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Witwatersrand goldfield, South Africai
Regional Level Types
Witwatersrand goldfieldMining Region
South AfricaCountry

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Key
07751850015532605337764.jpg
View of the Witwatersrand gold mining area, in 1898.

Witwatersrand goldfield, South Africa
03898700015532604757316.jpg
View of the Witwatersrand gold mining area, in 1898.

Witwatersrand goldfield, South Africa
07751850015532605337764.jpg
View of the Witwatersrand gold mining area, in 1898.

Witwatersrand goldfield, South Africa
Locality type:
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Johannesburg2,026,469 (2015)
Soweto1,695,047 (2012)
Benoni605,344 (2012)
Tembisa511,655 (2012)
Vereeniging474,681 (2012)
Boksburg445,168 (2012)


The Witwatersrand is a large basin of metamorphosed conglomerates that forms the greatest goldfield in the world.

It stretches for 350 km long by 200 km wide with a thickness that can exceed 10,000m.

The mines have reached depths of 3600m.

It occurs in several provinces of South Africa.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

142 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Albite var: Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Gibson R, Reimold W (2008) Geology of the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa Council of Geoscience Memoir 97
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
'Banded ironstone'
Reference: Gibson R, Reimold W (2008) Geology of the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa Council of Geoscience Memoir 97
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Braggite
Formula: (Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Brannerite
Formula: UTi2O6
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Brushite
Formula: Ca(HPO4) · 2H2O
Calaverite
Formula: AuTe2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
'Chlorite Group'
Chloritoid
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Colour: Pale green
Description: Found associated with calcite and pyrite
Reference: Cairncross photo ID 729686
Clinoferrosilite
Formula: Fe2+SiO3
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Coesite
Formula: SiO2
Coffinite
Formula: U(SiO4) · nH2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Collinsite
Formula: Ca2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Cooperite
Formula: PtS
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: Gibson R, Reimold W (2008) Geology of the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa Council of Geoscience Memoir 97
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Crandallite
Formula: CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Curite
Formula: Pb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Fuchs, S. et al (2015) The growth and concentration of uranium and titanium minerals in hydrocarbons of the Carbon Leader Reef, Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa. Chemical Geology, Vol 393–394, 55–66.
Diamond
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Dyscrasite
Formula: Ag3Sb
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Erlichmanite
Formula: OsS2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Euxenite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Evansite
Formula: Al3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Description: Olivine (Fa18), preferred value in Catalogue of Meteorites (5/e), Olivine Composition typical of H chondrites [Normal Range: Fa17.3-20.2, following Rubin,1990]
Reference: Mason, B. (1962) The Classification of Chondritic Meteorites. American Museum Novitates, No. 2085. New York. 20 pp.; Mason, B. (1963) Olivine Composition in Chondrites: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 27(9): 1011-1023. (Sept 1963).
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Fluorapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Geversite
Formula: PtSb2
Glaucodot
Formula: (Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Glauconite'
Formula: (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Description: Green inter-granular fillings in sandstone & shale directly above the coal seams.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-03272006-160210/
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 65 localities in this region.
Graphite
Formula: C
Gwihabaite
Formula: (NH4,K)NO3
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Hercynite
Formula: Fe2+Al2O4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Hercynite var: Picotite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Hollingworthite
Formula: (Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Hornblende'
Reference: Gibson R, Reimold W (2008) Geology of the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa Council of Geoscience Memoir 97
Huntite
Formula: CaMg3(CO3)4
Hydromagnesite
Formula: Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Gibson R, Reimold W (2008) Geology of the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa Council of Geoscience Memoir 97
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Irarsite
Formula: (Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Iridarsenite
Formula: (Ir,Ru)As2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Iridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Iridium var: Osmiridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Iridium var: Platiniridium
Formula: (Ir,Pt)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Iridium var: Platosmiridium
Formula: (Ir,Pt,Os)
Reference: Feather C.E. (1976) Mineralogy of platinum-group minerals in the Witwatersrand, South Africa, - Econ. Geol., v. 71, pp. 1399-1428.
Iridium var: Ruthenian Iridium
Formula: (IrxRuyOsz)
Reference: Feather C.E. (1976) Mineralogy of platinum-group minerals in the Witwatersrand, South Africa - Economic Geology, v. 71, pp. 1399-1428.
Iridium var: Ruthenosmiridium
Formula: (Ir,Os,Ru)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Iron
Formula: Fe
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Iron var: Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Isocubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Isoferroplatinum (TL)
Formula: Pt3Fe
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: CABRI, L.J. & FEATHER, C.E. (1975): Platinum-iron alloys: a nomenclature based on a study of natural and synthetic alloys. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 117-126. CABRI, L.J., HARRIS, D.C. & WEISER, T.W. (1996): Mineralogy and distribution of platinum-group mineral (PGM) placer deposits of the world. Exploration and Mining Geology 5, 73-167. Minerals of South Africa
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-03272006-160210/
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'K Feldspar'
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Lanarkite
Formula: Pb2(SO4)O
Reference: Fuchs, S.H.J., Schumann, D., Williams-Jones, A.E., Murray, A.J., Couillard, M., Lagarec, K., Phaneuf, M.W., Vali, H. (2017): Gold and uranium concentration by interaction of immiscible fluids (hydrothermal and hydrocarbon) in the Carbon Leader Reef, Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa. Precambrian Research 293, 39-55.
Laurite
Formula: RuS2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Letovicite
Formula: (NH4)3H(SO4)2
Reference: International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
Leucophosphite
Formula: KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Leucoxene'
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Windisch, W. (2014) An introduction to micromounting.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Linnaeite
Formula: Co2+Co3+2S4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
'Manganomelane'
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Margarite
Formula: CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Reference: Econ Geol (1994) 89:909-918.
Mascagnite
Formula: (NH4)2SO4
Reference: International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
'Maskelynite'
Reference: Gibson R, Reimold W (2008) Geology of the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa Council of Geoscience Memoir 97
'Mica Group'
Reference: http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-03272006-160210/
Michenerite
Formula: PdBiTe
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-03272006-160210/
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Minyulite
Formula: KAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2O
Reference: Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Mitridatite
Formula: Ca2Fe3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Reference: Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Modderite (TL)
Formula: (Co,Fe)As
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Monazite'
Moncheite
Formula: (Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Montgomeryite
Formula: Ca4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Newberyite
Formula: Mg(HPO4) · 3H2O
Reference: Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Nitrocalcite
Formula: Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Nitromagnesite
Formula: Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Osarsite
Formula: (Os,Ru)AsS
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Osmium
Formula: (Os,Ir,Ru)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Osmium var: Iridosmine
Formula: (Os,Ir)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phosphosiderite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
'Pyrobitumen'
'Pyrobitumen var: Thucholite'
'Pyrochlore Supergroup'
Formula: A2-mD2X6-wZ1-n
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Pyrochlore Supergroup var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)'
Formula: (Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Pyrrhotite-6C'
Formula: Fe11S12
Reference: De Villiers, J.P.R. & Liles, D.C. (2010): The crystal-structure and vacancy distribution in 6C pyrrhotite. American Mineralogist 95, 148-152.
'Pyrrhotite Group'
Reference: Cairncross photo ID 728883
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 32 localities in this region.
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 236 pp.
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var: Citrine
