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Altiplano Platei
Regional Level Types
Altiplano PlateTectonic Plate

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Key
Locality type:
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Cochabamba900,414 (2012)
Arequipa841,130 (2012)
La Paz812,799 (2012)
Cusco312,140 (2013)
Tacna280,098 (2013)
Juliaca245,675 (2012)


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Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

683 valid minerals. 87 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc. 3 erroneous literature entries.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Localities: Reported from at least 35 localities in this region.
Reference: USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 255.
Acanthite var. Zinc-bearing Acanthite
Formula: (Ag,Zn)2S
Reference: [MinRec 32:472]
Actinolite
Formula: ◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Reference: Salomon Rivas, pers. comm.
Aegirine-augite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Reference: Woolley, A.R. (1987) Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the world. p 167.
Aheylite (TL)
Formula: (Fe2+,Zn)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: [MinRec 32:472]; Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Ahlfeldite (TL)
Formula: Ni(SeO3) · 2H2O
Reference: Herzenberg (1935) Zentralbl. Min., Abt. A: 189 & 279. Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 635. Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482. Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Aikinite
Formula: PbCuBiS3
Reference: USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 255.; Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), pp 268-271 (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz) (as "patrinite")
Akaganeite
Formula: (Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Reference: samples analysed by Anthony Kampf, Curator Emeritus of Mineral Sciences at NHM of LAC, California; Kampf, A.R., Sciberras, M.J., Williams, P.A., Dini, M. & Molina Donoso, A.A. (2013): Leverettite from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Provence, Chile: the Co-analogue of herbertsmithite. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 3047-3054.
Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld y Jorge Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia. (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
Alamosite
Formula: PbSiO3
Reference: Zori, C., & Tropper, P. (2013). Silver lining: evidence for Inka silver refining in northern Chile. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40(8), 3282-3292.
'Alaskaite'
Reference: Ahlfeld, F. and Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. Ministerio de Minas y Petróleo, La Paz, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), p 293.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009); Paar, W. H., Cooper, M. A., Hawthorne, F. C., Moffatt, E., Gunter, M. E., Roberts, A. C., & Dunn, P. J. (2009). Braithwaiteite, NaCu5 (TiSb) O2 (AsO4) 4 [AsO3 (OH)] 2 (H2O) 8, a new mineral species from Laurani, Bolivia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 47(4), 947-952.
Albite var. Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz) (limited to country rock, not from the orebodies)
Albite var. Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Chelle-Michou, C. (2013). Geochronologic and petrologic evolution of the magmatic suite associated with the Eocene Coroccohuayco deposit, and its role in the genesis of the associated Cu (-Au) porphyry-skarn mineralization, Tintaya district, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva).
Alfredopetrovite (TL)
Formula: Al2(Se4+O3)3 · 6H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Mills, S.J., Nash, B.P., Thorne, B. and Favreau, G. (2015) Alfredopetrovite, IMA 2015-026. CNMNC Newsletter No. 26, August 2015, page 943; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 941-947. ; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: (from country rock, not the ankerite-sodalite dike)
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Mlynarczyk, M. S. (2005). Constraints on the Genesis of Lode-style Tin Mineralization: Evidence from the San Rafael Tin-copper Deposit, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, McGill University).
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Aluminoceladonite
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
Reference: Mlynarczyk, M. S. (2005). Constraints on the Genesis of Lode-style Tin Mineralization: Evidence from the San Rafael Tin-copper Deposit, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, McGill University).
Alum-(K)
Formula: KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Salomon Rivas & Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 47 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
'Alunite Supergroup'
Formula: AD3(XO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Field trip observations, January 2012
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
Amarantite
Formula: Fe3+2(SO4)2O · 7H2O
Reference: Samples analysed by Tony Kampf of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
Amarillite
Formula: NaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Peter G. Seroka collection
Amesite
Formula: Mg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4
Habit: 6-pointed stars caused by sector twinning
Colour: dark green
Description: Amesite-2H
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection; Laszlo Horvath collection
Ammineite (TL)
Formula: [CuCl2(NH3)2]
Type Locality:
Reference: Walter, F., Bojar, H.-P., Baumgartner, J. (2010): Ammineite, CuCl2(NH3)2 - the first mineral with an ammine complex. 20th General Meeting of the International Mineralogical Association - Budapest 21-27.08.2010 (in press); Bojar, H.-P., Walter, F., Baumgartner, J., Färber, G. (2010). Ammineite, CuCl2(NH3)2, a new species containing an ammine complex: mineral data and crystal structure. Canadian Mineralogist 48, 1359-1371.
Ammoniojarosite
Formula: (NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
Ammoniotinsleyite
Formula: (NH4)Al2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Reference: Chukanov, N.V., Möhn, G., Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Ksenofontov, D.A., Belakovskiy, D.I., Vozchikova, S.A., Britvin, S.N., Desor, J. (2020): Ammoniotinsleyite, (NH4)Al2(PO4)2(OH)⋅2H2O, a new mineral species from the guano deposit at Pabellón de Pica, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine: 84 (in press)
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Huayong Chen, T. Kurtis Kyser und Alan H. Clark (2011): Contrasting fluids and reservoirs in the contiguous Marcona and Mina Justa iron oxide–Cu (–Ag–Au) deposits, south-central Perú. Mineralium Deposita 46, 677-706.
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection; Laszlo Horvath collection; Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: J.Coordination Chemistry 61,15-29(2008); Paar, W. H., Cooper, M. A., Hawthorne, F. C., Moffatt, E., Gunter, M. E., Roberts, A. C., & Dunn, P. J. (2009). Braithwaiteite, NaCu5 (TiSb) O2 (AsO4) 4 [AsO3 (OH)] 2 (H2O) 8, a new mineral species from Laurani, Bolivia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 47(4), 947-952.
'Ancylite'
Reference: Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408
Ancylite-(Ce)
Formula: CeSr(CO3)2(OH) · H2O
Reference: A.R. Kampf
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Aguirre Cernades, H. C. (2017). Caracterización y exploración geológica del Proyecto Crucero-Puno. Universidad Nacional del Altiplano – Puno
'Andorite'
Formula: AgPbSb3S6
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Habit: Rounded, tabular, striated crystals.
Colour: Grey-black.
Description: Crystals to 15 cm.
Reference: [MinRec: 21:98; 32:479]; Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:248; Keutsch, F., & Brodtkorb, M. D. (2008). Metalliferous paragenesis of the San José mine, Oruro, Bolivia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 25(4), 485-491.; Pastor, M., Pastor, A., Torró, L., Martínez, Á., Artiaga, D., Torres, B., ... & Alfonso, P. (2015) The San José-Itos Mines, Oruro, Bolivia: Structure and Ag-Sn Mineralization. in Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World • 13th SGA Biennial Meeting 2015. Proceedings, Volume 1 pp 327-330; Weiß, S. (2017): Aus Oruro, Bolivien: Ferrokesterit statt Stannit! Lapis, 42 (1), 50.; Sidki Rius, N. (2017). Metalogénesis del yacimiento San José, Oruro, Bolivia (Bachelor's thesis, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya).
Andorite IV
Formula: Pb18Ag15Sb47S96
Reference: American Mineralogist (1954) 39:161-171; Sidki Rius, N. (2017). Metalogénesis del yacimiento San José, Oruro, Bolivia (Bachelor's thesis, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya).
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Schultz (2004)
Andradite var. Melanite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Schultz (2004)
Angelellite
Formula: Fe3+4(AsO4)2O3
Reference: Torró, L., Cazorla, M., Melgarejo, J. C., Camprubí, A., Tarrés, M., Gemmrich, L., ... & Mollinedo, D. (2019). Indium Mineralization in the Volcanic Dome-Hosted Ánimas–Chocaya–Siete Suyos Polymetallic Deposit, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 9(10), 604.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: maurizio dini collection - analysed material
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Anilite
Formula: Cu7S4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Reference: Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408; PARTS, O. C. I. W. (1981). C. PREMOLI. Geología y Metalogénesis de los Depósitos y Manifestaciones¡ IlllS Uraníferos de, 245.
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 4, 2000
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld y Jorge Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia. (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
Anorthite var. Labradorite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1994, 6, pp. 145-150.
'Anorthoclase'
Formula: (Na,K)AlSi3O8
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1994, 6, pp. 145-150.
'Antimonian Gersdorffite'
Formula: Ni(As,Sb)S
Reference: Ahlfeld, F. & Munoz, J.(1955): Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia
Antimony
Formula: Sb
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Dill, H.G. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 359-378.; Dill, H. G., Weiser, T., Bernhardt, I. R., & Kilibarda, C. R. (1995). The composite gold-antimony vein deposit at Kharma (Bolivia). Economic Geology, 90(1), 51-66.
'Antimony Ochre'
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Antipinite (TL)
Formula: KNa3Cu2(C2O4)4
Type Locality:
Reference: Chukanov, N.V., Aksenov, S.M., Rastsvetaeva, R.K., Lysenko, K.A., Belakovskiy, D.I., Färber, G. and Van, K.V. (2014) Antipinite, IMA 2014-027. CNMNC Newsletter No. 21, August 2014, page 801 Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 797-804. Chukanov, N.V., Aksenov, S.M., Rastsvetaeva, R.K., Lyssenko, K.A., Belakovskiy, D.I., Färber, G., Möhn, G., Van, K.V. (2015): Antipinite, KNa3Cu2(C2O4)4, a new mineral species from a guano deposit at Pabellón de Pica, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 1111-1121.
Antlerite
Formula: Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 41 localities in this region.
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Aphthitalite
Formula: (K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Reference: SEM-EDS, Raman Spectroscopy, Wet Chemical by Joy Desor and Gerhard Möhn
Apjohnite
Formula: Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Peter G. Seroka collection
'Apophyllite'
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: J. Hyrsl (2012) Gemstones of Peru, p. 36
Aramayoite (TL)
Formula: Ag3Sb2(Bi,Sb)S6
Reference: [MinRec 32:461]; Torró, L., Cazorla, M., Melgarejo, J. C., Camprubí, A., Tarrés, M., Gemmrich, L., ... & Mollinedo, D. (2019). Indium Mineralization in the Volcanic Dome-Hosted Ánimas–Chocaya–Siete Suyos Polymetallic Deposit, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 9(10), 604.
