jingwen Mao, Zhiqiang Xue, Yibang Li, Tiangui Xin, Kang Wang, Yang Gao, and Xuelong Wu (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(6), 1077-1092
Kieserite
Formula: MgSO4 · H2O
Reference: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2013/pdf/1336.pdf
Koenenite
Formula: Na4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22
Reference: Dongsheng Hu (1995): Journal of Lake Sciences 7(4), 327-333
Kokchetavite
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Masami Kanzaki, Xianyu Xue, Julien Amalberti, Qian Zhang (2011) Raman spectroscopic characterization of K-cymrite (KAlSi3O8*H2O) and its anhydrous phase (kokchetavite). Abstracts for Annual Meeting of Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences 2011 Session ID: T5-04
Kornerupine
Formula: Mg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Reference: No reference listed
Kotulskite
Formula: Pd(Te,Bi)2-x (x ≈ 0.4)
Description: Contains significant amounts of bismuth and nickel.
Reference: American Mineralogist (1979), 64, 464; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52
Krennerite
Formula: Au3AgTe8
Reference: Zhimin Cao (1991): Journal of Chengdu College of Technology 18(4), 26-36
Kullerudite
Formula: NiSe2
Reference: Liu Jia-jun, Liu Xian-fan, Ling Hong-fei, Liu Jian-ming, and Lu Wen-quan (2000): Geological Journal of China Universities 6(2), 210-214.
Kurgantaite
Formula: CaSr[B5O9]Cl · H2O
Reference: Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy
Kurnakovite
Formula: MgB3O3(OH)5 · 5H2O
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Kutnohorite
Formula: CaMn2+(CO3)2
Reference: Shengming Lu (1988): Geology and Prospecting 24(5), 7, 30-32
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Reference: Tongzhu Li, Xiaoliang Feng, Huihua Zhang, Gaolin Tang, Zhengbo Wu, and Xiangbiao Xia (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(5), 921-930
Kyawthuite (TL)
Formula: Bi3+Sb5+O4
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Rosman, G.R., Ma, C. (2016): Kyawthuite, Bi3+Sb5+O4, a new gem mineral from Mogok, Burma (Myanmar). Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 477-484
Langbeinite
Formula: K2Mg2(SO4)3
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Reference: Dongan Wang (1986): Acta Sedimentologica Sinica 4(1)
Laurite
Formula: RuS2
Reference: Xuecui Zhou and Shuihe Mao (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(3), 257-261
Lautite
Formula: CuAsS
Reference: Zhenghua Hu, Feng Ding, Juxing Tang, Zhijun Li, Xiaofeng Yao, Shilin Deng, Zhi Zhang, Yiyun Wang, Hongxing Wang, Junlong Song, and Wei Chen (2012): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 33(4), 588-600
Lazulite
Formula: MgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Lazurite (TL)
Formula: Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2,S3,Cl,OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Habit: Rhombic dodecahedrons modified with cube and octahedral forms
Colour: Ultramarine to midnight blue
Fluorescence: none,
Description: Since all 'lazurites' are sulfide rich hauynes, we restrict the name Lazurite to the blue mineral in Lapis Lazuli, which is opaque, non fluorescent, ultramarine to midnight blue with a bright blue streak
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:253; Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52 Moore, T.P.,Woodside, R.M.W. (2014): The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines, Kuran Wa Munjan district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Record 45 (3), 280-336
Lead
Formula: Pb
Reference: Guanghong Wang, Xianrong Luo, Qian Gao, Ming Liang, and Xiaoyu Dou (2009): Geology and Exploration 45(4), 450-455
Leonite
Formula: K2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Mily Wang, Yijie Wang, Chenglin Liu, and Yongzhi Chen (1993): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 15(1)
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Guosheng Feng, Zhenhua Chen, Liugen Liao, and Yebin Xiao (2007): Geological Bulletin of China 26(8), 1041-1047
'Lepidolite'
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28; Jiankang Li, Denghong Wang, Dehui Zhang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 131-134; Li, P.; Li, J.; Chou, I.-M.; Wang, D.; Xiong, X. (2019) Mineralization Epochs of Granitic Rare-Metal Pegmatite Deposits in the Songpan–Ganzê Orogenic Belt and Their Implications for Orogeny. Minerals 9, 280.
Leucite
Formula: K(AlSi2O6)
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Gao, Y., Hou, Z., Kamber, B. S., Wei, R., Meng, X., & Zhao, R. (2007). Lamproitic rocks from a continental collision zone: evidence for recycling of subducted Tethyan oceanic sediments in the mantle beneath southern Tibet. Journal of Petrology, 48(4), 729-752. Gao, Y., Wei, R., Ma, P., Hou, Z., & Yang, Z. (2009). Post-collisional ultrapotassic volcanism in the Tangra Yumco-Xuruco graben, south Tibet: constraints from geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Pb isotope. Lithos, 110(1-4), 129-139. Ding, L., Kapp, P., Zhong, D., & Deng, W. (2003). Cenozoic volcanism in Tibet: evidence for a transition from oceanic to continental subduction. Journal of Petrology, 44(10), 1833-1865.