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 236 pp.
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 236 pp.
Rectorite
Formula: (Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Ruthenarsenite
Formula: (Ru,Ni)As
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Safflorite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Salammoniac
Formula: NH4Cl
Reference: International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
Sasaite (TL)
Formula: (Al,Fe3+)14(PO4)11(SO4)(OH)7 · 83H2O
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1978) 42, 401-404
Schertelite
Formula: (NH4)2MgH2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy; Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: PMPB Meulenbeld collection
Siderite var: Mg-rich Siderite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)CO3
Reference: PMPB Meulenbeld collection
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Gibson R, Reimold W (2008) Geology of the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa Council of Geoscience Memoir 97
Silver
Formula: Ag
Skutterudite
Formula: CoAs3
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Sperrylite
Formula: PtAs2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Reference: Gibson R, Reimold W (2008) Geology of the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa Council of Geoscience Memoir 97
Stibiopalladinite
Formula: Pd5Sb2
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Stishovite
Formula: SiO2
Strengite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Stromeyerite
Formula: AgCuS
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Sudburyite
Formula: (Pd,Ni)Sb
Sudoite
Formula: Mg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Taenite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973). The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Taranakite
Formula: (K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
Tellurium
Formula: Te
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Tennantite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Tetrahedrite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Thorite var: Uranothorite
Formula: (Th,U)SiO4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Torbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: http://www.mining-technology.com/projects/buffelsfonteingoldmi/
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Troilite
Formula: FeS
Tučekite
Formula: Ni9Sb2S8
'UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS'
Formula: ~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
Reference: Feather, C.E. (1976): Mineralogy of platinum-group minerals in the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Econ. Geol.: 71: 1399-1428; in: Fleischer, M., Cabri, L.J., Nickel, E.H., Pabst, A. (1977): New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 62: 598
'UM1976-18-S:RhRu'
Formula: (Rh,Ru)S
Reference: Feather, C.E. (1976): Mineralogy of platinum-group minerals in the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Econ. Geol.:71, 1399-1428; in: Fleischer, M., Cabri, L.J., Nickel, E.H., Pabst, A. (1977): New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 62: 598
'UM1976-19-S:Ru'
Formula: (Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
Reference: Feather, C. (1976): Mineralogy of platinum-group minerals in the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Economic Geology: 71(7): 1399-1428
'UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh'
Formula: (Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
Reference: Toma, S.A., Murphy, S. (1978): Exsolution of gold from detrital platinum-group metal grains from Witwatersrand auriferous conglomerates. Canadian Mineralogist: 16: 641-650
'UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu'
Formula: (Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
Reference: Toma, S.A., Murphy, S. (1978): Exsolution of gold from detrital platinum-group metal grains from Witwatersrand auriferous conglomerates. Canadian Mineralogist: 16: 641-650
'UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu'
Formula: (Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
Reference: Toma, S.A., Murphy, S. (1978): Exsolution of gold from detrital platinum-group metal grains from Witwatersrand auriferous conglomerates. Canadian Mineralogist: 16: 641-650
'UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu'
Formula: (Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
Reference: Toma, S.A., Murphy, S. (1978): Exsolution of gold from detrital platinum-group metal grains from Witwatersrand auriferous conglomerates. Canadian Mineralogist: 16: 641-650
'UM1978-20-S:PtRh'
Formula: (Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
Reference: Toma, S.A., Murphy, S. (1978): Exsolution of gold from detrital platinum-group metal grains from Witwatersrand auriferous conglomerates. Canadian Mineralogist: 16: 641-650
'Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide II)'
Formula: (Ir,Os)3S2
Reference: Toma, S.A., Murphy, S. (1978): Exsolution of gold from detrital platinum-group metal grains from Witwatersrand auriferous conglomerates. Canadian Mineralogist: 16: 641-650
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Uraninite var: Pitchblende
Formula: UO2
Reference: Dr Günter Grundmann specimen and analysis.
Variscite
Formula: AlPO4 · 2H2O
'Wad'
Whitlockite
Formula: Ca9Mg(PO4)6(HPO4)
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Diamond1.CB.10aC
Gold1.AA.05Au
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Iridium1.AF.10(Ir,Os,Ru)
var: Osmiridium1.AF.10(Ir,Os,Ru)
var: Platiniridium1.AF.10(Ir,Pt)
var: Platosmiridium1.AF.10(Ir,Pt,Os)
var: Ruthenian Iridium1.AF.10(IrxRuyOsz)
var: Ruthenosmiridium1.AF.10(Ir,Os,Ru)
Iron1.AE.05Fe
var: Kamacite1.AE.05(Fe,Ni)
Isoferroplatinum (TL)1.AG.35Pt3Fe
Osmium1.AF.05(Os,Ir,Ru)
var: Iridosmine1.AF.05(Os,Ir)
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Taenite1.AE.10(Fe,Ni)
Tellurium1.CC.10Te
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Braggite2.CC.35a(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Calaverite2.EA.10AuTe2
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cobaltite2.EB.25CoAsS
Cooperite2.CC.35bPtS
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Cubanite2.CB.55aCuFe2S3
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Dyscrasite2.AA.35Ag3Sb
Erlichmanite2.EB.05aOsS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Geversite2.EB.05aPtSb2
Glaucodot2.EB.10c(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Hollingworthite2.EB.25(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
Irarsite2.EB.25(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Iridarsenite2.AC.45b(Ir,Ru)As2
Isocubanite2.CB.55bCuFe2S3
Laurite2.EB.05aRuS2
Linnaeite2.DA.05Co2+Co3+2S4
Löllingite2.EB.15aFeAs2
Mackinawite2.CC.25(Fe,Ni)9S8
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Michenerite2.EB.25PdBiTe
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Modderite (TL)2.CC.15(Co,Fe)As
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Moncheite2.EA.20(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Nickeline2.CC.05NiAs
Osarsite2.EB.20(Os,Ru)AsS
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Proustite2.GA.05Ag3AsS3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Ruthenarsenite2.CC.15(Ru,Ni)As
Safflorite2.EB.15a(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Skutterudite2.EC.05CoAs3
Sperrylite2.EB.05aPtAs2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stibiopalladinite2.AC.20aPd5Sb2
Stibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
Stromeyerite2.BA.40AgCuS
Sudburyite2.CC.05(Pd,Ni)Sb
'Tennantite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Troilite2.CC.10FeS
Tučekite2.BB.10Ni9Sb2S8
Group 3 - Halides
Salammoniac3.AA.25NH4Cl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Brannerite4.DH.05UTi2O6
Brookite4.DD.10TiO2
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Coesite4.DA.35SiO2
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
Curite4.GB.55Pb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6 · 3H2O
Euxenite-(Y)4.DG.05(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Hercynite4.BB.05Fe2+Al2O4
var: Picotite4.BB.05(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
var: Citrine4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Stishovite4.DA.40SiO2
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
var: Pitchblende4.DL.05UO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Gwihabaite5.NA.15(NH4,K)NO3
Huntite5.AB.25CaMg3(CO3)4
Hydromagnesite5.DA.05Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Nitrocalcite5.NC.10Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O
Nitromagnesite5.NC.05Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
var: Mg-rich Siderite5.AB.05(Fe,Mg)CO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Lanarkite7.BD.40Pb2(SO4)O
Letovicite7.AD.20(NH4)3H(SO4)2
Mascagnite7.AD.05(NH4)2SO4
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Brushite8.CJ.50Ca(HPO4) · 2H2O
Collinsite8.CG.05Ca2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Crandallite8.BL.10CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Evansite8.DF.10Al3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
Leucophosphite8.DH.10KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Libethenite8.BB.30Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Minyulite8.DH.05KAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2O
Mitridatite8.DH.30Ca2Fe3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Montgomeryite8.DH.25Ca4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Newberyite8.CE.10Mg(HPO4) · 3H2O
Phosphosiderite8.CD.05FePO4 · 2H2O
Sasaite (TL)8.DB.55(Al,Fe3+)14(PO4)11(SO4)(OH)7 · 83H2O
Schertelite8.CH.30(NH4)2MgH2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Strengite8.CD.10FePO4 · 2H2O
Taranakite8.CH.25(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
Torbernite8.EB.05Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Variscite8.CD.10AlPO4 · 2H2O
Whitlockite8.AC.45Ca9Mg(PO4)6(HPO4)
Xenotime-(Y)8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Andesine9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Andalusite9.AF.10Al2(SiO4)O