Arcanite
Formula: K2SO4
Reference: http://forum.amiminerals.org/viewtopic.php?t=3756&highlight=patache
'Arequipite'
Reference: Raimondi, A. (1878) Minéraux du Pérou: Catalogue raisonné d’une collection des principaux types minéraux de la République. 336pp., Paris: 167; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1025.
Argentojarosite
Formula: AgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Moricz, F., Walder, I. F., & Madai, F. (2009). Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of waste material from Itos Sn-Ag deposit, Bolivia. Proceeding of securing the future and 8th ICARD. Skellefteå, Sweden, 525-534.
Argentopyrite
Formula: AgFe2S3
Reference: http://www.portergeo.com.au/database/mineinfo.asp?mineid=mn609#browse (accessed 01/19/2018)
Argentotennantite-(Zn)
Formula: Ag6(Cu4Zn2)As4S12S
Reference: Chinchilla, D., Rodriguez Pinzón, A., Piña, R., Ortega, L., Lunar, R., Quesada, C., & Valverde, A. (2013, August). A mineralogical and fluid inclusion study of the Patricia Zn-Pb-Ag Deposit (Paguanta, NE Chile). In 12th SGA biennial meeting–Uppsala, Suecia.
Argyrodite
Formula: Ag8GeS6
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Canfield, F. A. (1907). Mineralogical notes. American Journal of Science, (133), 20-22.
Arsenic
Formula: As
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Samples analysed by Tony Kampf of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
Arseniosiderite
Formula: Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection
'Arsenobismite'
Reference: [MinRec 32:481]
Arsenolite
Formula: As2O3
Reference: [MinRec 32:477]
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 103 localities in this region.
Reference: Collections of Alfredo Petrov and Dr. Jaroslav Hyrsl.
Arzrunite
Formula: Cu4Pb2(SO4)(OH)4Cl6 · 2H2O (?)
Reference: Zeits. Krist. Min. 31 (1899), 230; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 130.
Asbolane
Formula: (Ni,Co)2-xMn4+(O,OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: GEOBOL, Boletín #11, June 1968.
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
Reference: Schlüter, J. & Malcherek, T. Haydeeite, Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2, a new mineral from the Haydee mine, Salar Grande, Atacama desert, Chile. NJMA 184, 39-42 (2007)
Atelestite
Formula: Bi2(AsO4)O(OH)
Reference: SEM-EDS & Raman confirmed by Joy Desor, November 2019.
Athabascaite
Formula: Cu5Se4
Reference: Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosi, Bolivia. Minerals, 7, 68;; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Aubertite
Formula: CuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
Reference: Diaby, N., Dold, B., Buselli, E., & Vicetti, R. (2006). EFFECTS ON ELEMENT MOBILITY BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WETLAND ON THE MARINE SHORE PORPHYRY COPPER TAILINGS DEPOSIT, BAHÍA DE ITE, PERU. In 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), March (pp. 26-30).
Augelite
Formula: Al2(PO4)(OH)3
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Mondillo, N., Boni, M., Balassone, G. & Villa. I. M. (2014): The Yanque Prospect (Peru): From Polymetallic Zn-Pb Mineralization to a Nonsulfide Deposit. Economic Geology. 109, 1735-1762.
Aurostibite
Formula: AuSb2
Reference: Osvaldo R. Arce Burgoa (2007) Guia a los Yacimientos Metaliferos de Bolivia. (Minera San Cristobal S.A. & Empresa Minera Unificada S.A., La Paz); Jan Bernard & Jaroslav Hyrsl (2004) Minerals and their Localities.; Econ Geol (1997) 92:623-632; Dill, H.G. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 359-378.; Dill, H. G., Weiser, T., Bernhardt, I. R., & Kilibarda, C. R. (1995). The composite gold-antimony vein deposit at Kharma (Bolivia). Economic Geology, 90(1), 51-66.
Austinite
Formula: CaZn(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Ahlfeld and Mosebach (1936) Zentralblatt Mineralien: 226, 287 (Brickerit); Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 810.
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10-12H2O
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
'Barkevikite'
Locality: Cerro Sapo, Ayopaya Province, Cochabamba, Bolivia - erroneously reported
Description: Discredited, see amphibole
Reference: Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408
Barringerite (TL)
Formula: (Fe,Ni)2P
Type Locality:
Reference: Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 44
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 95 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahlfeld & Munoz Reyes (1955): Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia
Bassanite
Formula: Ca(SO4) · 0.5H2O
Reference: Schlüter, J. & Malcherek, T. Haydeeite, Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2, a new mineral from the Haydee mine, Salar Grande, Atacama desert, Chile. NJMA 184, 39-42 (2007)
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Reference: Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408.
Baumstarkite
Formula: Ag3Sb3S6
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Becquerelite ?
Formula: Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
'Beegerite' ?
Formula: Pb6Bi2S9
Reference: Lindgren, W. and Creveling, J.G. (1928) The ores of Potosi, Bolivia. Economic Geology, 23, #3, 233-262.
Beidellite
Formula: (Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: [MinRec 32:472]
Bellbergite
Formula: (K,Ba,Sr)2Sr2Ca2(Ca,Na)4[Al3Si3O12]6 · 30H2O
Reference: Schultz, F. et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408.
Bellidoite ?
Formula: Cu2Se
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Benjaminite
Formula: Ag3Bi7S12
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Berlinite
Formula: AlPO4
Reference: Miofuvhoedki, A. P. (2001). Geochemistry and Petrology of the Tia Maria Prospect, Department of Arequipa, Peru. Thesis (M.S.)--New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
Berndtite (TL)
Formula: SnS2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Moh, G.H. and Berndt, F. (1965) American Mineralogist, 50, 2107.
Berthierine
Formula: (Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
Reference: Ben Dísraeli collection.
Berthierite
Formula: FeSb2S4
Reference: Aguirre Cernades, H. C. (2017). Caracterización y exploración geológica del Proyecto Crucero-Puno. Universidad Nacional del Altiplano – Puno
Beryl ?
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Description: Petersen took this information from Gustavo Steinmann (1929/1930) Geologia del Peru. (Heidelberg), but there has been no confirmation since then.
Reference: Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
Beryl var. Emerald ?
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Description: Petersen took this information from Gustavo Steinmann (1929/1930) Geologia del Peru. (Heidelberg), but there has been no confirmation since then.
Reference: Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
Berzelianite ?
Formula: Cu2Se
Reference: [MinRec 21:137]; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Maria Boni, Paul Rudolf Schmidt, Jacobus Rudolph De Wet, Jacob Daniel Singleton, Giuseppina Balassone, Nicola Mondillo (2009) Mineralogical signature of nonsulfide zinc ores at Accha (Peru): A key for recovery. Int. J. Miner. Process. 93:267–277
Bideauxite
Formula: Pb2AgCl3(F,OH)2
Reference: Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 55
Billietite ?
Formula: Ba(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 4-8H2O
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1019; Mineralogical Record: 32: 474.
'Bindheimite var. Taznite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1025.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 48 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Bismite (TL)
Formula: Bi2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahlfeld 1955
Bismoclite
Formula: BiOCl
Reference: [MinRec 32:481]
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahlfeld & Munoz Reyes (1955): Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Reference: Paolo Franchi collection
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 261.
Bismutoferrite
Formula: Fe3+2Bi(SiO4)2(OH)
Reference: [MinRec 32:474]
'Bitumen'
Reference: Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
Bixbyite ?
Formula: Mn3+2O3
Reference: www.mineralmundi.com
Blödite
Formula: Na2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Diaby, N., Dold, B., Buselli, E., & Vicetti, R. (2006). EFFECTS ON ELEMENT MOBILITY BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WETLAND ON THE MARINE SHORE PORPHYRY COPPER TAILINGS DEPOSIT, BAHÍA DE ITE, PERU. In 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), March (pp. 26-30).
Boleite
Formula: KPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
Reference: Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 55
'Bolivite'
Reference: Palache et al (1944), Dana's System of Min., seventh ed., vol. 1: 278.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 42 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Botryogen
Formula: MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Reference: Kampf, A. R., Mills, S. J., Nash, B. P., Housley, R. M., Rossman, G. R., Dini, M. and Gatta G.D. (2013): Camaronesite, [Fe3+(H2O)2(PO3OH)]2(SO4)•1–2H2O, a new phosphate-sulfate from the Camarones Valley, Chile, structurally related to taranakite. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 453-465.
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Reference: Dana 7:I:409.; Ahlfeld, F. & Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia.
Boussingaultite
Formula: (NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
Braithwaiteite (TL)
Formula: NaCu5(Ti4+Sb5+)(AsO4)4(HAsO4)2O2 · 8H2O
Type Locality:
Description: In the Negra vein (Veta Negra)
Reference: Canadian Mineralogist 47,947(2009)
Brannerite
Formula: UTi2O6
Habit: thin prismatic
Colour: black
Description: Inclusions surrounded by radiation halo, in quartz crystals.
Reference: SEM analysis by Tony Nikischer, Excalibur Mineral Co.
'Bravoite'
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:623-632; Dill, H.G. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 359-378.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Bromargyrite
Formula: AgBr
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Jorge Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia. (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
Brüggenite
Formula: Ca(IO3)2 · H2O
Reference: Konnert, J.A., Evans, H.T., McGee, J.L., Ericksen, G.E. (1994) Mineralogical studies of the nitrate deposits of Chile: VII. Two new saline minerals with the composition K6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(XO4)12(IO3)12·12H2O: Fuenzalidaite (X = S) and carlosruizite (X = Se). American Mineralogist: 79(9-10): 1003-1008.
Burbankite
Formula: (Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5
Reference: Powder XRD and EDS by Dr. Anthony R. Kampf, April-May 2005.
Butlerite
Formula: Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
Reference: Peter G. Seroka collection
Cadwaladerite (TL)
Formula: Al5(H2O)3(OH)12 · n(Cl,H2O)
Description: Never observed during several visits by Peter G. Seroka.