'Leucoxene'
Reference: Qingmin Jin, Huaguang Xie, and Wenguang Wang (1992): Volcanology and Mineral Resources 13(2), 48-58
Lillianite
Formula: Pb3-2xAgxBi2+xS6
Reference: Jinhua Hao, Jingwu Yin, and Jianping Chen (2010): Journal of the Chinese Electron Microscopy Society 29(6)
'Lillianite Homologous Series'
Formula: Pb$n-1-2xBi2+xAgxS$n+2
Reference: Zhou, H., Sun, X., Fu, Y., Lin, H., Jiang, L. (2016): Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of Bi-minerals: Constraints on ore genesis of the Beiya giant porphyry-skarn gold deposit, southwestern China. Ore Geology Reviews (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12853 (2016)
Lime
Formula: CaO
Reference: http://www.ngu.no/FileArchive/165/2003_055.pdf Geological Survey of Norway / The Alice Wain Memorial West Norway Eclogite Field Symposium / Abstract Volume p. 8.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Localities: Reported from at least 240 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Dill, H. G., Weber, B., & Botz, R. (2013). Metalliferous duricrusts. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 190(2), 123-195.
Linnaeite
Formula: Co2+Co3+2S4
Reference: Jianbin Zheng, Zhimin Cao, Xieyan Song, Wei An, and Ji Liu (2004): Geology and Prospecting 40(5), 16-20
Linzhiite (TL)
Formula: FeSi2
Type Locality:
Reference: CNMNC Newsletter, June 2010,p.579. Min. Mag, 74,579; Li Guowu, Bai Wenji, Shi Nicheng, Fang Qinsong, Xiong Ming, Yang Jingsui, Ma Zhesheng, Rong He (2012): Linzhiite, FeSi2, a redefined and revalidated mineral species from Luobusha, Tibet, China. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24, 1047-1052.
Litharge
Formula: PbO
Reference: http://www.ngu.no/FileArchive/165/2003_055.pdf Geological Survey of Norway / The Alice Wain Memorial West Norway Eclogite Field Symposium / Abstract Volume p. 8.
'Lithian Muscovite'
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28
'Lithiomagnesite'
Formula: Li2Mg(CO3)2
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Livingstonite
Formula: HgSb4S6(S2)
Reference: Zhengjiang Ding, Fengyue Sun, Bile Li, Shijin Li, Junwei Zhao, Hui Zhao, and Li Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(2), 198-206
Lizardite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Bojun Huang and Yushun Min (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(3), 202-210
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Löweite
Formula: Na12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2O
Reference: Mily Wang, Yijie Wang, Chenglin Liu, and Yongzhi Chen (1993): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 15(1)
Ludwigite
Formula: Mg2Fe3+(BO3)O2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Description: Inclusions in peridot
Reference: Jan, M. Q., & Khan, M. A. (1996). Petrology of gem peridot from Sapat mafic-ultramafic complex, Kohistan, NW Himalaya. Geological Bulletin, University of Peshawar, 29, 17-26.; Moore, T. (2004): What's New in Minerals. Costa Mesa Show 2003. Mineralogical Record. 35 (2), 143-145
Luobusaite (TL)
Formula: Fe0.84Si2
Reference: Wenji Bai, Nicheng Shi, Qingsong Fang, Guowu Li, Ming Xiong, Jingsui Yang, and He Rong (2006): Acta Geologica Sinica 80(5), 656-659; MinAbs MA 07M/0529 (abstract).
Luzonite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Zheng, S. J., Zhong, H., Bai, Z. J., Zhang, Z. K., & Wu, C. Q. (2020). High-sulfidation veins in the Jiama porphyry system, South Tibet. Mineralium Deposita, 1-10.
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Arif, M. (2003): Sulphides and sulpharsenides in the emerald-hosting rocks from the Indus suture zone in Swat, NW Pakistan. Swiss Bulletin of Mineralogy and Petrology, 83, 261-271.
Maghemite
Formula: (Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4
Reference: Zhenghua Hu, Feng Ding, Juxing Tang, Zhijun Li, Xiaofeng Yao, Shilin Deng, Zhi Zhang, Yiyun Wang, Hongxing Wang, Junlong Song, and Wei Chen (2012): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 33(4), 588-600
Magnesio-arfvedsonite
Formula: {Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Le Bas, M. J., Mian, I., & Rex, D. C. (1987). Age and nature of carbonatite emplacement in North Pakistan. Geologische Rundschau, 76(2), 317-323. Butt, K. A., Arif, A. Z., Ahmed, J. A. M. I. L., Ahmed, A. B. I. D., & Qadir, A. H. M. E. D. (1989). Chemistry and petrography of the Sillai Patti carbonatite complex, North Pakistan. Geol. Bull. Univ. Peshawar, 22, 197-215.
Magnesiochromite
Formula: MgCr2O4
Reference: Guo, G., Yang, J., Robinson, P.T., Liu, X., Xu, X., Xiong, F. (2016): Platinum-group Mineral (PGM) and Base-metal Sulphide (BMS) Inclusions in Chromitites of the Zedang Ophiolite, Southern Tibet, China and their Petrogenetic Significance. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition): 90: 900–912; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12863 (2016)
Magnesioferrite
Formula: MgFe3+2O4
Reference: Merkel, S., Bräutigam, B., Klein, S., & Hauptmann, A. (2013). The Analysis of Slag from the Panjhır Mining Region, Afghanistan: An Investigation of (Medieval) Silver Production Technology. Archäologische Mitteilungen, 45, 231-250.