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Chloritoid9.AF.85(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Clinoferrosilite9.DA.10Fe2+SiO3
Coffinite9.AD.30U(SiO4) · nH2O
Cordierite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fluorapophyllite-(K)9.EA.15KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Margarite9.EC.30CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pyrophyllite9.EC.10Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Rectorite9.EC.60(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Sillimanite9.AF.05Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Sudoite9.EC.55Mg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
Thorite9.AD.30Th(SiO4)
var: Uranothorite9.AD.30(Th,U)SiO4
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Banded ironstone'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Glauconite'-(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
'K Feldspar'-
'Leucoxene'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganomelane'-
'Maskelynite'-
'Mica Group'-
'Monazite'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Pyrobitumen'-
'var: Thucholite'-
'Pyrochlore Supergroup'-A2-mD2X6-wZ1-n
'var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)'-(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
'Pyrrhotite Group'-
'Pyrrhotite-6C'-Fe11S12
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS'-~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
'UM1976-18-S:RhRu'-(Rh,Ru)S
'UM1976-19-S:Ru'-(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
'UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh'-(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
'UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu'-(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
'UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu'-(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
'UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu'-(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
'UM1978-20-S:PtRh'-(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
'Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide II)'-(Ir,Os)3S2
'Wad'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Iron
var: Kamacite
1.1.11.1(Fe,Ni)
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Taenite1.1.11.2(Fe,Ni)
Platinum Group Metals and Alloys
Iridium1.2.1.2(Ir,Os,Ru)
Isoferroplatinum (TL)1.2.5.1Pt3Fe
Osmium1.2.2.1(Os,Ir,Ru)
Semi-metals and non-metals
Diamond1.3.6.1C
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Tellurium1.3.4.2Te
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:1
Dyscrasite2.2.1.1Ag3Sb
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 5:2
Stibiopalladinite2.3.3.1Pd5Sb2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
Stromeyerite2.4.6.1AgCuS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Mackinawite2.7.2.1(Fe,Ni)9S8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Braggite2.8.5.3(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Cooperite2.8.5.1PtS
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Nickeline2.8.11.1NiAs
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Ruthenarsenite2.8.17.1(Ru,Ni)As
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Troilite2.8.9.1FeS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Cubanite2.9.13.1CuFe2S3
Isocubanite2.9.13.3CuFe2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Linnaeite2.10.1.1Co2+Co3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Calaverite2.12.13.2AuTe2
Cobaltite2.12.3.1CoAsS
Erlichmanite2.12.1.16OsS2
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Geversite2.12.1.14PtSb2
Glaucodot2.12.6.1(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Hollingworthite2.12.3.8(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
Irarsite2.12.3.7(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Iridarsenite2.12.4.5(Ir,Ru)As2
Laurite2.12.1.10RuS2
Löllingite2.12.2.9FeAs2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Michenerite2.12.3.11PdBiTe
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Moncheite2.12.14.3(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Osarsite2.12.4.3(Os,Ru)AsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Safflorite2.12.2.11(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Skutterudite2.12.17.1CoAs3
Sperrylite2.12.1.13PtAs2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 4
Tučekite3.2.5.5Ni9Sb2S8
3 <ø < 4
'Tennantite'3.3.6.2Cu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
ø = 3
Proustite3.4.1.1Ag3AsS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Brookite4.4.5.1TiO2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Stishovite4.4.1.9SiO2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Miscellaneous
Curite5.9.3.1Pb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Hercynite7.2.1.3Fe2+Al2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
AB3X7
Todorokite7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Pyrochlore Supergroup
var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)'
8.2.3.1(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
AB2O6
Brannerite8.3.4.1UTi2O6
Euxenite-(Y)8.3.8.2(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Salammoniac9.1.3.1NH4Cl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Miscellaneous
Huntite14.4.3.1CaMg3(CO3)4
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Hydromagnesite16b.7.1.1Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Group 18 - NORMAL NITRATES
A(XO3)2·xH2O, where x can equal zero
Nitrocalcite18.2.2.1Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O
Nitromagnesite18.2.3.1Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
Anhydrous Acid Sulfates
Letovicite28.1.3.1(NH4)3H(SO4)2
A2XO4
Mascagnite28.2.1.1(NH4)2SO4
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Lanarkite30.2.1.1Pb2(SO4)O
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
(AB)3(XO4)2
Whitlockite38.3.4.1Ca9Mg(PO4)6(HPO4)
Group 39 - HYDRATED ACID PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A[HXO4]·xH2O
Brushite39.1.1.1Ca(HPO4) · 2H2O
Newberyite39.1.6.1Mg(HPO4) · 3H2O
Miscellaneous
Schertelite39.3.2.1(NH4)2MgH2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Taranakite39.3.6.1(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O
Collinsite40.2.2.3Ca2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Torbernite40.2a.13.1Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Phosphosiderite40.4.3.2FePO4 · 2H2O
Strengite40.4.1.2FePO4 · 2H2O
Variscite40.4.1.1AlPO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A2(XO4)Zq
Libethenite41.6.6.2Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Evansite42.1.2.1Al3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Crandallite42.7.3.1CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Mitridatite42.8.4.1Ca2Fe3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Leucophosphite42.11.6.1KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Minyulite42.11.5.1KAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2O
Montgomeryite42.11.8.1Ca4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Hydrated Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Sasaite (TL)43.5.4.1(Al,Fe3+)14(PO4)11(SO4)(OH)7 · 83H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Coffinite51.5.2.4U(SiO4) · nH2O
Thorite51.5.2.3Th(SiO4)
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Andalusite52.2.2b.1Al2(SiO4)O
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Sillimanite52.2.2a.1Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Chloritoid52.3.3.1(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Clinoferrosilite65.1.1.2Fe2+SiO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
'Glauconite'71.2.2a.5(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Margarite71.2.2c.1CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pyrophyllite71.2.1.1Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Rectorite71.4.2.7(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Sudoite71.4.1.3Mg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings
Fluorapophyllite-(K)72.3.1.1KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Coesite75.1.4.1SiO2
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var: Andesine
-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Banded ironstone'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Gwihabaite-(NH4,K)NO3
Hercynite
var: Picotite
-(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Iridium
var: Osmiridium
-(Ir,Os,Ru)
var: Platiniridium-(Ir,Pt)
var: Platosmiridium-(Ir,Pt,Os)
var: Ruthenian Iridium-(IrxRuyOsz)
var: Ruthenosmiridium-(Ir,Os,Ru)
Iron-Fe
'K Feldspar'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Leucoxene'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganomelane'-
'Maskelynite'-
'Mica Group'-
Modderite (TL)-(Co,Fe)As
'Monazite'-
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
Osmium
var: Iridosmine
-(Os,Ir)
'Pyrobitumen'-
'var: Thucholite'-
'Pyrochlore Supergroup'-A2-mD2X6-wZ1-n
'Pyrrhotite Group'-
'Pyrrhotite-6C'-Fe11S12
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
var: Chalcedony-SiO2
var: Citrine-SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz-SiO2
Siderite
var: Mg-rich Siderite
-(Fe,Mg)CO3
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Sudburyite-(Pd,Ni)Sb
Thorite
var: Uranothorite
-(Th,U)SiO4
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS'-~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
'UM1976-18-S:RhRu'-(Rh,Ru)S
'UM1976-19-S:Ru'-(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
'UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh'-(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
'UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu'-(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
'UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu'-(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
'UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu'-(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
'UM1978-20-S:PtRh'-(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
'Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide II)'-(Ir,Os)3S2
Uraninite
var: Pitchblende
-UO2
'Wad'-
Xenotime-(Y)-Y(PO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Sasaite(Al,Fe3+)14(PO4)11(SO4)(OH)7 · 83H2O
H Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H SalammoniacNH4Cl
H Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
H SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
H PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
H BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2O
H HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
H WhitlockiteCa9Mg(PO4)6(HPO4)
H VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
H StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
H PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
H LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
H EvansiteAl3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
H MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
H CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H NitromagnesiteMg(NO3)2 · 6H2O
H Schertelite(NH4)2MgH2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
H Gwihabaite(NH4,K)NO3
H NitrocalciteCa(NO3)2 · 4H2O
H CuritePb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6 · 3H2O
H NewberyiteMg(HPO4) · 3H2O
H MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
H MinyuliteKAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2O
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
H CollinsiteCa2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
H Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
H MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
H Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
H TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
H Pyrochlore Supergroup (var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977))(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
H CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C DiamondC
C GraphiteC
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4
C MagnesiteMgCO3
C Siderite (var: Mg-rich Siderite)(Fe,Mg)CO3
C SideriteFeCO3
NNitrogen
N SalammoniacNH4Cl
N Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
N Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
N NitromagnesiteMg(NO3)2 · 6H2O
N Schertelite(NH4)2MgH2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
N Gwihabaite(NH4,K)NO3
N NitrocalciteCa(NO3)2 · 4H2O
OOxygen
O Sasaite(Al,Fe3+)14(PO4)11(SO4)(OH)7 · 83H2O
O BaryteBaSO4
O QuartzSiO2
O Uraninite (var: Pitchblende)UO2
O UraniniteUO2
O Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O RutileTiO2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
O BranneriteUTi2O6
O SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
O PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
O AragoniteCaCO3
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O CalciteCaCO3
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
O BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2O
O HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
O WhitlockiteCa9Mg(PO4)6(HPO4)
O VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
O StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
O PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
O LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
O EvansiteAl3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
O MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
O CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O NitromagnesiteMg(NO3)2 · 6H2O
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
O ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
O Schertelite(NH4)2MgH2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
O Gwihabaite(NH4,K)NO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O NitrocalciteCa(NO3)2 · 4H2O
O AnataseTiO2
O CuritePb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6 · 3H2O
O LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
O NewberyiteMg(HPO4) · 3H2O
O MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
O MinyuliteKAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2O
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
O CollinsiteCa2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
O Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
O CoesiteSiO2
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O StishoviteSiO2
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O CorundumAl2O3
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
O Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
O TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O Siderite (var: Mg-rich Siderite)(Fe,Mg)CO3
O SideriteFeCO3
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O Pyrochlore Supergroup (var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977))(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
O BrookiteTiO2
O CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2O
O Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
O CassiteriteSnO2
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Hercynite (var: Picotite)(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
O ThoriteTh(SiO4)
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Thorite (var: Uranothorite)(Th,U)SiO4
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
O HercyniteFe2+Al2O4
FFluorine
F Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F MinyuliteKAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2O
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
NaSodium
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Na Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Na Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Na Pyrochlore Supergroup (var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977))(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Mg WhitlockiteCa9Mg(PO4)6(HPO4)
Mg MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Mg NitromagnesiteMg(NO3)2 · 6H2O
Mg Schertelite(NH4)2MgH2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg NewberyiteMg(HPO4) · 3H2O
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mg CollinsiteCa2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Mg Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Mg HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg Siderite (var: Mg-rich Siderite)(Fe,Mg)CO3
Mg Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg Hercynite (var: Picotite)(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
AlAluminium
Al Sasaite(Al,Fe3+)14(PO4)11(SO4)(OH)7 · 83H2O
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
Al PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Al VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
Al EvansiteAl3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
Al MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Al CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Al AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Al MinyuliteKAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2O
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Al Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
Al Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Al Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Al SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Hercynite (var: Picotite)(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Al HercyniteFe2+Al2O4
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8
Si PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Si AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
Si ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
Si Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Si CoesiteSiO2
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si StishoviteSiO2
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Si Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Si SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Thorite (var: Uranothorite)(Th,U)SiO4
PPhosphorus
P Sasaite(Al,Fe3+)14(PO4)11(SO4)(OH)7 · 83H2O
P LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2O
P WhitlockiteCa9Mg(PO4)6(HPO4)
P VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
P StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
P PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
P LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
P EvansiteAl3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
P MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
P CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
P Schertelite(NH4)2MgH2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
P NewberyiteMg(HPO4) · 3H2O
P MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
P MinyuliteKAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2O
P Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
P CollinsiteCa2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
P TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
SSulfur
S Sasaite(Al,Fe3+)14(PO4)11(SO4)(OH)7 · 83H2O
S BaryteBaSO4
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S PyriteFeS2
S TučekiteNi9Sb2S8
S TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
S StibniteSb2S3
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S CovelliteCuS
S IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
S Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
S TroiliteFeS
S Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
S Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S Pyrrhotite-6CFe11S12
S CooperitePtS
S LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S CobaltiteCoAsS
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S ChalcociteCu2S
S CubaniteCuFe2S3
S DigeniteCu9S5
S ErlichmaniteOsS2
S Glaucodot(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S Braggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
S Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
S Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
S LauriteRuS2
S LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MilleriteNiS
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsS
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S ProustiteAg3AsS3
S StromeyeriteAgCuS
S TennantiteCu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
S UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
S UM1976-18-S:RhRu(Rh,Ru)S
S UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
S Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide II)(Ir,Os)3S2
S UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
S UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
S UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
S UM1978-20-S:PtRh(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
S UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
ClChlorine
Cl SalammoniacNH4Cl
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
K Gwihabaite(NH4,K)NO3
K MinyuliteKAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2O
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
K Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
K Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2O
Ca WhitlockiteCa9Mg(PO4)6(HPO4)
Ca MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Ca CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca NitrocalciteCa(NO3)2 · 4H2O
Ca MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ca CollinsiteCa2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca Albite (var: Andesine)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4
Ca MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Ca Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Ca Pyrochlore Supergroup (var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977))(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
Ca Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti BranneriteUTi2O6
Ti AnataseTiO2
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti Pyrochlore Supergroup (var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977))(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
Ti BrookiteTiO2
Ti Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Cr Hercynite (var: Picotite)(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
MnManganese
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
FeIron
Fe Sasaite(Al,Fe3+)14(PO4)11(SO4)(OH)7 · 83H2O
Fe IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe Iron (var: Kamacite)(Fe,Ni)
Fe Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Taenite(Fe,Ni)
Fe TroiliteFeS
Fe IronFe
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Fe StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
Fe PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
Fe LeucophosphiteKFe23+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Fe ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
Fe Pyrrhotite-6CFe11S12
Fe MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Siderite (var: Mg-rich Siderite)(Fe,Mg)CO3
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Fe CubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe Glaucodot(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe LöllingiteFeAs2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe Hercynite (var: Picotite)(Fe,Mg)(Al,Cr)2O4
Fe UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
Fe UM1978-20-S:PtRh(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
Fe HercyniteFe2+Al2O4
CoCobalt
Co Modderite(Co,Fe)As
Co SkutteruditeCoAs3
Co CobaltiteCoAsS
Co Glaucodot(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
Co LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
Co Safflorite(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
NiNickel
Ni NickelineNiAs
Ni TučekiteNi9Sb2S8
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
Ni Iron (var: Kamacite)(Fe,Ni)
Ni Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Ni Taenite(Fe,Ni)
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)As
CuCopper
Cu TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CopperCu
Cu IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CubaniteCuFe2S3
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu StromeyeriteAgCuS
Cu TennantiteCu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
Cu UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As Modderite(Co,Fe)As
As NickelineNiAs
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
As SkutteruditeCoAs3
As CobaltiteCoAsS
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As Glaucodot(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsS
As Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
As Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2
As Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
As LöllingiteFeAs2
As Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsS
As ProustiteAg3AsS3
As Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)As
As Safflorite(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
As SperrylitePtAs2
As TennantiteCu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
As UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
As UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
SrStrontium
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
YYttrium
Y Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Pyrochlore Supergroup (var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977))(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
Nb Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
RuRuthenium
Ru Iridium (var: Osmiridium)(Ir,Os,Ru)
Ru Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2
Ru Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Ru LauriteRuS2
Ru Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsS
Ru Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)As
Ru Iridium (var: Ruthenosmiridium)(Ir,Os,Ru)
Ru UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
Ru UM1976-18-S:RhRu(Rh,Ru)S
Ru UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
Ru UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
Ru UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
Ru UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
Ru Iridium (var: Ruthenian Iridium)(IrxRuyOsz)
RhRhodium
Rh Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
Rh Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Rh UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
Rh UM1976-18-S:RhRu(Rh,Ru)S
Rh UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
Rh UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
Rh UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
Rh UM1978-20-S:PtRh(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
PdPalladium
Pd MicheneritePdBiTe
Pd Sudburyite(Pd,Ni)Sb
Pd StibiopalladinitePd5Sb2
Pd Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
AgSilver
Ag DyscrasiteAg3Sb
Ag SilverAg
Ag ProustiteAg3AsS3
Ag StromeyeriteAgCuS
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
SbAntimony
Sb TučekiteNi9Sb2S8
Sb DyscrasiteAg3Sb
Sb GeversitePtSb2
Sb TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Sb StibniteSb2S3
Sb Sudburyite(Pd,Ni)Sb
Sb StibiopalladinitePd5Sb2
TeTellurium
Te MicheneritePdBiTe
Te CalaveriteAuTe2
Te Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Te TelluriumTe
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
CeCerium
Ce Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
TaTantalum
Ta Pyrochlore Supergroup (var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977))(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
Ta Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
OsOsmium
Os Iridium (var: Osmiridium)(Ir,Os,Ru)
Os ErlichmaniteOsS2
Os Osmium (var: Iridosmine)(Os,Ir)
Os Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsS
Os Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)
Os Iridium (var: Ruthenosmiridium)(Ir,Os,Ru)
Os UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
Os Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide II)(Ir,Os)3S2
Os UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
Os UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
Os UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
Os Iridium (var: Ruthenian Iridium)(IrxRuyOsz)
Os Iridium (var: Platosmiridium)(Ir,Pt,Os)
IrIridium
Ir Iridium (var: Osmiridium)(Ir,Os,Ru)
Ir Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
Ir Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2
Ir Osmium (var: Iridosmine)(Os,Ir)
Ir Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Ir Iridium (var: Platiniridium)(Ir,Pt)
Ir Iridium (var: Ruthenosmiridium)(Ir,Os,Ru)
Ir UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
Ir UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
Ir Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide II)(Ir,Os)3S2
Ir UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
Ir UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
Ir UM1978-20-S:PtRh(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
Ir UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
Ir Iridium (var: Ruthenian Iridium)(IrxRuyOsz)
Ir Iridium (var: Platosmiridium)(Ir,Pt,Os)
PtPlatinum
Pt IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe
Pt GeversitePtSb2
Pt CooperitePtS
Pt Braggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Pt Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Pt Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
Pt Iridium (var: Platiniridium)(Ir,Pt)
Pt SperrylitePtAs2
Pt UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS~(Ru,Rh,Pt,Ir)2(As,S)3
Pt UM1976-19-S:Ru(Ru,Ir,Os,Rh,Pt)3(S,As)4
Pt UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh(Rh,Cu,Pt,Fe)S2
Pt UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu(Ru,Ir,Rh,Os,Pt)3S2
Pt UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu(Pt,Os,Ru,Ir)2S3
Pt UM1978-20-S:PtRh(Rh,Pt,Fe,Ir)14.83S17.17
Pt UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu(Ir,Pt,Os,Ru)S2
Pt Iridium (var: Platosmiridium)(Ir,Pt,Os)
AuGold
Au GoldAu
Au CalaveriteAuTe2
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb CuritePb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6 · 3H2O
Pb LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
BiBismuth
Bi MicheneritePdBiTe
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
Bi Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
ThThorium
Th Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Th ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Th Thorite (var: Uranothorite)(Th,U)SiO4
UUranium
U Uraninite (var: Pitchblende)UO2
U UraniniteUO2
U BranneriteUTi2O6
U CuritePb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6 · 3H2O
U TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
U Pyrochlore Supergroup (var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977))(Ca,Na,U)2(Ti, Nb,Ta)2O6Z(OH)
U CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2O
U Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
U Thorite (var: Uranothorite)(Th,U)SiO4