Reference: Notulae Naturae, Acad.Nat.Sci., Philadelphia (1941) no. 80, 4 pp.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 77.
Calaverite
Formula: AuTe2
Reference: USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 255.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 80 localities in this region.
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Reference: André-Mayer, A. S., Leroy, J., Bailly, L., Chauvet, A., Marcoux, E., Grancea, L., ... & Rosas, J. (2002). Boiling and vertical mineralization zoning: a case study from the Apacheta low-sulfidation epithermal gold-silver deposit, southern Peru. Mineralium Deposita, 37(5), 452-464.
'Calcite Group'
Formula: AXO3
Reference: Chauvet, A., Bailly, L., André, A.-S., Monié, P., Cassard, D., Tajada, F.L., Vargas, J.R., and Tuduri, J. (2006): Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru. Mineralium Deposita 41, 387-410.
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 631.
Camanchacaite (TL)
Formula: NaCaMg2[AsO4][AsO3(OH)]2
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Celestian, A.J., Dini, M., and Molina Donoso, A.A. (2019) Camanchacaite, chinchorroite, espadaite, magnesiofluckite, picaite and ríosecoite: six new hydrogen-arsenate minerals from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine: 83: 655-671.
Camaronesite (TL)
Formula: [Fe3+(H2O)2(PO3OH)]2(SO4) · 1-2H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A. R., Mills, S. J., Nash, B. P., Housley, R. M., Rossman, G. R., Dini, M. and Gatta G.D. (2013): Camaronesite, [Fe3+(H2O)2(PO3OH)]2(SO4)•1–2H2O, a new phosphate-sulfate from the Camarones Valley, Chile, structurally related to taranakite. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 453-465.
Cancrinite
Formula: (Na,Ca,◻)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Woolley, A.R. (1987) Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the world. p 167.
Canfieldite
Formula: Ag8SnS6
Reference: Ahlfeld, F. and Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Canutite (TL)
Formula: NaMn3[AsO4][AsO3(OH)]2
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Mills, S.J., Hatert, F., Nash, B. and Dini, M. (2013) Canutite, IMA 2013-070. CNMNC Newsletter No. 18, December 2013, page 3251; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 3249-3258; Kampf, A.R., Mills, S.J., Hatert, F., Nash, B.P., Dini, M. & Molina Donoso, A.A. (2014): Canutite, NaMn3[AsO4][AsO3(OH)]2, a new protonated alluaudite-group mineral from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine,78, 787-795.
Caracolite
Formula: Na3Pb2(SO4)3Cl
Habit: Lustrous, thick hexagonal tabs
Colour: Colorless
Description: Crusts of perfectly colorless crystals on matrix.
Reference: Schluter, J., Pohl, D., & Britvin, S. (2005). The new mineral challacolloite, KPb2Cl5, the natural occurrence of a technically known laser material. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen, 182(1), 95-101.
Carlosruizite (TL)
Formula: K6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(SeO4)12(IO3)12 · 12H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Konnert, J.A., Evans, H.T., McGee, J.L., Ericksen, G.E. (1994) Mineralogical studies of the nitrate deposits of Chile: VII. Two new saline minerals with the composition K6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(XO4)12(IO3)12·12H2O: Fuenzalidaite (X = S) and carlosruizite (X = Se). American Mineralogist: 79(9-10): 1003-1008.; The Mineralogical Record: 27: 201.
Carnotite
Formula: K2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Egert R., Ernesto; Vieira G., Camilo; Bobenrieth G., Luis (1983): Mineralization of uranium associated with halite from Salar Grande, I Region de Tarapaca, Chile. Minerales 38, 7-19 (in Spanish).; Perez Andraca, Luis Ernesto (1987): Uranium occurrences in Neogene formations of northern Chile. Nucleotecnica 12, 15-29 (in Spanish).; Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter, Curator of Hamburg Mineralogical Museum, Germany
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Localities: Reported from at least 178 localities in this region.
Habit: Crystals to 8cm, twins to 5cm
Colour: Colorless, Dark brown, phantoms
Reference: Min Rec (1977) 8:52-57; Artiaga, D., Torres, B., Torró, L., Tauler, E., Melgarejo, J. C., & Arce, O. R. (2013) The Viloco Sn-W-Mo-As deposits, Bolivia: geology and mineralogy. pp 1239-1242 12th SGA Meeting Vol 3; Sugaki, A. (1985). Geological study on the ore deposits in the La Paz district, Bolivia. Sci. Rept. Tohoku Univ., Ser. III, 16, 131-198.
Cassiterite var. Wood Tin
Formula: SnO2
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Osvaldo R. Arce Burgoa (2007) Guía a los Yacimientos Metalíferos de Bolivia, p 48-49.
Celadonite
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Reference: Ahlfeld, F. and Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Cerromojonite (TL)
Formula: CuPbBiSe3
Type Locality:
Reference: Förster, H.-J., Bindi, L., Grundmann, G. and Stanley, C.J. (2018) Cerromojonite, IMA 2018-040. CNMNC Newsletter No. 44, August 2018, page xxx; Mineralogical Magazine: 82: xxx–xxx.; Förster, H.-J., Bindi, L., Grundmann, G., Stanley, C.J. (2018): Cerromojonite, CuPbBiSe3, from El Dragόn (Bolivia): A New Member of the Bournonite Group. Minerals, 8: 420
Ceruleite
Formula: Cu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
Reference: A.Molina & M. Dini collections
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld y Jorge Munoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia. (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
Cervantite
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+O4
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Cervelleite
Formula: Ag4TeS
Reference: Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Brian Kosnar specimen, minID L9P-0K2.
Chalcoalumite
Formula: CuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Reference: Luigi Mattei specimen
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 71 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Chalcomenite
Formula: CuSeO3 · 2H2O
Reference: [MinRec 21:141]; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Chalconatronite
Formula: Na2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Maurizio Dini; Schlüter, J., T. Malcherek & D. Pohl (2007): "Sanrománite, from the Santa Rosa mine, Atacama desert, Chile, a new mineral of the burbankite group": Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, 183, 117-121.
Chalcophanite
Formula: ZnMn4+3O7 · 3H2O
Reference: Mondillo, N., Boni, M., Balassone, G. & Villa. I. M. (2014): The Yanque Prospect (Peru): From Polymetallic Zn-Pb Mineralization to a Nonsulfide Deposit. Economic Geology. 109, 1735-1762.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 182 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Chalcosiderite
Formula: CuFe3+6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Reference: arturo molina & maurizio dini collections
Chalcostibite
Formula: CuSbS2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), pp 268-271 (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Challacolloite (TL)
Formula: KPb2Cl5
Type Locality:
Reference: J. Schlüter at al.: N. Jb. Min. Abh. 182(1):95-101 (2005)
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:623-632; Dill, H.G. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 359-378.
Chamosite var. Daphnite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)5Al(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Reference: Mlynarczyk, M. S. (2005). Constraints on the Genesis of Lode-style Tin Mineralization: Evidence from the San Rafael Tin-copper Deposit, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, McGill University).
Chanabayaite (TL)
Formula: CuCl(N3C2H2)(NH3) · 0.25H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Chukanov, N.V., Zubkova, N.V., Möhn, G., Pekov, I.V., Zadov, A.E. and Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (2013) Chanabayaite, IMA 2013-065. CNMNC Newsletter No. 17, October 2013, page 3004; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2997-3005.; Chukanov, N.V., Zubkova, N.V., Mohn, G., Pekov, I.V., Pushcharovsky, D.Yu., Zadov, A.E. (2015): Chanabayaite, Cu2(N3C2H2)2Cl(NH3Cl,H2О,□)4 a new mineral containing triazolate anion. Zapiski RMO, 144(2), 36-47.
Childrenite
Formula: Fe2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 938, 973; Hyrsl, J. & A. Petrov (2006): Famous Mineral Localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record. 37: 117-162
Chinchorroite (TL)
Formula: Na2Mg5(As2O7)2(AsO3OH)2(H2O)10
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Celestian, A.J., Dini, M., and Molina Donoso, A.A. (2019) Camanchacaite, chinchorroite, espadaite, magnesiofluckite, picaite and ríosecoite: six new hydrogen-arsenate minerals from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine: 83: 655-671.
Chlorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Ulf Kempe, et al (2008) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (in press)
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 73 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Chongite (TL)
Formula: Ca3Mg2(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)2 · 4H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B., Dini, M. and Molina Donoso, A.A. (2015) Chongite, IMA 2015-039. CNMNC Newsletter No. 26, August 2015, page 946; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 941-947; Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Dini, M., Molina Donoso, A.A. (2016): Chongite, Ca3Mg2(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)2·4H2O, a new arsenate member of the hureaulite group from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine: 80: 1255-1263
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Schultz (2004)
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Localities: Reported from at least 52 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Schultz, F. et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408.
Chudobaite
Formula: (Mg,Zn)5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 10H2O
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Dini, M., Molina Donoso, A.A. (2013): Magnesiokoritnigite, Mg(AsO3OH)•H2O, from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile: the Mg-analogue of koritnigite. Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 3081-3092.
Churchite-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Reference: Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Claudetite
Formula: As2O3
Reference: Samples analysed by Tony Kampf of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
Clausthalite
Formula: PbSe
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
'Clays'
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Clinoatacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: SEM-EDS and Raman Spectroscopy by Joy Desor
'Clinochalcomenite'
Formula: CuSeO3 · 2H2O
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Mlynarczyk, M. S. (2005). Constraints on the Genesis of Lode-style Tin Mineralization: Evidence from the San Rafael Tin-copper Deposit, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, McGill University).
Clinochlore var. Ripidolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Reference: Mlynarczyk, M. S. (2005). Constraints on the Genesis of Lode-style Tin Mineralization: Evidence from the San Rafael Tin-copper Deposit, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, McGill University).