Magnesio-foitite
Formula: (◻,Na)(Mg2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: confirmed by microprobe analysis at IGEM RAN, Russia
Reference: Pavel Kartashov data
Magnesio-hornblende
Formula: ◻Ca2(Mg4Al)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1991, 3, pp. 613-618.
Magnesio-riebeckite
Formula: ◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe3+2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Denghong Wang, Yuchuan Chen, Jue Xu, Jianmin Yang, Chunji Xue, and Shenghao Yan (2000): Acta Geologica Sinica 74(3), 478-484.
Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2S
Formula: Mg3Al8BeO16
Reference: Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, Sieghard Ellenberger specimens
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Reference: Zejiang Wang and Anru Wang (1985): Geology and Prospecting 21(10), 8-15
Magnesite var. Iron-bearing Magnesite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)CO3
Reference: USGS Minerals Yearbook 1995 - Nepal.
Magnesite var. Lithian Magnesite
Formula: (Mg,Li)CO3
Reference: Yuanyi Zhao, Mianping Zheng, Xingong Cai, Pingjia Zhao, Wen Zhao, Yunwu Wang, and Xu Ma (2004): Geological Bulletin of China 23(7), 680-685
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 245 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28
Magnetite var. Mushketovite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Yushuai Yu, Zhusen Yang, Yuan Gao, Yingchao Liu, Shihong Tian, and Xianhua Ji (2013): Geology and Exploration 49(5), 897-906
Magnetite var. Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Wen Qi, Mantang Hou, Jie Gao, Ping Jin, and Fenliang Cai (2005): Northwestern Geology 38(4), 32-44
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 215 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Maldonite
Formula: Au2Bi
Reference: Zhou, H., Sun, X., Fu, Y., Lin, H., Jiang, L. (2016): Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of Bi-minerals: Constraints on ore genesis of the Beiya giant porphyry-skarn gold deposit, southwestern China. Ore Geology Reviews (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12853 (2016)
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: Zengqian Hou, Shihong Tian, Yuling Xie, Zhusen Yang, Zhongxin Yuan, Shuping Yin, Longsheng Yi, Hongcai Fei, Tianren Zou, Ge Bai, and Xiaoyu Li (2009): Ore Geology Reviews (in press)
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: Guosheng Feng, Liugen Liao, Zhenhua Chen, and Zhilian Xiao (2006): Geological Bulletin of China 25(1/2), 267-272
Manganosite
Formula: MnO
Reference: Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Mannardite
Formula: Ba(Ti4+6V3+2)O16
Reference: Fengyi Chen, Shiying Li, Zhikai Tang, Jixue Li, Yaozong Zhou, and Shuihe Mao (1984): Acta Petrologica, Mineralogica et Analytica 3(4), 337-339; Scott, J.D., and Peatfield, G.R. (1986): Canadian Mineralogist 24, 55-66; Qingmin Jin, Huaguang Xie, and Wenguang Wang (1992): Volcanology and Mineral Resources 13(2), 48-58
Mansfieldite
Formula: AlAsO4 · 2H2O
Reference: http://www.cicresources.com/PDF_REPORTS/Pingding_F1ReportFinal.pdf
Maoniupingite-(Ce) (TL)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,◻)(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Nb)4(Si2O7)2O8
Reference: Yang, Z., Fleck, M., Smith, M., Tao, K., Song, R., Zhang, P. (2002) The crystal structure of natural Fe-rich chevkinite-(Ce). European Journal of Mineralogy, 14, 969-975.; Shen, G.-F., Yang, G., Xu, J. (2005) Maoniupingite-(Ce): a new rare-earth mineral from the Maoniuping rare-earth deposit in Mianning, Sichuan. Chenji yu Tetisi Dizhi (Sedimentary and Tethyan Geology), 25(1-2): 210-216.; Wilson, W.E. and Origlieri, M.J. (2007) Red wulfenite from the Kuruktag Mountains, Xinjiang Uygur, China. The Mineralogical Record 38, 67-71.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 51 localities in this region.
Reference: Peters, S.G. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-131.
Marcasite var. Lonchidite
Formula: Fe(S,As)2
Reference: Yu Xuehui, Mo Xuanzhi, Yuan Wanmen, Zeng Tao, and Gan Weidong (1999): Journal of China University of Geosciences 10(1).
Margarite
Formula: CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Reference: Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.