Fossils

There are 15 fossil localities from the PaleoBioDB database within this region.

BETA TEST - These data are provided on an experimental basis and are taken from external databases. Mindat.org has no control currently over the accuracy of these data.

Occurrences673
Youngest Fossil Listed0.01 Ma (Pleistocene)
Oldest Fossil Listed359 Ma (Late Devonian)
Stratigraphic UnitsClick here to view 15 stratigraphic units.
Fossils from RegionClick here to show the list.
Accepted NameHierarchy Age
Amphibia
unranked clade
Animalia : Chordata : Osteichthyes : Amphibia5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Reptilia
class
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Aves
class
Animalia : Chordata : Aves5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Mammalia
class
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Testudinidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Struthio
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Aves : Struthioniformes : Struthionidae : Struthio2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Accipitridae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Aves : Accipitriformes : Accipitridae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Phasianidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Aves : Galliformes : Phasianidae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Plataleidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Aves : Ciconiiformes : Plataleidae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Macroscelididae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Macroscelidea : Macroscelididae5.333 - 2.588 Ma
Cenozoic
Elephantulus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Macroscelidea : Macroscelididae : Elephantulus2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Soricidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Soricomorpha : Soricidae5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Crocidura
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Soricomorpha : Soricidae : Crocidura1.806 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Amblysomus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Afrosoricida : Chrysochloridae : Amblysomus2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Cercopithecidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Cercopithecoides
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Cercopithecoides5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Papio
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Papio2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Parapapio
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Parapapio5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Hominidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Hominidae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Homo
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Hominidae : Homo2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Viverridae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Viverridae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Atilax
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Herpestidae : Atilax2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Hyaenidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Chasmaporthetes
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Chasmaporthetes5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Hyaenictis
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Hyaenictis2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Felidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Dinofelis
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Dinofelis5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Homotherium
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Homotherium5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Megantereon
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Megantereon5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Mellivora
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Mustelidae : Mellivora2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Canidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Canis
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Canis5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Lycaon
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Lycaon2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Otocyon
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Otocyon2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Vulpes
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Vulpes2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Palaeomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Castoridae : Palaeomys2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Cricetidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Cricetidae2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Mystromys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Nesomyidae : Mystromys2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Tatera
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Tatera2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Muridae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae5.333 - 2.588 Ma
Cenozoic
Aethomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Aethomys1.806 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Dasymys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Dasymys2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Lemniscomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Lemniscomys2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Malacothrix
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Nesomyidae : Malacothrix2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Mus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Mus2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Otomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Otomys5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Zelotomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Zelotomys1.806 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Pedetes
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Pedetidae : Pedetes2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Cryptomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Bathyergidae : Cryptomys5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Hystrix
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Hystricidae : Hystrix5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Lagomorpha
order
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Lagomorpha2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Leporidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Lagomorpha : Leporidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Lepus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Lagomorpha : Leporidae : Lepus2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Suidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Metridiochoerus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae : Metridiochoerus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Phacochoerus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae : Phacochoerus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Hippopotamus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Hippopotamidae : Hippopotamus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Giraffidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Giraffidae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Bovidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Alcelaphus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Alcelaphus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Antidorcas
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Antidorcas2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Beatragus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Beatragus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Damaliscus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Damaliscus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Gazella
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Gazella5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Makapania
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Makapania2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Megalotragus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Megalotragus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Oreotragus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Oreotragus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Pelea
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Pelea2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Raphicerus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Raphicerus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Syncerus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Syncerus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Equidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Equus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Equus5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Hipparion
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Hipparion2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Rhinocerotidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Rhinocerotidae5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Elephas
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Proboscidea : Elephantidae : Elephas2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Procavia
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Hyracoidea : Procaviidae : Procavia2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Orycteropus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Tubulidentata : Orycteropodidae : Orycteropus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Manis
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Pholidota : Manidae : Manis2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Crocuta
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Crocuta5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Panthera leo
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Panthera : Panthera leo5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Asterotheca
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Polypodiopsida : Marattiales : Asterothecaceae : Asterotheca279.3 - 272.3 Ma
Permian
Bryophyta
phylum
Plantae : Bryophyta272.3 - 259.9 Ma
Permian
Spermatophyta
phylum
Plantae : Spermatophyta279.3 - 272.3 Ma
Permian
Cladophlebis
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Polypodiopsida : Osmundales : Osmundaceae : Cladophlebis290.1 - 279.3 Ma
Permian
Sphenopteris
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Lyginopteridaceae : Sphenopteris290.1 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Hippotragini
tribe
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Hippotragini5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Taeniopteris
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Cycadopsida : Cycadales : Crossozamiaceae : Taeniopteris290.1 - 272.3 Ma
Permian
Australopithecus africanus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Hominidae : Australopithecus : Australopithecus africanus5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Paranthropus robustus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Hominidae : Paranthropus : Paranthropus robustus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Homo sapiens
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Hominidae : Homo : Homo sapiens2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Equus quagga
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Equus : Equus quagga2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Boltimys broomi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Boltimys : Boltimys broomi5.333 - 3.6 Ma
Neogene
Tyto alba
species
Animalia : Chordata : Aves : Strigiformes : Tytonidae : Tyto : Tyto alba0.126 - 0 Ma
Quaternary
Numida
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Aves : Galliformes : Numididae : Numida5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Tragelaphini
tribe