Clino-oscarkempffite (TL)
Formula: Ag15Pb6Sb21Bi18S72
Type Locality:
Reference: Topa, D., Makovicky, E. and Paar, W.H. (2013) Clino-oscarkempffite, IMA 2012- 086. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2696; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709.(& Dan Topa, pers. comm. to Uwe Kolitsch)
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Schultz (2004)
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Reference: Cacho, A., Melgarejo Draper, J. C., Torró Abat, L., Arqués, L., Martínez, Á., Torres, B., ... & Arce, O. (2015). Huanuni, Bonanza and La Suerte Mines: mineralogy, geochemistry and structure. In Mineral resources in a sustainable world: 13th Biennial SGA Meeting 24-27 August 2015, Nancy, France: proceedings (pp. 691-694).; Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Cobaltomenite
Formula: CoSeO3 · 2H2O
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482.
'Coeruleolactite'
Reference: SEM analyses by Gene Foord, U.S. Geological Survey, done as part of an unpublished study of the turquoise group (analyses copies courtesy of Brian Kosnar)
Coffinite
Formula: U(SiO4) · nH2O
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Coiraite
Formula: (Pb,Sn)12.5Sn5FeAs3S28
Reference: Torró, L., Cazorla, M., Melgarejo, J. C., Camprubí, A., Tarrés, M., Gemmrich, L., ... & Mollinedo, D. (2019). Indium Mineralization in the Volcanic Dome-Hosted Ánimas–Chocaya–Siete Suyos Polymetallic Deposit, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 9(10), 604.
Colquiriite (TL)
Formula: CaLi[AlF6]
Type Locality:
Reference: Walenta, K., Lehmann, B., Zwiener, M. (1980) Colquiriite, a new fluoride mineral from the Colquiri tin ore deposit, Bolivia. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 27: 275-281.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Jorge Munoz Reyes: Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia, 1955)
Colusite
Formula: Cu13VAs3S16
Reference: http://www.portergeo.com.au/database/mineinfo.asp?mineid=mn609#browse (accessed 01/19/2018)
Conichalcite
Formula: CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Jolyon Ralph collection (purchased in Tucson, 2008)
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Description: Found on the south side of Pabellón de Pica.
Reference: SEM-EDS and Raman Spectroscopy by Joy Desor
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Shimada et al (1985) Cookeite from antimony veins of the Caracota mine, Bolivia. Mineralogical Journal, 12, 218-224.
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
'Copiapite Group'
Reference: Alfredo Petrov specimens
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
Reference: Laznicka Petter (2006) Giant Metallic Deposits Future Sources of Industrial Metals
Coquimbite
Formula: AlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12 · 6H2O
Reference: Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Coronadite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Salomon Rivas & Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz); Salomon Rivas & Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Cosalite
Formula: Pb2Bi2S5
Reference: Alfredo Petrov specimen, analyzed by Dr Frank Keutsch
Cotunnite
Formula: PbCl2
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 44; J. Schlüter at al.: N. Jb. Min. Abh. 182(1):95-101 (2005)
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Localities: Reported from at least 52 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Crandallite
Formula: CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Creaseyite
Formula: Pb2Cu2Fe3+2(Si4.67Al0.33)O15.33(OH)3 · H2O
Reference: Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.; http://www.lrz-muenchen.de/~mineralogische-sammlungen-dmg/analysen/creaseyite.htm
Creedite
Formula: Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 130.
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Cronstedtite
Formula: Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Reference: [MinRec 32:472]; Min Rec 34 (2003), 155; Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: Alfredo Petrov specimens
Cuatrocapaite-(K) (TL)
Formula: K3(NaMg◻)(As2O3)6Cl6 · 16H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Chukanov, N.V., Möhn, G., Dini, M., Molina Donoso, A.A., Friis, H. (2019) Cuatrocapaite-(NH4) and cuatrocapaite-(K), two new minerals from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile, related to lucabindiite and gajardoite. Mineralogical Magazine: 83(5): 741-748.
Cuatrocapaite-(NH4) (TL)
Formula: (NH4)3(NaMg◻)(As2O3)6Cl6 · 16H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Chukanov, N.V., Möhn, G., Dini, M., Molina Donoso, A.A., Friis, H. (2019) Cuatrocapaite-(NH4) and cuatrocapaite-(K), two new minerals from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile, related to lucabindiite and gajardoite. Mineralogical Magazine: 83(5): 741-748; Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., & Molina Donoso, A. (2020). Mauriziodiniite, NH4(As2O3)2I, the ammonium and iodine analogue of lucabindiite from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine, 84(2), 267-273.
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Reference: Yuming Chen and Kaitian Wang (2008): Geophysical & Geochemical Exploration 32(2), 126-130
Cuprite var. Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: arturo molina & maurizio dini collections
Cuprite var. Tile ore
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Cuprobismutite ?
Formula: Cu8AgBi13S24
Description: (Label says only "La Paz", but very likely from Marcamarcani mine.)
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum specimen # M13339
Currierite (TL)
Formula: Na4Ca3MgAl4(AsO3OH)12 · 9H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Mills, S.J., Nash, B., Dini, M. and Molina Donoso, A.A. (2016): Currierite, IMA 2016-030. CNMNC Newsletter No. 32, August 2016, page 920; Mineralogical Magazine: 80: 915–922
Cuyaite (TL)
Formula: Ca2Mn3+As3+14O24Cl
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Mills, S.J., Nash, B., Dini, M., Donoso, A.A.M. (2020) Cuyaite, Ca2 Mn3+ As3+14O24Cl, a new mineral with an arsenite framework from near Cuya, Camarones Valley, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine: 84: 477-484.; Kampf, A.R., Nash, B., Dini, M., Molina Donoso, A.A. (2020) Cuyaite, IMA 2019-126; in: CNMNC Newsletter 54. European Journal of Mineralogy: 32. https://doi.org/10.5194/ejm-32-275-2020.
Cyanotrichite
Formula: Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Reference: Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany; http://www.lrz-muenchen.de/~mineralogische-sammlungen-dmg/analysen/Cyanotrichit.htm
Cylindrite (TL)
Formula: Pb3Sn4FeSb2S14
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: [MinRec 32:479]
Danburite
Formula: CaB2Si2O8
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection
D'Ansite
Formula: Na21Mg(SO4)10Cl3
Reference: Diaby, N., Dold, B., Buselli, E., & Vicetti, R. (2006). EFFECTS ON ELEMENT MOBILITY BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WETLAND ON THE MARINE SHORE PORPHYRY COPPER TAILINGS DEPOSIT, BAHÍA DE ITE, PERU. In 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), March (pp. 26-30).
Daqingshanite-(Ce)
Formula: (Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Reference: Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408
Darapskite
Formula: Na3(SO4)(NO3) · H2O
Reference: Gunnar Färber specimens
Daubréeite (TL)
Formula: (BiO)(OH,Cl)
Reference: Domeyko (1876); Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 62.
Dawsonite
Formula: NaAlCO3(OH)2
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection; Laszlo Horvath collection
Descloizite
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Reference: A.Molina collection; material have been analysed by quantitative and semi quantitavive methods by B.Jenkins
Despujolsite
Formula: Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:623-632; Dill, H.G. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 359-378.
Diadochite
Formula: Fe3+2(PO4)(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Reference: [MinRec 32:474]; Hyrsl, J. & A. Petrov (2006): Famous Mineral Localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record. 37: 117-162
Diamond
Formula: C
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld (1967) Mineralogía Boliviana (Enciclopedia Boliviana, Los Amigos del Libro)
Diaphorite
Formula: Ag3Pb2Sb3S8
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: [MinRec 32:474]
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: Marcoux, E., Moëlo, Y. & Milési, J.P. (1994): Vinciennite and Cu-excess tennantite from Layo (Cu, Sn, As, Au) epithermal deposits (Southern Peru). Mineral. Petrol. 51, 21-36.
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Reference: PXRD by John Attard, 18-01-2012
Dietzeite
Formula: Ca2(IO3)2(CrO4) · H2O
Reference: Konnert, J.A., Evans, H.T., McGee, J.L., Ericksen, G.E. (1994) Mineralogical studies of the nitrate deposits of Chile: VII. Two new saline minerals with the composition K6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(XO4)12(IO3)12·12H2O: Fuenzalidaite (X = S) and carlosruizite (X = Se). American Mineralogist: 79(9-10): 1003-1008.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.; Chelle-Michou, C. (2013). Geochronologic and petrologic evolution of the magmatic suite associated with the Eocene Coroccohuayco deposit, and its role in the genesis of the associated Cu (-Au) porphyry-skarn mineralization, Tintaya district, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva).
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Zori, C., & Tropper, P. (2013). Silver lining: evidence for Inka silver refining in northern Chile. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40(8), 3282-3292.
Dioptase
Formula: CuSiO3 · H2O
Reference: (specimens on sale in Lima, May 2004)
Dittmarite
Formula: (NH4)Mg(PO4) · H2O
Reference: http://forum.amiminerals.org/viewtopic.php?t=3756&highlight=patache
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Reference: Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: J.R. de Wet and J.D. Singleton (2008) Development of a viable process for the recovery of zinc from oxide ores. The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 108:253-259
Dolomite var. Iron-bearing Dolomite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Reference: Dr Günter Grundmann specimens
Domeykite
Formula: Cu3As
Reference: J. T. Singewald Jr. & Edward Berry (1922)
Donnayite-(Y)
Formula: NaCaSr3Y(CO3)6 · 3H2O
Reference: A.R. Kampf
Doyleite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Reference: Chris Stefano specimen
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Moricz, F., Walder, I. F., & Madai, F. (2009). Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of waste material from Itos Sn-Ag deposit, Bolivia. Proceeding of securing the future and 8th ICARD. Skellefteå, Sweden, 525-534.