Marialite
Formula: Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Localities:
Habit: Simple tetragonal prism with pyramid and pinacoid
Colour: Colourless transparent
Fluorescence: pale yellow
Description: A 7 cm crystal frozen in calcite was found on "the back side of the mountain containing Ladjuar Medan." (Dudley Blauwet private communication)
Reference: (Dudley Blauwet private communication)
Maslovite
Formula: PtBiTe
Reference: Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52
Massicot
Formula: PbO
Reference: Zengqian Hou, Shihong Tian, Yuling Xie, Zhusen Yang, Zhongxin Yuan, Shuping Yin, Longsheng Yi, Hongcai Fei, Tianren Zou, Ge Bai, and Xiaoyu Li (2009): Ore Geology Reviews (in press)
Matildite
Formula: AgBiS2
Reference: Yan Liu, Yuanyi Zhao, Ruijiang Wang, Yubin Cui, Liang Song, and Changqing Yang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(6), 1054-1078
Meifuite (TL)
Formula: KFe6(Si7Al)O19(OH)4Cl2
Type Locality:
Reference: Jin, S., Li, X., Xu, H. (2020): Meifuite, IMA 2019-101; in: CNMNC Newsletter 54. Eur. J. Mineral.: 32, https://doi.org/10.5194/ejm-32-275-2020; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=16176
Meionite
Formula: Ca4Al6Si6O24CO3
Reference: Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: Jing Xue, Tagen Dai, and Chaozhuang Xi (2012): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 31(1), 28-38
'Melilite Group'
Formula: Ca2M(XSiO7)
Reference: Xiaoming Qu, Zengqian Hou, and Shugui Zhou (2001): Acta Geoscientia Sinica 23(1), 29-34; Zengqian Hou, Khin Zaw, Guitang Pan, Xuanxue Mo, Qiang Xu, Yunzhong Hu, and Xingzhen Li (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31, 48-87
'Melnikovite'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Suiliang Dong, Hanxiao Huang, Bo Liu, Li Zhang, and Hui Zhang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(2), 207-213; Yunfei Liu, Zhiming Yang, Yuling Xie, Ping Zhou, Denghu Du, Yingxu Li, Qiuyun Li, Huanchun Qu, and Bo Xu (2012): Mineral Deposits 31(4), 727-744
Melonite
Formula: NiTe2
Reference: Song, X. Y., Zhou, M. F., & Cao, Z. M. (2004): The Canadian Mineralogist 42(2), 469-483
Melonite var. Palladoan Melonite
Formula: (Ni,Pd)Te2
Reference: Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52
Mercury
Formula: Hg
Reference: Zhengjiang Ding, Fengyue Sun, Bile Li, Shijin Li, Junwei Zhao, Hui Zhao, and Li Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(2), 198-206
Merenskyite
Formula: PdTe2
Reference: Yao, Y., and Viljoen, M.J. (2003): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2003, A560
Merrillite
Formula: Ca9NaMg(PO4)7
Reference: Merrill, G.P. (1915). On the Monticellite-like Mineral in Meteorites, and on Oldhamite as a meteoritic Constituent. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 1: 302-308.
Metacinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Zengqian Hou, Khin Zaw, Guitang Pan, Xuanxue Mo, Qiang Xu, Yunzhong Hu, and Xingzhen Li (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31, 48-87.
Mianningite (TL)
Formula: (◻,Pb,Ce,Na)(U4+,Mn,U6+)Fe3+2 (Ti,Fe3+)18O38
Type Locality:
Reference: Ge, X., Fan, G., Li, G., Shen, G., Chen, Z., Ai, Y. (2017) Mianningite, (□,Pb,Ce,Na)(U4+,Mn,U6+)Fe3+2(Ti,Fe3+)18O38, a new member of the crichtonite group from Maoniuping REE deposit, Mianning county, northwest Sichuan, China. European Journal of Mineralogy: 29: 331-338.; Ge, X., Fan, G., Li, G., Shen, G., Chen, Z. and Ai, Y. (2015) Mianningite, IMA 2014-072. CNMNC Newsletter No. 23, February 2015, page 54. Mineralogical Magazine: 79: 51-58.
Miargyrite
Formula: AgSbS2
Reference: Dianhao Huang and Shihua Hu (2000): Mineral Deposits 19(4), 363-375; Guangfu Zou, Shihua Hu, Dequan Shuai, Caijin Chen, Hongchang Jiang, and Quan Liu (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 804-807; Quan Liu (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(2), 121-128; Hanlong Ying, Denghong Wang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(2), 135-146; Guangfu Zou, Rongcai Zheng, Shihua Hu, Caijing Chen, Hongchang Jiang, and Hongbang Wu (2008): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology, Science & Technology Edition 35(1), 93-102; Li Dai, Dehui Zhang, Yongquan Li, Guilong Wan, Benjun Hou, Xun Liao, Jinliang Zhang, Guopeng Wang, and Chengjie Li (2013): Geology and Exploration 49(2), 236-249
'Mica Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Li, P.; Li, J.; Chou, I.-M.; Wang, D.; Xiong, X. (2019) Mineralization Epochs of Granitic Rare-Metal Pegmatite Deposits in the Songpan–Ganzê Orogenic Belt and Their Implications for Orogeny. Minerals 9, 280.
Michenerite
Formula: PdBiTe
Reference: American Mineralogist (1979), 64, 464; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52; Song, X. Y., Zhou, M. F., & Cao, Z. M. (2004): The Canadian Mineralogist 42(2), 469-483
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 103 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28; Jiankang Li, Denghong Wang, Dehui Zhang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 131-134; Li, P.; Li, J.; Chou, I.-M.; Wang, D.; Xiong, X. (2019) Mineralization Epochs of Granitic Rare-Metal Pegmatite Deposits in the Songpan–Ganzê Orogenic Belt and Their Implications for Orogeny. Minerals 9, 280.