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Tragelaphini5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Antilopini
tribe
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Antilopini2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Alcelaphini
tribe
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Alcelaphini2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Proteles
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Proteles2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Hyaena hyaena
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Hyaena : Hyaena hyaena5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Panthera pardus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Panthera : Panthera pardus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Herpestes ichneumon
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Herpestidae : Herpestes : Herpestes ichneumon2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Dracovenator regenti
species
Animalia : Chordata : Saurischia : Dracovenator : Dracovenator regenti201.3 - 190.8 Ma
Early Jurassic
Orycteropus afer
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Tubulidentata : Orycteropodidae : Orycteropus : Orycteropus afer2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Megantereon cultridens
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Megantereon : Megantereon cultridens5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Eurygnathohippus libycum
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Eurygnathohippus : Eurygnathohippus libycum5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Theropithecus oswaldi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Theropithecus : Theropithecus oswaldi2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Palaeoloxodon recki
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Proboscidea : Elephantidae : Elephas : Palaeoloxodon recki5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Metridiochoerus andrewsi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae : Metridiochoerus : Metridiochoerus andrewsi5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Sivatherium maurusium
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Giraffidae : Sivatherium : Sivatherium maurusium2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Connochaetes
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Connochaetes5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Varanus niloticus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Varanidae : Varanus : Varanus niloticus1.806 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Procavia capensis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Hyracoidea : Procaviidae : Procavia : Procavia capensis5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Antidorcas marsupialis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Antidorcas : Antidorcas marsupialis5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Ourebia ourebi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Ourebia : Ourebia ourebi2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Raphicerus campestris
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Raphicerus : Raphicerus campestris5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Hippotragus niger
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Hippotragus : Hippotragus niger2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Hippotragus equinus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Hippotragus : Hippotragus equinus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Kobus ellipsiprymnus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Kobus : Kobus ellipsiprymnus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Redunca arundinum
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Redunca : Redunca arundinum5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Pelea capreolus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Pelea : Pelea capreolus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Tragelaphus angasii
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Tragelaphus : Tragelaphus angasii5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Glossopteris
genus
Plantae : Peltaspermophyta : Dictyopteridiopsida : Dictyopteridiales : Dictyopteridiaceae : Glossopteris290.1 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Arberia
genus
Arberia290.1 - 259.9 Ma
Permian
Sphenobaiera
genus
Plantae : Peltaspermophyta : Peltaspermopsida : Peltaspermales : Peltaspermaceae : Sphenobaiera279.3 - 272.3 Ma
Permian
Arberiales
order
Plantae : Peltaspermophyta : Arberiopsida : Arberiales279.3 - 272.3 Ma
Permian
Samaropsis
genus
Plantae : Pinophyta : Pinopsida : Cordaitanthales : Samaropsis290.1 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Pecopteris
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Polypodiopsida : Marattiales : Asterothecaceae : Pecopteris290.1 - 279.3 Ma
Permian
Aonyx capensis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Mustelidae : Aonyx : Aonyx capensis2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Procavia transvaalensis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Hyracoidea : Procaviidae : Procavia : Procavia transvaalensis5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Herpestidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Herpestidae2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Felis lybica
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Felis : Felis lybica2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Acinonyx jubatus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Acinonyx : Acinonyx jubatus5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Caracal caracal
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Caracal : Caracal caracal5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Caracal serval
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Caracal : Caracal serval2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Taurotragus oryx
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Taurotragus : Taurotragus oryx5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Genetta tigrina
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Viverridae : Genetta : Genetta tigrina2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Parahyaena brunnea
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Parahyaena : Parahyaena brunnea2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Crocuta crocuta
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Crocuta : Crocuta crocuta5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Suricata suricatta
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Herpestidae : Suricata : Suricata suricatta2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Proteles cristatus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Proteles : Proteles cristatus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Cynictis penicillata
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Herpestidae : Cynictis : Cynictis penicillata2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Herpestes sanguineus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Herpestidae : Herpestes : Herpestes sanguineus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Canis mesomelas
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Canis : Canis mesomelas5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Cryptomys hottentotus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Bathyergidae : Cryptomys : Cryptomys hottentotus1.806 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Tragelaphus scriptus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Tragelaphus : Tragelaphus scriptus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Tragelaphus strepsiceros
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Tragelaphus : Tragelaphus strepsiceros5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Oreotragus oreotragus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Oreotragus : Oreotragus oreotragus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Hystrix africaeaustralis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Hystricidae : Hystrix : Hystrix africaeaustralis5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Vulpes chama
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Vulpes : Vulpes chama2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Damaliscus dorcas
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Damaliscus : Damaliscus dorcas5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Equus quagga burchelli
subspecies
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Equus : Equus quagga burchelli5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Steatomys pratensis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Nesomyidae : Steatomys : Steatomys pratensis2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Sphenophyllum
genus
Plantae : Equisetophyta : Equisetopsida : Sphenophyllales : Sphenophyllaceae : Sphenophyllum290.1 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Flabellofolium
genus
Plantae : Flabellofolium279.3 - 259.9 Ma
Permian
Vertebraria
genus
Plantae : Peltaspermophyta : Arberiopsida : Arberiales : Vertebraria259.9 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Raniganjia
genus
Raniganjia272.3 - 259.9 Ma
Permian
Phyllotheca
genus
Plantae : Pteridophyta : Phyllotheca272.3 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Annularia
genus
Plantae : Equisetophyta : Equisetopsida : Equisetales : Annularia272.3 - 259.9 Ma
Permian
Ginkgoites
genus
Plantae : Ginkgophyta : Ginkgoopsida : Ginkgoales : Ginkgoites259.9 - 252.17 Ma
Permian
Schizoneura
genus
Plantae : Equisetophyta : Equisetopsida : Equisetales : Schizoneura290.1 - 279.3 Ma
Permian
Achatina
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Stylommatophora : Achatinidae : Achatina2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Equus capensis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Equus : Equus capensis5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Pachycrocuta brevirostris
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Pachycrocuta : Pachycrocuta brevirostris5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Adenota recki
species
Adenota : Adenota recki5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Gazella bondi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Gazella : Gazella bondi5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Antidorcas marsupialis australis
subspecies
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Antidorcas : Antidorcas marsupialis australis2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Numidocapra
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Numidocapra2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Bubalis priscus
species
Bubalis : Bubalis priscus1.806 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Makapania broomi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Makapania : Makapania broomi5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Procavia antiqua
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Hyracoidea : Procaviidae : Procavia : Procavia antiqua5.333 - 0.0117 Ma
Cenozoic
Dinopithecus ingens
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Dinopithecus : Dinopithecus ingens2.588 - 0.781 Ma
Pleistocene
Papio ursinus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Papio : Papio ursinus2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Papio izodi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Papio : Papio izodi5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Parapapio broomi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Parapapio : Parapapio broomi5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Parapapio jonesi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Parapapio : Parapapio jonesi5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Parapapio whitei
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Parapapio : Parapapio whitei5.333 - 0.781 Ma
Cenozoic
Papio robinsoni
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Cercopithecidae : Papio : Papio robinsoni2.588 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Fossil LocalitiesClick to show 15 fossil localities