Drugmanite
Formula: Pb2(Fe3+,Al)(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)2
Reference: Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Dumortierite
Formula: (Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3
Reference: Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
Dyscrasite
Formula: Ag3Sb
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Edingtonite
Formula: Ba[Al2Si3O10] · 4H2O
Reference: A.R. Kampf
'Elaterite'
Formula: (C,H,O,S)
Reference: Arch. Mineral. Warsaw, vol. 12, pp.90-95, 1936
'Elaterite var. Thioelaterite' (FRL)
Type Locality:
Reference: Arch. Mineral. Warsaw, vol. 12, pp.90-95, 1936
Eldragónite (TL)
Formula: Cu6BiSe4(Se2)
Type Locality:
Reference: Cooper, M.A., Moëlo, Y., Paar, W.H., Raith, J.G., Rowe, R., Roberts, A.C., Stirling, J. and Stanley, C.J. (2011) Eldragónite, IMA 2010-077. CNMNC Newsletter No. 8, April 2011, page 293; Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 289-294.; Werner, H.P., Coopper, M.K., Moëlo, Y., Stanley, C. J., Putz, H. & Topa, D. (2012): Eldragonite, Cu6BiSe4(Se-2), A new mineral species from the El Dragon Mine, Potosi, Bolivia, and its crystal structure. Canadian Mineralogist: 50, 282-294.; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Emplectite
Formula: CuBiS2
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Enstatite
Formula: Mg2Si2O6
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1994, 6, pp. 145-150.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 37 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Heys Mineral Index 3rd ed.
Epsomite var. Aromite (of Darapsky)
Formula: near Mg6Al2(SO4)9 · 54H2O
Reference: Heys Mineral Index 3rd ed.
Eriochalcite
Formula: CuCl2 · 2H2O
Reference: Diaby, N., Dold, B., Buselli, E., & Vicetti, R. (2006). EFFECTS ON ELEMENT MOBILITY BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WETLAND ON THE MARINE SHORE PORPHYRY COPPER TAILINGS DEPOSIT, BAHÍA DE ITE, PERU. In 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), March (pp. 26-30).
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: [MinRec 32:474]
Eskebornite
Formula: CuFeSe2
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Espadaite (TL)
Formula: Na4Ca3Mg2[AsO3(OH)]2[AsO2(OH)2]10 · 7H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Celestian, A.J., Dini, M., and Molina Donoso, A.A. (2019) Camanchacaite, chinchorroite, espadaite, magnesiofluckite, picaite and ríosecoite: six new hydrogen-arsenate minerals from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine: 83: 655-671.
Esperite
Formula: PbCa2Zn3(SiO4)3
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]
Eugsterite
Formula: Na4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2O
Reference: SEM/EDAX analyzed - Hans Peter Bojar (main author of Ammineite)
Evansite
Formula: Al3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
Reference: [MinRec 32:474]; Hyrsl, J. & A. Petrov (2006): Famous Mineral Localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record. 37: 117-162
Falkmanite
Formula: Pb3Sb2S6
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Famatinite
Formula: Cu3SbS4
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), pp 268-271 (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Famatinite var. Stibioluzonite (of Schneiderhöhn & Ramdohr)
Formula: Cu3SbS4
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), pp 268-271 (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
'Farallonite'
Formula: 2MgO · W2O5 · SiO2 · nH2O?
Reference: Kohanowski, N.N. (1953) Mines Mag. (Colorado) 43, #2, 17-24.
Faustite
Formula: ZnAl6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Reference: SEM analyses by Gene Foord, U.S. Geological Survey, done as part of an unpublished study of the turquoise group (analyses copies courtesy of Brian Kosnar); Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Favreauite (TL)
Formula: PbBiCu6O4(SeO3)4(OH) · H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Mills, S.J., Kampf, A.R., Housley, R.M., Christy, A.G., Thorne, B., Chen, Y.-S. and Steele, I.M. (2014) Favreauite, a new selenite mineral from the El Dragón mine, Bolivia. European Journal of Mineralogy: 26: 771-781.; Mills, S.J. (2014) Un hommage à la contribution de Georges FAVREAU à la minéralogie: favreauite, un nouveau minéral de la mine El Dragón, Bolivie. Cahier des Micromonteurs: 124: 36-39.; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals: 7(5): 68, doi:10.3390/min7050068.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007_Peruvian_meteorite_event
'Feldspar Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahlfeld, F. and Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. Ministerio de Minas y Petróleo (La Paz), Boletín No. 5 (especial), p 74.
Felsőbányaite
Formula: Al4(SO4)(OH)10 · 4H2O
Description: (originally reported as "basaluminite")
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Localities: Reported from at least 45 localities in this region.
Reference: Collections of Alfredo Petrov and Dr. Jaroslav Hyrsl. Wet chemistry analysis by COMIBOL.
Ferberite var. Reinite
Formula: FeWO4
Reference: Ahlfeld & Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
Ferrimolybdite
Formula: Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Ferrinatrite
Formula: Na3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2O
Reference: Wet Chemical by Gerhard Möhn
Ferrivauxite (TL)
Formula: Fe3+Al2(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Raade, G., Grice, J. and Rowe, R. (2014) Ferrivauxite, IMA 2014-003. CNMNC Newsletter No. 20, June 2014, page 555; Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 549-558.; Raade, G., Grice, J.D., Rowe, R. (2016): Ferrivauxite, a new phosphate mineral from Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, 311-324
Ferro-hornblende
Formula: ◻Ca2(Fe2+4Al)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
Reference: Laubacher, G. (1978) estudio geologico de la region norte del Lago Titicaca. Boletin Instituto de Geologia y Mineria, 5, series D, 1-122
Ferrokësterite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Reference: No reference listed
Fibroferrite
Formula: Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Reference: [MinRec 32:472]; Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Fizélyite
Formula: Ag5Pb14Sb21S48
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Fleischerite
Formula: Pb3Ge(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:623-632; Dill, H.G. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 359-378.
'Florencite'
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 1998 62 : 421-429.
Florencite-(Ce)
Formula: CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Hyrsl, J. & A. Petrov (2006): Famous Mineral Localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record. 37: 117-162
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: (Widespread in collections in Bolivia.)
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Reference: Associated to challacolloite in M.E. Ciriotti collection (2005)
Fluorwavellite
Formula: Al3(PO4)2(OH)2F · 5H2O
Description: Kampf et al. (2107) has analyzed five Wavellites from here and found all are Fluorwavellite with an average of 0.76 apfu F.
Reference: Kampf et al. (2017) American Mineralogist v. 102 pp. 909-919
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: Meteoritical Bulletin #106 - https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=65369
Fraipontite
Formula: (Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Reference: maurzi
Franckeite (TL)
Formula: Fe2+(Pb,Sn2+)6Sn4+2Sb2S14
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Reference: [MinRec 32:461]
Franckeite var. Incaite
Formula: (Pb,Ag)4Sn4FeSb2S15
'Freibergite Subgroup'
Formula: ([Ag6]4+,(Ag,Cu)6)((Cu,Ag)4C2+2)Sb4S12S0-1
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), pp 268-271 (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Freieslebenite
Formula: AgPbSbS3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Fuenzalidaite
Formula: K6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(SO4)12(IO3)12 · 12H2O
Reference: collected by Reynaldo Contreira
Fülöppite
Formula: Pb3Sb8S15
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:623-632; Dill, H. G., Weiser, T., Bernhardt, I. R., & Kilibarda, C. R. (1995). The composite gold-antimony vein deposit at Kharma (Bolivia). Economic Geology, 90(1), 51-66.
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Reference: EDS results by ; EDS results by Joel Dyer (Qv: http://www.mindat.org/forum.php?read,11,395017,395087#msg-395087 )
Gajardoite (TL)
Formula: KCa0.5As3+4O6Cl2 · 5H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B., Dini, M. and Molina Donoso, A.A. (2015) Gajardoite, IMA 2015-040. CNMNC Newsletter No. 26, August 2015, page 947; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 941-947 ; Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Dini, M. Molina Donoso, A.A. (2016): Gajardoite, KCa0.5As3+4O6Cl2·5H2O, a new mineral related to lucabindiite and torrecillasite from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, 1265-1272.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 192 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Galena var. Silver-bearing Galena
Formula: PbS with Ag
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Jorge Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia. (Banco Minero de Bolivia, 180 pp)
Galenobismutite
Formula: PbBi2S4
Reference: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Altiplano and Cordillera Occidental, Bolivia (USGS Bulletin no. 1975)
Garavellite
Formula: FeSbBiS4
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Chelle-Michou, C. (2013). Geochronologic and petrologic evolution of the magmatic suite associated with the Eocene Coroccohuayco deposit, and its role in the genesis of the associated Cu (-Au) porphyry-skarn mineralization, Tintaya district, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva).
Gearksutite
Formula: Ca[Al(F,OH)5(H2O)]
Reference: Walenta, K., Lehmann, B., & Zwiener, M. (1980). Colquiriit, ein neues Fluoridmineral aus der Zinnlagerstätte von Colquiri in Bolivien. Tschermaks mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, 27(4), 275-281.; SUGAKI, A., & KITAKAZE, A. (1988). Tin-bearing minerals from Bolivian polymetallic deposits and their mineralization stages. Mining Geology, 38(211), 419-435.
Geocronite
Formula: Pb14(Sb,As)6S23
Reference: Ahlfeld, F. & Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia.
Gerhardtite
Formula: Cu2(NO3)(OH)3
Reference: Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Reference: Dr. Fritz Berndt collection (Dr. Frank Keutsch analysis)
Gibbsite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Glauberite
Formula: Na2Ca(SO4)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: maurizio dini collection - analysed material
'Glauconite'
Formula: (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Reference: Alfredo Petrov specimens
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 76 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Gold var. Electrum
Formula: (Au,Ag)
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 255.
Goldichite
Formula: KFe(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Peter G. Seroka collection
Gonnardite
Formula: (Na,Ca)2(Si,Al)5O10 · 3H2O
Reference: Visual ID by Laszlo Horvath.
Goslarite
Formula: ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: [MinRec 32:465]
Goyazite
Formula: SrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Analyses by Dr. Anthony Kampf on Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History specimens and Alfredo Petrov specimens; see also Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408.
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1994, 6, pp. 145-150.
Greenalite
Formula: (Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
Reference: A.R. Kampf
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Grimaldiite ?
Formula: CrO(OH)
Description: The Livingstone reference contained within MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, DECEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 560 2 actually refers to the Hiaca Mine for Grimaldiite and not this mine.
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482. Livingstone, A., Jackson, B., Davidson, P.J. (1984) Grimaldiite, CrOOH, a second occurrence, from the Hiaca Mine, Colquechaca, Bolivia. Mineraligical Magazine, December 1984, Vol.48, pp. 560-562.