Microcline var. Amazonite
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Krishna P. Kaphle, Himalayan gemstones and their prospects in Nepal, 2011, http://kpkaphle.blogspot.com.es/2011/11/himalayan-gemstones-and-their-prospects.html
Microcline var. Hyalophane
Formula: (K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Weiguang Zhu, Chaoyang Li, and Hailin Deng (2001): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 21(2), 219-224
'Microlite Group'
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
'Microperthite'
Reference: Siddiqui, S. F. A. (1967). Note on the discovery of carbonatite rocks in the Chamla area, Swat State, West Pakistan. Geol. Bull. Panjab Univ., 6, 85-88. Deans, T., & Powell, J. L. (1968). Trace elements and strontium isotopes in carbonatites, fluorites and limestones from India and Pakistan. Nature, 218(5143), 750-752.
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Hunan Metallurgical Geology Research Team 236 (1977): Geology and Prospecting 13(8), 20-25, 28
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Xiao'ou Zhao (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(6), 1-8
Minium
Formula: Pb3O4
Reference: Bin Lin, Juxing Tang, Wenbao Zheng, Qiufeng Leng, Yiyun Wang, MinYuan Liu, Huanhuan Yang, Shuai Ding, Lihua Zhang, and Hongzhang Yang (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(5), 899-914
Mirabilite
Formula: Na2SO4 · 10H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Reference: Junfeng Yang, Xiaofeng Cui, Shuwei Lu, and Qiusheng Li (2005): Xinjiang Geology 23(1), 59-63
Moissanite
Formula: SiC
Reference: Xiangzhen, X., Jingsui, Y., Songyong, C., Qingsong, F., Wenji, B., & Dengzhu, B. (2009). Unusual mantle mineral group from chromitite ore body Cr-11 in Luobusa ophiolite of Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, Tibet. Journal of Earth Science, 20(2), 284-302.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Localities: Reported from at least 91 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Molybdite
Formula: MoO3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
'Monazite'
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Ge X., Fan G., Li G., Shen G., Chen Z., Ai Y. (2017): Mianningite, (□,Pb,Ce,Na)(U4+,Mn,U6+)Fe3+2(Ti,Fe3+)18O38, a new member of the crichtonite group from Maoniuping REE deposit, Mianning county, northwest Sichuan, China. European Journal of Mineralogy: 29: 331-338.
Moncheite
Formula: (Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Reference: Yao, Y., and Viljoen, M.J. (2003): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2003, A560
Monetite
Formula: Ca(PO3OH)
Reference: Xiyue Wang, Huimin Zhang, Sichao Wang, and Yuezhen Wu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 296-306
Monohydrocalcite
Formula: CaCO3 · H2O
Reference: Minghui Li, Shichang Kang, Liping Zhu, Qinglong You, Qianggong Zhang, and Junbo Wang (2008): Quaternary International 187, 105-116.
Montebrasite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Weerth, A. & Weiß, S. (2016): Neues aus der Grenzregion Pakistan/Afghanistan. Lapis, 41 (10), 30-39 (in German).
Monticellite
Formula: CaMgSiO4
Reference: Merkel, S., Bräutigam, B., Klein, S., & Hauptmann, A. (2013). The Analysis of Slag from the Panjhır Mining Region, Afghanistan: An Investigation of (Medieval) Silver Production Technology. Archäologische Mitteilungen, 45, 231-250.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Reference: Xiaoming Qu, Qiling Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Yuanping Xu, and Jinzhong Li (2001): Mineral Deposits 20(3), 199-207
Montroydite
Formula: HgO
Reference: Xiaoming Qu, Qiling Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Yuanping Xu, and Jinzhong Li (2001): Mineral Deposits 20(3), 199-207
'Moonstone'
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 453 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28; Li, J., Chou, I., Yuan, S., & Burruss, R. C. (2009, December). Homogenization Temperature Measurements in Hydrothermal Diamond-Anvil Cell for Melt and Fluid Inclusions from the Jiajika Pegmatite Deposit, China. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 1, p. 2234).; Jiankang Li, Denghong Wang, Dehui Zhang, and Xiaofang Fu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 131-134; Li, P.; Li, J.; Chou, I.-M.; Wang, D.; Xiong, X. (2019) Mineralization Epochs of Granitic Rare-Metal Pegmatite Deposits in the Songpan–Ganzê Orogenic Belt and Their Implications for Orogeny. Minerals 9, 280.
Muscovite var. Fuchsite
Formula: K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Ni Yan, Jing Zhang, Wanming Yuan, Qingjie Gong, Qingfei Wang, and Jianhong Luo (2013): Acta Petrologica Sinica 29(4), 1347-1357; Guangfu Zou and Ying Mao (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 395-398
Muscovite var. Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 59 localities in this region.
Reference: Xin Fan, Lei Chen, Kezhang Qin, Bo Xiao, Jinxiang Li, Qiuping Li, Yushui Chen, Jinbiao Chen, Junxin Zhao, Guangming Li, Shufeng Huang, and Yitai Ju (2011): Geology and Prospecting 47(1), 89-99
Muscovite var. Phengite
Formula: KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Zhu, X.; Raschke, M.B.; Liu, Y. (2020) Tourmaline as a Recorder of Ore-Forming Processes in the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be Deposit, Sichuan Province, China: Evidence from the Chemical Composition of Tourmaline. Minerals 10, 438.