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Cousins, C.A. (1973) Platinoids of the Witwatersrand system. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 73, 184-199.
MacLean, P.J. and Fleet, M.E. (1989) Detrital pyrite in the Witwatersrand gold fields of South Africa: evidence from truncated growth banding. Economic Geology, 84, 2008-2011.
Fleet, M.E. (1998) Detrital pyrite in Witwatersrand gold reefs: X-ray diffraction evidence and implications for atmospheric evolution. Terra Nova, 10, 302-306.
Schidlowski, M., (1965) Probable life forms from the Precambrian of the Witwatersrand System (South Africa). Nature, 205, 895 896.
Snyman, C.P. (1965) Possible biogenetic structures in Witwatersrand thucolite. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, 68, 225 236.
Hallbauer, D.K. (1975) The plant origin of the Witwatersrand "carbon". Minerals Science and Engineering, 7, 111-131.
Utter, T. (1978) Morphology and geochemistry of different pyrite types from the Upper Witwatersrand System, Klerksdorp Goldfield, South Africa. Geologische Rundschau, 67, 774-804.
Zumberge, J.E., Sigelo, A.C., and Nagy, B. (1978) Molecular and elemental analyses of the carbonaceous matter in the gold and uranium bearing Vaal Reef carbon seams, Witwatersrand Sequence. Minerals Science and Engineering, 10, 223-246.
Zumberge, J.E., Nagy, B., and Nagy, L.A. (1981) Some aspects of the development of the Vaal Reef uranium-gold carbon seams, Witwatersrand Sequence: organic geochemical and microbiological considerations. In: Genesis of uranium and gold-bearing quartz pebble conglomerates. F. Armstrong Editor. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1161, 01-07.
Hallbauer, D.K. (1986) The mineralogy and geochemistry of Witwatersrand pyrite, gold, uranium and carbonaceous matter. In: Anhaeusser, C.R. and Maske, S., (Eds.). Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa, Vols I & II, Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg, 731-752.
Pretorius, D.A. (1986) The goldfields of the Witwatersrand Basin. In: Anhaeusser, C.R. and Maske, S., (Eds.). Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa, Vols I & II. Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg, 489-494.
Werdmüller, V.W., (1986) The Central Rand. In: Antrobus, E.S.A., (Ed.). Witwatersrand Gold 100 years. Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg, 7-47.
Phillips, G.N. (1987) Metamorphism of the Witwatersrand gold reefs: conditions during peak metamorphism. Journal of Metamorphic Petrology, 5, 307-322.
Hutchinson, R.W. and Viljoen, R.P. (1988) Re evaluation of gold source in Witwatersrand ores. South African Journal of Geology, 91, 157-173.
Robb, L.J., Landais, P., Drennan, G.R., and Dubessy, J. (1997) Petrographic, chemical and spectroscopic studies of carbonaceous matter in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa. Economic Geology Research Unit Information Circular No. 312, August 1997. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 34 pp.
Gray, G.J., Lawrence, S.R., Kenyon, K., and Cornford, C. (1998) Nature and origin of "carbon" in the Archaean Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 155, 39-59.
Mossman, D.J., Minter, W.E.L., Dutkiewicz, A., Hallbauer, D.K., George, S.C., Hennigh, Q., Reimer, T.O., and Horscroft, F.D. (2008) The indigenous origin of Witwatersrand carbon. Precambrian Research, 164, 173-186.
Grove, D. and Harris, C. (2013) O- and H-isotope study of the Carbon Leader Reef at the Tau Tona and Savuka mines (Western Deep Levels), South Africa: Implications for the origin and evolution of Witwatersrand basin fluids. South African Journal of Geology, 113(1), 73-86.
Fuchs, S., Schumann, D., Williams-Jones, A.E., and Vali, H. (2015) The growth and concentration of uranium and titanium minerals in hydrocarbons of the Carbon Leader Reef, Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa. Chemical Geology, 393–394, 30 January 2015, 55-66.

Localities in this Region

Other Regions, Features and Areas that Intersect

African PlateTectonic Plate
Somali PlateTectonic Plate
South Africa

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
 
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