Grundmannite (TL)
Formula: CuBiSe2
Type Locality:
Reference: Förster, H.-J., Bindi, L. and Stanley, C.J. (2015) Grundmannite, IMA 2015-038. CNMNC Newsletter No. 26, August 2015, page 946; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 941-947.; Förster, H.-J., Bindi, L., Stanley, C.J. (2016): Grundmannite, CuBiSe2, the Se-analogue of emplectite, a new mineral from the El Dragon mine, Potosi, Bolivia. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 467-477.; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Guanajuatite
Formula: Bi2Se3
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:1206-1221
Gudmundite
Formula: FeSbS
Reference: Aguirre Cernades, H. C. (2017). Caracterización y exploración geológica del Proyecto Crucero-Puno. Universidad Nacional del Altiplano – Puno
'Gummite'
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
'Gumucionite'
Formula: ZnS
Reference: [MinRec 32:474]
Gustavite
Formula: AgPbBi3S6
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 47 localities in this region.
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Gypsum var. Alabaster
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
Gypsum var. Selenite
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Alfredo Petrov, field observations.
Hagendorfite
Formula: NaCaMn2+Fe2+2(PO4)3
Reference: John White collection (from David New stock, 1976); [MinRec 32:474]; Hyrsl, J. & A. Petrov (2006): Famous Mineral Localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record. 37: 117-162
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Reference: Schlüter, J. & Malcherek, T. Haydeeite, Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2, a new mineral from the Haydee mine, Salar Grande, Atacama desert, Chile. NJMA 184, 39-42 (2007)
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Maria Boni, Paul Rudolf Schmidt, Jacobus Rudolph De Wet, Jacob Daniel Singleton, Giuseppina Balassone, Nicola Mondillo (2009) Mineralogical signature of nonsulfide zinc ores at Accha (Peru): A key for recovery. Int. J. Miner. Process. 93:267–277
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
'Halotrichite-Pickeringite Series'
Reference: Rod Martin field observations
Hanauerite
Formula: AgHgSI
Colour: Yellow, turning gray when exposed to light.
Reference: SEM-EDS by Joy Desor
Hannayite
Formula: (NH4)2Mg3H4(PO4)4 · 8H2O
Description: "Punta de Lobos, 90 km south of Iquique"
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Hansblockite (TL)
Formula: (Cu,Hg)(Bi,Pb)Se2
Type Locality:
Reference: Förster, H.-J., Bindi, L., Stanley, C.J., Grundmann, G. (2016): Hansblockite, IMA 2015-103. CNMNC Newsletter No. 30, April 2016, page 408; Mineralogical Magazine: 80: 407–413; Förster, H-J., Bindi, L., Stanley, C.J., Grundmann, G. (2017): Hansblockite, (Cu,Hg)(Bi,Pb)Se2, the monoclinic polymorph of grundmannite: a new mineral from the Se mineralization at El Dragόn (Bolivia). Mineralogical Magazine, 81, 629–640.; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Harmotome
Formula: (Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2O
Reference: Powder XRD and EDS by Dr. Anthony R. Kampf, April-May 2005.
Hauchecornite
Formula: Ni9BiSbS8
Reference: USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 247.
Haydeeite (TL)
Formula: Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2
Reference: IMA website
Hectorfloresite (TL)
Formula: Na9(SO4)4(IO3)
Reference: Ericksen, G.E., Evans, H.T., Mrose, M.E., Mcgee, J.J., Marinenko, J.W., Konnert, J.A. (1989) Mineralogical studies of the nitrate deposits of Chile; VI, Hectorfloresite, Na9(IO3(SO4)4, a new saline mineral. American Mineralogist: 74(9-10): 1207-1214.
Hedegaardite (TL)
Formula: (Ca,Na)9(Ca,Na)Mg(PO4)6(PO3OH)
Type Locality:
Reference: Witzke, T., Phillips, B.L., Woerner, W., Countinho, J.M.V., Fa¨rber, G. and Contreira Filho, R.R. (2015) Hedegaardite, IMA 2014- 069. CNMNC Newsletter No. 23, February 2015, page 54; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 51-58.
Hedleyite
Formula: Bi7Te3
Reference: Smithsonian specimen 85382 (1975)
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 94 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Hematite var. Martite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Bin Wu and Zhenchao Ye (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(5), 1057-1067
Hematite var. Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Associated to challacolloite in M.E. Ciriotti collection (2005); Schluter, J., Pohl, D., & Britvin, S. (2005). The new mineral challacolloite, KPb2Cl5, the natural occurrence of a technically known laser material. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen, 182(1), 95-101.
Herbertsmithite
Formula: Cu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
Reference: maurizio dini collection - analysed material
Hercynite
Formula: Fe2+Al2O4
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1994, 6, pp. 145-150.
Herzenbergite (TL)
Formula: SnS
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Dana 7:I:259-260.; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 41, pp. 649-657 (2003)
Hessite
Formula: Ag2Te
Reference: Salomon Rivas & Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Heterogenite
Formula: Co3+O(OH)
Reference: GEOBOL, Boletín #11, June 1968.
Heteromorphite
Formula: Pb7Sb8S19
Reference: [MinRec 32:473]
Heterosite
Formula: (Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection and ID
Hexahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 6H2O
Reference: Diaby, N., Dold, B., Buselli, E., & Vicetti, R. (2006). EFFECTS ON ELEMENT MOBILITY BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WETLAND ON THE MARINE SHORE PORPHYRY COPPER TAILINGS DEPOSIT, BAHÍA DE ITE, PERU. In 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), March (pp. 26-30).
Heyrovskýite
Formula: Pb6Bi2S9
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Hinsdalite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Pastor, M., Pastor, A., Torró, L., Martínez, Á., Artiaga, D., Torres, B., ... & Alfonso, P. (2015) The San José-Itos Mines, Oruro, Bolivia: Structure and Ag-Sn Mineralization. in Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World • 13th SGA Biennial Meeting 2015. Proceedings, Volume 1 pp 327-330
Hisingerite
Formula: Fe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection; Laszlo Horvath collection
Hocartite (TL)
Formula: Ag2(Fe2+,Zn)SnS4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: American Mineralogist: 54, 573
'Hocartite-Pirquitasite Series'
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Hohmannite
Formula: Fe3+2(SO4)2O · 8H2O
Reference: Peter G. Seroka collection
Hopeite
Formula: Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Anthony Kampf analysis, Alfredo Petrov specimen.
'Hornblende'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Chelle-Michou, C. (2013). Geochronologic and petrologic evolution of the magmatic suite associated with the Eocene Coroccohuayco deposit, and its role in the genesis of the associated Cu (-Au) porphyry-skarn mineralization, Tintaya district, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva).
Hörnesite
Formula: Mg3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: XRD and SEM-EDS by Igor V. Pekov
Horomanite
Formula: Fe6Ni3S8
Reference: Hatløy, S. (2013). From cold to hot: post-Hirnantian sedimentary basins in Bolivia-A source rock for hydrocarbon deposits in the Andes?–A case study of the Uncía and Catavi formations. MS Thesis University of Stavanger.
Hübnerite
Formula: MnWO4
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahlfeld, F. & Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia.
Huntite
Formula: CaMg3(CO3)4
Reference: Collected by Reynaldo Contreira
Hydrochlorborite (TL)
Formula: Ca4B8O15Cl2 · 21H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: AmMin. 62:147-150 (1977)
Hydrokenoelsmoreite
Formula: 2W2O6(H2O)
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. The Mineralogical Record: 32(6): 457-482.
Hydrokenoralstonite
Formula: Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6 · H2O
Reference: Walenta, K., Lehmann, B., & Zwiener, M. (1980). Colquiriit, ein neues Fluoridmineral aus der Zinnlagerstätte von Colquiri in Bolivien. Tschermaks mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, 27(4), 275-281.
Hydroniumjarosite
Formula: (H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Samples analysed by Tony Kampf of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA; Kampf, A. R., Mills, S. J., Nash, B. P., Housley, R. M., Rossman, G. R., Dini, M. and Gatta G.D. (2013): Camaronesite, [Fe3+(H2O)2(PO3OH)]2(SO4)•1–2H2O, a new phosphate-sulfate from the Camarones Valley, Chile, structurally related to taranakite. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 453-465.
Hydrotungstite (TL)
Formula: WO3 · 2H2O
Reference: Amer. Mineral. (1944) 29, 192–210
Hydrowoodwardite
Formula: (Cu1-xAlx)(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2O
Reference: Gunnar Färber specimens (originally with a MIKON "nikischerite" label).
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Reference: Alfredo Petrov (1997) Mineral News, 13, #4.
Hydroxylapatite var. Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Reference: Alfredo Petrov (1997) Mineral News, 13, #4.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Maria Boni, Giuseppina Balassone, Vernon Arseneau, and Paul Schmidt (2009) The nonsulfide zinc deposit at Accha (southern Peru); geological and mineralogical characterization. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 104(2):267-289.; Maria Boni, Paul Rudolf Schmidt, Jacobus Rudolph De Wet, Jacob Daniel Singleton, Giuseppina Balassone, Nicola Mondillo (2009) Mineralogical signature of nonsulfide zinc ores at Accha (Peru): A key for recovery. Int. J. Miner. Process. 93:267–277
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1994, 6, pp. 145-150.
Ikunolite
Formula: Bi4(S,Se)3
Reference: (unpublished analysis of inclusion in native bismuth)
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Ilvaite ?
Formula: CaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Inyoite
Formula: Ca(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Reference: Hyrsl & Rosales (2003), Min. Record 34:251
Iodargyrite
Formula: AgI
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Iquiqueite (TL)
Formula: K3Na4Mg(CrO4)B24O39(OH) · 12H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Ericksen, G.E., Mrose, M.E., Marinenko, J.W., McGee, J.J. (1986) Mineralogical studies of the nitrate deposits of Chile. V. Iquiqueite, Na4K3Mg(CrO4)B24O39(OH).12H2O, a new saline mineral. American Mineralogist: 71: 830-836.