Muscovite var. Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 280 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(4), 22-28
Mushistonite
Formula: (Cu,Zn,Fe2+)[Sn(OH)6]
Reference: Hedland, A. (2004): Das Scheelit-Beryll-Kassiterit-Fluorit-Vorkommen von Huya-Zibeisha bei Pingwu, Provinz Sichuan, China. Mineralien Welt 15 (6), 46-57
Nahcolite
Formula: NaHCO3
Reference: Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Naldrettite
Formula: Pd2Sb
Reference: Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52
Nanpingite
Formula: CsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Naquite (TL)
Formula: FeSi
Type Locality:
Reference: CNMNC Newsletter, June 2010,p.579. Min. Mag, 74,579; Shi, N., Li, G., Bai, W., Xiong, M., Yang, J., Fang, Q., Ma, Z., Rong, H. (2012): Naquite, FeSi, a New Mineral Species from Luobusha, Tibet, Western China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 86, 533-538.
Natroalunite
Formula: NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: M. Qasim Jan, P.S.B. Colback & Masood Ahmad , (1985) Low-temperature Secondary Minerals from Tarbela. Geol. Bull. Univ. Peshawar, 18:189-197
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Weerth, A. & Weiß, S. (2016): Neues aus der Grenzregion Pakistan/Afghanistan. Lapis, 41 (10), 30-39 (in German).
Natron
Formula: Na2CO3 · 10H2O
Reference: Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
Neotocite
Formula: (Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Habit: Hexagonal barrels with truncated pyramids and pinacoid.
Colour: Grey
Fluorescence: none
Description: The cm sized hexagonal barrels of grey nepheline are coated with 100 microns of clear sodalite containing electric blue 0.1 micron specs of Nosean giving the big nephelines an electric blue colour.
Reference: RRUFF collection
'Nephrite var. Hetian Jade'
Reference: Yanling Tang, Dequan Liu, and Ruizhong Zhou (2002): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 21(s1), 13-21
'Nephrite var. Kunlun Jade'
Reference: Ran Li, Zongting Liao, Yujia Li, and Zhengyu Zhou (2004): Journal of Gems & Gemmology 6(1), 17-19
Nesquehonite
Formula: MgCO3 · 3H2O
Reference: Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Nickel
Formula: Ni
Reference: Guangfu Zou and Ying Mao (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(suppl.), 395-398
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Reference: Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52
Norbergite
Formula: Mg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: Bernard and Hyršl, 2004. Minerals and Their Localities
Northupite
Formula: Na3Mg(CO3)2Cl
Reference: Mianping Zheng and Wengao Liu (1987): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 7(3), 221-226; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Mianping Zheng, Heran Yuan, Junying Liu, Yanhe Li, Zhibang Ma, and Qing Sun (2007): Acta Geologica Sinica 81(12), 1608-1617
Nosean
Formula: Na8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Habit: Exsolution specs.
Colour: electric blue
Fluorescence: none
Description: The x-rays suggest Nosean, Lazurite or Hauyne, but EDS shows the blue specs to be nosean (contains no Ca like Lazurite or Hauyne) These 0.1 micron specs are at the current limit of single xl XRD. The nosean is exsolved from a 100 micron layer of clear sodalite. This exsolution has been observed in synthetic materials (Van Peteghen et al 1963). This clear sodalite coats and is not in epitaxi with cm sized greasy grey nepheline xls.
Reference: Van Peteghem, J.K. and Burley, B.J. (1963) Studies On Solid Solution Between Sodalite, Nosean and Hauyne. The Canadian Mineralogist, 7, 808-813
Nsutite
Formula: (Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
Reference: Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Olenite
Formula: Na(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)
Reference: Andreas Ertl, John M. Hughes, Stefan Prowatke, Thomas Ludwig, Franz Brandstätter, Wilfried Körner, and M. Darby Dyar (2007): Tetrahedrally coordinated boron in Li-bearing olenite from “mushroom” tourmaline from Momeik, Myanmar. Can. Mineral. 45, 891-899.
Omeiite (TL)
Formula: (Os,Ru)As2
Type Locality:
Reference: Ren Yingxin, Hu Qinde, and Xu Jingao (1978): Acta Geologica Sinica 52(2), 163-167; Dunn, P.J., Chao, G.Y., Grice, J.D, Ferraiolo, J.A., Fleischer, M., Pabst, A., and Zilczer, J.A. (1985): American Mineralogist 69, 565-569; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18; Song, X. Y., Zhou, M. F., & Cao, Z. M. (2004): The Canadian Mineralogist 42(2), 469-483
Omphacite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(AleFe3+fFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1991, 3, pp. 613-618.
'Onofrite'
Formula: Hg(S,Se)
Reference: Su Sun (1993): Gold Science and Technology 1(2), 4-10
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Shenghao Yan, Jinjie Yu, Yixin Zhao, Zhizhong Xu, Anjian Wang, and Dengkui Su (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(2), 149-157; Jianjun Bu and Qifa Duan (2006): Geological Bulletin of China 25(1/2), 273-276
Opal var. Hyalite
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Ikram Mineralogy
Opal var. Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Jose Zendrera specimen
Orpiment
Formula: As2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
Reference: Xiaoming Qu, Qiling Zhang, Zengqian Hou, Yuanping Xu, and Jinzhong Li (2001): Mineral Deposits 20(3), 199-207
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Habit: Excellent sharp scapolite xls altered to a cherty looking orthoclase
Colour: off white with iron staining
Description: Orthoclase (PXRD confirmed) pseudomorphs after excellent scapolite xls. The blue in these xls is either sodalite or lazurite
Reference: RWMW Collection
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Li, L.; Sun, F.; Liu, H.; Tan, S.; Yu, L.; Wang, F.; Shen, D.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y (2020) Mineral Chemistry, S-Pb-O Isotopes, and S/Se Ratios of the Niubiziliang Ni-(Cu) Sulfide Deposit in North Qaidam Orogenic Belt, NW China: Constraints on the Parental Magma Composition, Evolution, and Sulfur Saturation Mechanism. Minerals 10, 837.