Iron
Formula: Fe
Reference: Meteoritical Bulletin #106 - https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=65369
Iron var. Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Meteoritical Bulletin #106 - https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=65369
'Iron oxide'
Reference: Xirouchakis, Dimitrios; Lindsley, Donald H.; Frost, B. Ronald (March 2001) Assemblages with titanite (CaTiOSiO4), Ca-Mg-Fe olivine and pyroxenes, Fe-Mg-Ti oxides, and quartz: Part II. Application. American Mineralogist. 86 (3), 259.
Izoklakeite
Formula: Pb27(Cu,Fe,Ag)2(Sb,Bi)19S57
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection; Frank Keutsch analysis.
Jahnsite-(MnMnMn)
Formula: {Mn2+}{Mn2+}{Mn2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Joy Desor analyses by EDS and Raman, December 2019.
Jalpaite
Formula: Ag3CuS2
Reference: Torres, B., Melgarejo, J. C., Torró, L., Camprubí, A., Castillo-Oliver, M., Artiaga, D., ... & Arce-Burgoa, O. R. (2019). The Poopó Polymetallic Epithermal Deposit, Bolivia: Mineralogy, Genetic Constraints, and Distribution of Critical Elements. Minerals, 9(8), 472.
Jamesonite
Formula: Pb4FeSb6S14
Localities: Reported from at least 59 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Jamesonite var. Sakharovaite
Formula: (Pb,Bi)4FeSb6S14
Reference: [MinRec 32:473]
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 48 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
'Jarosite-Natrojarosite Series'
Reference: Rod Martin field observations
Jeanbandyite (TL)
Formula: Fe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx
Type Locality:
Habit: crudely pseudo-octaedral aggregates (o,2 mm in diameter)
Reference: Kampf, A. R. (1982): Jeanbandyite a new member of the stottite group from Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record 13 (4), 235-239.; [MinRec 32:474]
'Jeromite'
Description: First locality known for jeromite that was NOT produced by a mine fire!
Reference: Checked by SEM and wet chemical analysis. Amorphous by PXRD.
Joanneumite (TL)
Formula: Cu(C3N3O3H2)2(NH3)2
Type Locality:
Reference: Bojar, H.-P., Walter, F. (2012) Joanneumite, IMA 2012-001. CNMNC Newsletter No. 13, June 2012, page 814; Mineralogical Magazine, 76, 807-817.;Bojar, H.-P., Walter, F., Baumgartner, J. (2017): Joanneumite, Cu(C3N3O3H2)2(NH3)2, a new mineral from Pabellón de Pica, Chile and the crystal structure of its synthetic analogue. Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 155–166.
Joëlbruggerite
Formula: Pb3Zn3(Sb5+,Te6+)As2O13(OH,O)
Reference: Zentilli, M. (2018) A unique Sn-bearing Bi-Ag-Sb, polymetallic, epithermal district in the Chilean Andes: Capitana Mine, Tignamar, Arica–relation to the Proterozoic-Paleozoic Belén Metamorphic Complex. XV Congress Geological Chile
Jordanite
Formula: Pb14(As,Sb)6S23
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), pp 268-271 (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
'Joséite'
Formula: Bi4TeS2
Reference: 2cm crystals! Several analytical confirmations by Dr. Werner Paar; Excalibur Mineral Co....
Juangodoyite (TL)
Formula: Na2Cu(CO3)2
Type Locality:
Reference: J. Schlüter, D. Pohl: N. Jb. Min. Abh. 182(1):11-14 (2005); Schlüter, J., T. Malcherek & D. Pohl (2007): "Sanrománite, from the Santa Rosa mine, Atacama desert, Chile, a new mineral of the burbankite group": Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, 183, 117-121.
Juansilvaite (TL)
Formula: Na5Al3[AsO3(OH)]4[AsO2(OH)2]2(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B., Dini, M. and Molina Donoso, A.A. (2015) Juansilvaite, IMA 2015-080. CNMNC Newsletter No. 28, December 2015, page 1863; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 1859–1864; Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Dini, M., Molina Donoso, A.A. (2017): Juansilvaite, Na5Al3[AsO3(OH)]4[AsO2(OH)2]2(SO4)2·4H2O, a new arsenate-sulfate from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 619–628.
Jurbanite
Formula: Al(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Kalsilite
Formula: KAlSiO4
Reference: Zori, C., & Tropper, P. (2013). Silver lining: evidence for Inka silver refining in northern Chile. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40(8), 3282-3292.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 58 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Kermesite
Formula: Sb2S2O
Reference: Philip Blümner specimens
'Kerstenite'
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]
Kësterite
Formula: Cu2ZnSnS4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
'K Feldspar'
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Reference: Chelle-Michou, C. (2013). Geochronologic and petrologic evolution of the magmatic suite associated with the Eocene Coroccohuayco deposit, and its role in the genesis of the associated Cu (-Au) porphyry-skarn mineralization, Tintaya district, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva).
'K Feldspar var. Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Chauvet, A., Bailly, L., André, A.-S., Monié, P., Cassard, D., Tajada, F.L., Vargas, J.R., and Tuduri, J. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 387-410.
Khademite
Formula: Al(SO4)F · 5H2O
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Kimuraite-(Y)
Formula: Ca(Y,Nd)2(CO3)4 · 6H2O
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Kleemanite
Formula: ZnAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Torres, B., Melgarejo, J. C., Torró, L., Camprubí, A., Castillo-Oliver, M., Artiaga, D., ... & Arce-Burgoa, O. R. (2019). The Poopó Polymetallic Epithermal Deposit, Bolivia: Mineralogy, Genetic Constraints, and Distribution of Critical Elements. Minerals, 9(8), 472.
Klockmannite
Formula: CuSe
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Krasnovite
Formula: Ba(Al,Mg)(PO4,CO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Habit: radial-fibrous spheres
Colour: light blue to white
Reference: Alfredo Petrov and Matthias Rheinlander specimens
Kröhnkite
Formula: Na2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
Krut'aite
Formula: CuSe2
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Kutnohorite
Formula: CaMn2+(CO3)2
Reference: Chauvet, A., Bailly, L., André, A.-S., Monié, P., Cassard, D., Tajada, F.L., Vargas, J.R., and Tuduri, J. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 387-410.
Laitakarite
Formula: Bi4Se2S
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Lammerite (TL)
Formula: Cu3(AsO4)2
Type Locality:
Reference: Tschermaks Min.Petr.Mitt. (1981) 28, 157-164; Paar, W. H., Cooper, M. A., Hawthorne, F. C., Moffatt, E., Gunter, M. E., Roberts, A. C., & Dunn, P. J. (2009). Braithwaiteite, NaCu5 (TiSb) O2 (AsO4) 4 [AsO3 (OH)] 2 (H2O) 8, a new mineral species from Laurani, Bolivia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 47(4), 947-952.
Lanarkite
Formula: Pb2(SO4)O
Reference: Dana 6:A2:10; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 130; Lapis (1983): 8(9): 6; http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/lanarkite.pdf
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: XRD by Dr. Jaroslav Hyrsl, Karlovy University, Prague.
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Description: Found on the south side of Pabellón de Pica in a cleft of Gabbro.
Reference: SEM-EDS and Raman Spectroscopy by Joy Desor
Lauraniite (TL)
Formula: Cu6Cd2(SO4)2(OH)12 · 5H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Elliott, P. and Kampf, A.R. (2019) Lauraniite, IMA 2019-049. CNMNC Newsletter No. 51; European Journal of Mineralogy, 31, https://doi.org/10.1127/ejm/2019/0031-2894
Lavendulan
Formula: NaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Reference: J.Coordination Chemistry 61,15-29(2008); Paar, W. H., Cooper, M. A., Hawthorne, F. C., Moffatt, E., Gunter, M. E., Roberts, A. C., & Dunn, P. J. (2009). Braithwaiteite, NaCu5 (TiSb) O2 (AsO4) 4 [AsO3 (OH)] 2 (H2O) 8, a new mineral species from Laurani, Bolivia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 47(4), 947-952.
Lazulite
Formula: MgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Alfredo Petrov and Jaroslav Hyrsl collections.
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: sample analysed by Tony Kampf, senior curator of NHM of LAC, California
Lemanskiite ?
Formula: NaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 3H2O
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009); Paar, W. H., Cooper, M. A., Hawthorne, F. C., Moffatt, E., Gunter, M. E., Roberts, A. C., & Dunn, P. J. (2009). Braithwaiteite, NaCu5 (TiSb) O2 (AsO4) 4 [AsO3 (OH)] 2 (H2O) 8, a new mineral species from Laurani, Bolivia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 47(4), 947-952.
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]
'Lepidolite'
Reference: Osvaldo R. Arce Burgoa (2007) Guia a los Yacimientos Metaliferos de Bolivia. (Minera San Cristobal S.A. & Empresa Minera Unificada S.A., La Paz)
Leucophosphite
Formula: KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
Reference: Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
'Leucoxene'
Reference: USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 150 & 248 (1992)
Leverettite (TL)
Formula: Cu3Co(OH)6Cl2
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Sciberras, M.J., Williams, P.A. and Dini, M. (2013) Leverettite, IMA 2013-011. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, 2013, page 2703; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709; Kampf, A.R., Sciberras, M.J., Williams, P.A., Dini, M. & Molina Donoso, A.A. (2013): Leverettite from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Provence, Chile: the Co-analogue of herbertsmithite. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 3047-3054.
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Joy Desor analyses by EDS and Raman, December 2019.
Likasite
Formula: Cu3(NO3)(OH)5 · 2H2O
Reference: Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
Lillianite
Formula: Pb3-2xAgxBi2+xS6
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Localities: Reported from at least 71 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahlfeld & Munoz Reyes (1955): Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Jorge Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia. (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
Lindströmite
Formula: Pb3Cu3Bi7S15
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Linnaeite
Formula: Co2+Co3+2S4
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:623-632; Dill, H.G. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 359-378.