Osarsite
Formula: (Os,Ru)AsS
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Osbornite
Formula: TiN
Reference: Dobrzhinetskaya, L.F., Wirth, R., Yang, J., Green, H.W., Hutcheon, I.D., Weber, P.K. and Grew, E.S. (2014): Qingsongite, natural cubic boron nitride: The first boron mineral from the Earth’s mantle. American Mineralogist. 99, 764-772
Osmium
Formula: (Os,Ir,Ru)
Reference: Shi, R.D., Zhi, X.C., O'Reilly, S.Y., Griffin, W.L., Pearson, N.J., Bai, W.J., Fang, Q.S., Alard, O., and Zhang, M. (2006): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2006, A 583.
Osmium var. Iridosmine
Formula: (Os,Ir)
Reference: Shi, R.D., Zhi, X.C., O'Reilly, S.Y., Griffin, W.L., Pearson, N.J., Bai, W.J., Fang, Q.S., Alard, O., and Zhang, M. (2006): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2006, A 583.
Owyheeite
Formula: Ag3+xPb10-2xSb11+xS28, -0.13 < x > +0.20
Reference: Can. J. Earth Sci. 44: 479–492 (2007)
Oxy-dravite
Formula: Na(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Reference: Zhu, X.; Raschke, M.B.; Liu, Y. (2020) Tourmaline as a Recorder of Ore-Forming Processes in the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be Deposit, Sichuan Province, China: Evidence from the Chemical Composition of Tourmaline. Minerals 10, 438.
Oxy-schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Reference: Zhu, X.; Raschke, M.B.; Liu, Y. (2020) Tourmaline as a Recorder of Ore-Forming Processes in the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be Deposit, Sichuan Province, China: Evidence from the Chemical Composition of Tourmaline. Minerals 10, 438.
Painite (TL)
Formula: CaZrAl9(BO3)O15
Type Locality:
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1957) 31, 420-425; Amer.Min.(1976) 61, 88-94
Palladium
Formula: (Pd,Pt)
Reference: Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggang Yan, Zhongming Zhang, Yufeng Ren, Nicheng Shi, Zhesheng Ma, and Mingquan Dai (2004): Earth Science Frontiers 11(1), 179-187
Palygorskite ?
Formula: (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH) · 4H2O
Reference: Chang Xu (1985): Scientia Geologica Sinica 1(1), 87-96
Paragonite
Formula: NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Aaron J. Martin, Jibamitra Ganguly, Peter G. DeCelles. (2009) Metamorphism of Greater and Lesser Himalayan rocks exposed in the Modi Khola valley, central Nepal. Springer-Verlag 2009
Pargasite
Formula: NaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Habit: Terminated prisms to several cm
Colour: Brown
Fluorescence: none
Description: Frank Hawthorne identified this pargasite. Green "colour change lazurites" (green Hauyne) being replaced by zeolite occur with large pargasite xls. Thus the pargasite has been assigned to this locality.
Reference: Moore, T.P.,Woodside, R.M.W. (2014): The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines, Kuran Wa Munjan district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Record 45 (3), 280-336.
'Pargasite Root Name Group'
Formula: (A)(Ca2){Z2+4Z3+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
Reference: Huiwen Liu, Xueping Wang, Ji Shao, Kesi Lu, Fanglian Tian, and Shuya Xiong (2014): Mineral Deposits 33(1), 87-103
'Parisite'
Reference: Zhang, M., Suddaby, P., Thompson, R. N., Thirlwall, M. F., & Menzies, M. A. (1995). Potassic volcanic rocks in NE China: geochemical constraints on mantle source and magma genesis. Journal of Petrology, 36(5), 1275-1303. Zhang, Y., Luo, Y., & Yang, C. (Eds.). (1990). Panxi Rift and its geodynamics. Geological Publishing House.
Parisite-(Ce)
Formula: CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Reference: Dawei Meng, Xiuling Wu, Tao Mu, and Douxing Li (2001): Canadian Mineralogist 39, 1713-1724.
Pavonite
Formula: AgBi3S5
Reference: Xiaoming Qu, Zengqian Hou, and Shugui Zhou (2001): Acta Geoscientia Sinica 23(1), 29-34
Pearceite
Formula: [Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Reference: Chaoyang Li, Tiegeng Liu, Lin Ye, Weiguang Zhu, and Hailin Deng (2003): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 46, Supplement 1, 84-98.
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
Pectolite var. Manganese-bearing Pectolite
Formula: Na(Ca,Mn)2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
Penfieldite
Formula: Pb2Cl3(OH)
Reference: Merkel, S., Bräutigam, B., Klein, S., & Hauptmann, A. (2013). The Analysis of Slag from the Panjhır Mining Region, Afghanistan: An Investigation of (Medieval) Silver Production Technology. Archäologische Mitteilungen, 45, 231-250.
Penroseite
Formula: (Ni,Co,Cu)Se2
Reference: Liu Jia-jun, Liu Xian-fan, Ling Hong-fei, Liu Jian-ming, and Lu Wen-quan (2000): Geological Journal of China Universities 6(2), 210-214.
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Reference: Yao, Y., and Viljoen, M.J. (2003): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2003, A560
Pentlandite var. Argentian Pentlandite
Formula: (Ni,Fe,Ag)9S8
Reference: Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18
Perettiite-(Y) (TL)
Formula: Y2Mn4FeSi2B8O24
Type Locality:
Reference: Danisi, R.M., Armbruster, T., Wang, H., Günther, D., Nagashima, M., Reusser, E. and Bieri, W. (2015) Perettiite-(Y), IMA 2014-109. CNMNC Newsletter No. 25, June 2015, page 533; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 529-535. ; Danisi, R.M., Armbruster, T., Wang, H., Günther, D., Nagashima, M., Reusser, E. and Bieri, W. (2015) Perettiite-(Y), IMA 2014-109. CNMNC Newsletter No. 25, June 2015, page 533; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 529-535. ; Danisi, R.M., Armbruster, T., Libowitzky, E., Wang, Hao A.O., Günther, D. Nagashima, M. Reusser, E. and Bieri W. (2015): Perettiite-(Y), Y3+2Mn2+4Fe2+[Si2B8O24], a new mineral from Momeik, Myanmar. European Journal of Mineralogy. 27: 793-803.; Hyršl, J. (2018): Perettiite-(Y) and tusionite inclusions in phenakite from Myanmar. Gems and Gemology 54 (2), 1-3.
Periclase
Formula: MgO
Reference: Xiangzhen, X., Jingsui, Y., Songyong, C., Qingsong, F., Wenji, B., & Dengzhu, B. (2009). Unusual mantle mineral group from chromitite ore body Cr-11 in Luobusa ophiolite of Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, Tibet. Journal of Earth Science, 20(2), 284-302.
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Hua Chen, Xiaoming Qu, Hongbo Xin, and Junhua Jiang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(6), 1029-1042
Petalite
Formula: LiAl(Si4O10)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Maung Kyaw Khaing Win (2003): A study on gemstone occurrences of Molo District, Momeik Township, Shan State. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Yangon, Department of Geology.
'Petrified Wood'
Reference: Sen, I., Kumar Parua, D., Bera, S., Sultan-ul-Islam, M. D., & Poole, I. (2012). Contribution to the Neogene fossil wood record and palaeoecological understanding of Bangladesh. Palaeontographica-Abteilung B Palaophytologie, 288(1), 99.
Petzite
Formula: Ag3AuTe2
Reference: Zhimin Cao (1991): Journal of Chengdu College of Technology 18(4), 26-36
Pezzottaite
Formula: Cs(Be2Li)Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Lapis Extra (English) No. 7 (2005) p12
Phenakite
Formula: Be2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Chenghua Zhang and Guodong Ji (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(9), 15-20, 40
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 61 localities in this region.
Reference: Gao, Y., Hou, Z., Kamber, B. S., Wei, R., Meng, X., & Zhao, R. (2007). Lamproitic rocks from a continental collision zone: evidence for recycling of subducted Tethyan oceanic sediments in the mantle beneath southern Tibet. Journal of Petrology, 48(4), 729-752. Gao, Y., Wei, R., Ma, P., Hou, Z., & Yang, Z. (2009). Post-collisional ultrapotassic volcanism in the Tangra Yumco-Xuruco graben, south Tibet: constraints from geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Pb isotope. Lithos, 110(1-4), 129-139. Ding, L., Kapp, P., Zhong, D., & Deng, W. (2003). Cenozoic volcanism in Tibet: evidence for a transition from oceanic to continental subduction. Journal of Petrology, 44(10), 1833-1865.
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: M. Qasim Jan, P.S.B. Colback & Masood Ahmad , (1985) Low-temperature Secondary Minerals from Tarbela. Geol. Bull. Univ. Peshawar, 18:189-197
Picromerite
Formula: K2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Mianping Zheng and Xifang Liu (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 84(11), 1585-1600
Piemontite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Chengzhong Zhang and Zengda Liu (2006): China's Manganese Industry 24(4), 46-49
Pigeonite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Wang, Y. & Hsu, W. (2009). Petrology and Mineralogy of the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Vol. 44, #5, 763-780. (May 2009).
Pilsenite
Formula: Bi4Te3
Reference: Xiaogang Wang, Gen Chen, and Yunfeng Yan (2010): Modern Mining 11(11), 44-48
Pinnoite
Formula: Mg[B2O(OH)6]
Reference: Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
Plagionite
Formula: Pb5Sb8S17
Reference: Shihui Yang, Yueying Lin, and Yi Wang (1996): Acta Mineralogica Sinica [Kuangwu Xuebao] 16(3), 304-306
Platinum
Formula: Pt
Reference: Yao, Y., and Viljoen, M.J. (2003): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2003, A560
Plumbojarosite
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Dill, H. G., Weber, B., & Botz, R. (2013). Metalliferous duricrusts. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 190(2), 123-195.
Polkanovite
Formula: Rh12As7
Reference: Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fa