Litharge
Formula: PbO
Reference: Alfredo Petrov and Jaroslav Hyrsl collections
Liveingite
Formula: Pb9As13S28
Reference: Cecioni A, Cornejo C, Ruz L.; Choquelimpie, un yacimiento epitermal", Actas n. 1 del Congreso Geológico Chileno, pag.181/183, agosto 2000; Econ Geol (1991) 86:1206-1221
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Lópezite
Formula: K2Cr6+2O7
Reference: Konnert, J.A., Evans, H.T., McGee, J.L., Ericksen, G.E. (1994) Mineralogical studies of the nitrate deposits of Chile: VII. Two new saline minerals with the composition K6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(XO4)12(IO3)12·12H2O: Fuenzalidaite (X = S) and carlosruizite (X = Se). American Mineralogist: 79(9-10): 1003-1008.; Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols, Handbook of Mineralogy.
Lucabindiite
Formula: (K,NH4)As4O6(Cl,Br)
Reference: Maurizio Dini
Ludlamite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Description: Large blocky crystals to 4cm, on siderite. Unfortunately, mostly associated with marcasite, subject to "pyrite disease", and the matrix decomposes relatively rapidly.
Reference: First found here in December 2003. -Alfredo Petrov
Ludlockite
Formula: PbFe3+4As3+10O22
Reference: SEM-EDS and XRD by Joy Desor and Gerhard Möhn
Luxembourgite
Formula: AgCuPbBi4Se8
Reference: Philippo, S., Hatert, F., Bruni, Y. & Vignola, P. (2019) Luxembourgite, IMA 2018-154. CNMNC Newsletter No. 49, June 2019, page xxx; Mineralogical Magazine 83, 323–328. Grundmann, G. & Förster, H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón selenium mineralization, Quijarro province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals 7, No. 68.
Luzonite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Madocite
Formula: Pb19(Sb,As)16S43
Reference: Walenta, K., Lehmann, B., & Zwiener, M. (1980). Colquiriit, ein neues Fluoridmineral aus der Zinnlagerstätte von Colquiri in Bolivien. Tschermaks mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, 27(4), 275-281.
Magnesiocanutite (TL)
Formula: NaMnMg2[AsO4]2[AsO2(OH)2]
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B., Dini, M., Molina Donoso, A.A. (2017) Magnesiocanutite, NaMnMg2[AsO4]2[AsO2(OH)2], a new protonated alluaudite-group mineral from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 1523-1531.
Magnesiocopiapite
Formula: MgFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Moricz, F., Walder, I. F., & Madai, F. (2009). Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of waste material from Itos Sn-Ag deposit, Bolivia. Proceeding of securing the future and 8th ICARD. Skellefteå, Sweden, 525-534.
Magnesiofluckite (TL)
Formula: CaMg(AsO3OH)2(H2O)2
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Celestian, A.J., Dini, M., and Molina Donoso, A.A. (2019) Camanchacaite, chinchorroite, espadaite, magnesiofluckite, picaite and ríosecoite: six new hydrogen-arsenate minerals from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine: 83: 655-671.
Magnesiokoritnigite (TL)
Formula: Mg(AsO3OH) · H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B. and Dini, M. (2013) Magnesiokoritnigite, IMA 2013-049. CNMNC Newsletter No. 17, October 2013, page 3001; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2997-3005; Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Dini, M., Molina Donoso, A.A. (2013): Magnesiokoritnigite, Mg(AsO3OH)•H2O, from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile: the Mg-analogue of koritnigite. Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 3081-3092; Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., & Molina Donoso, A. (2020). Mauriziodiniite, NH4(As2O3)2I, the ammonium and iodine analogue of lucabindiite from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine, 84(2), 267-273.
Magnesio-riebeckite
Formula: ◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe3+2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: GEOBOL-PNUD, Proyecto Asbesto, March 1977. (as "crocidolite")
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 66 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Magnetite var. Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Reference: Schultz (2004)
Mahnertite
Formula: NaCu3(AsO4)2Cl · 5H2O
Reference: SEM-EDS by Joy Desor
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 55 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Mandarinoite (TL)
Formula: Fe3+2(Se4+O3)3 · (6-x)H2O (x = 0.0-1.0)
Reference: Dunn, P.J., Peacor, D.R. & Sturman, B.D. (1978) Mandarinoite, a new ferric-iron selenite from Bolivia. Canadian Mineralogist Vol.16, pp.605-609. Hawthorne, F.C. (1984) The crystal structure of mandarinoite, Fe³⁺₂Se₃O₉.6H₂O. Canadian Mineralogist Vol.22, pp. 475-480.
'Manganese Oxides'
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: samples analysed by Anthony Kampf, Curator Emeritus of Mineral Sciences at NHM of LAC, California; Kampf, A.R., Sciberras, M.J., Williams, P.A., Dini, M. & Molina Donoso, A.A. (2013): Leverettite from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Provence, Chile: the Co-analogue of herbertsmithite. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 3047-3054.
Mansfieldite
Formula: AlAsO4 · 2H2O
Reference: samples analysed by Anthony Kampf, Curator Emeritus of Mineral Sciences at NHM of LAC, California
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 49 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Marshite
Formula: CuI
Reference: Palache et al (1944), Dana's System of Mineralogy, seventh ed., vol. II: 22.
Marshite var. Cupro-iodargyrite
Formula: (Ag,Cu)I
Reference: Palache et al (1944), Dana's System of Mineralogy, seventh ed., vol. II: 22.
Mascagnite
Formula: (NH4)2SO4
Reference: Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
Matildite
Formula: AgBiS2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 255.
Matlockite
Formula: PbFCl
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 60.
Maucherite
Formula: Ni11As8
Reference: USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 247.
Mauriziodiniite (TL)
Formula: (NH4)(As2O3)2I
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P. and Molina Donoso, A.A. (2019) Mauriziodiniite, IMA 2019-036. CNMNC Newsletter No. 51; European Journal of Mineralogy, 31, https://doi.org/10.1127/ejm/2019/0031-2894 ; Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., & Molina Donoso, A. (2020). Mauriziodiniite, NH4(As2O3)2I, the ammonium and iodine analogue of lucabindiite from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine, 84(2), 267-273.
Mawsonite
Formula: Cu6Fe2SnS8
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Mineralogical Magazine 1968 36 : 1045-1051.
'Mckelveyite'
Reference: Schultz, F. et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408.
Mckelveyite-(Y)
Formula: NaCaBa3Y(CO3)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Anthony R. Kampf
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Melanterite var. Copper-bearing Melanterite
Formula: (Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Reference: collected by Alfredo Petrov
'Melilite Group'
Formula: Ca2M(XSiO7)
Reference: Zori, C., & Tropper, P. (2013). Silver lining: evidence for Inka silver refining in northern Chile. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40(8), 3282-3292.
'Melnikovite'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Melonite
Formula: NiTe2
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Mélonjosephite
Formula: CaFe2+Fe3+(PO4)2(OH)
Reference: Hyrsl, J. & A. Petrov (2006): Famous Mineral Localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record. 37: 117-162
Mendozite
Formula: NaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Reference: Peter G. Seroka collection
Mercury
Formula: Hg
Locality: Río de la Ribera, Potosí City, Potosí, Bolivia - erroneously reported
Description: Anthropogenic.
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Meta-autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Geological Association of Canada (2014) Abstracts Fredericton Vol 37; Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Metahohmannite
Formula: Fe3+2(SO4)2O · 4H2O
Reference: Peter G. Seroka collection
Metasideronatrite
Formula: Na2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · H2O
Reference: Peter G. Seroka collection
Metastibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: [MinRec 32:473]
Metatorbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: GEOBOL, Boletín #11, June 1968.
Metavariscite
Formula: AlPO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Metavauxite (TL)
Formula: Fe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Reference: American Mineralogist (1927): 12: 264; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 972, 973; Hyrsl, J. & A. Petrov (2006): Famous Mineral Localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record. 37: 117-162
Metavivianite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Reference: XRD confirmation by Dr. Anthony Kampf.
Meurigite-K
Formula: KFe3+8(PO4)6(OH)7 · 6.5H2O
Reference: Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
Miargyrite
Formula: AgSbS2
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), pp 268-271 (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
'Mica Group'
Reference: Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Description: Sediment grain in guano.
Reference: SEM-EDS by Joy Desor
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Description: (Labelled simply "Cochabamba", but most likely from the La Sorpresa mine. In siderite.)
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum specimen
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: D. Harries
Minium
Formula: Pb3O4
Reference: Alfredo Petrov and Jaroslav Hyrsl collections
Mirabilite
Formula: Na2SO4 · 10H2O
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Misenite
Formula: K8H6(SO4)7
Reference: Excalibur Mineral Co. specimen
Möhnite (TL)
Formula: (NH4)K2Na(SO4)2
Type Locality:
Habit: Aggregates and clusters of brown imperfect bipyramidal or spindle-shaped crystals.
Reference: Chukanov, N.V., Aksenov, S.M., Rastsvetaeva, R.K., Pekov, I.V., Belakovskiy, D.I. and Britvin, S.N. (2015) Möhnite, IMA 2014-101. CNMNC Newsletter No. 24, April 2015, page 251; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 247-251.; Chukanov, N.V., Aksenov, S.M., Rastsvetaeva, R.K., Pekov, I.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Britvin, S.N. (2015): Möhnite, (NH4)K2Na(SO4)2, a new guano mineral from Pabellón de Pica, Chile. Mineralogy and Petrology, 109, 643-648.
Mohrite
Formula: (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Molybdomenite
Formula: PbSeO3
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
'Monazite'
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
'Monazite Group'
Formula: MTO4, where M = REE, Th, Ca, Bi; T = P, As
Reference: Torró, L., Cazorla, M., Melgarejo, J. C., Camprubí, A., Tarrés, M., Gemmrich, L., ... & Mollinedo, D. (2019). Indium Mineralization in the Volcanic Dome-Hosted Ánimas–Chocaya–Siete Suyos Polymetallic Deposit, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 9(10), 604.
Monazite-(La)
Formula: La(PO4)
Reference: Sidki Rius, N. (2017). Metalogénesis del yacimiento San José, Oruro, Bolivia (Bachelor's thesis, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya).
Montetrisaite
Formula: Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · 2H2O
Reference: Gunnar Färber specimens
Monticellite
Formula: CaMgSiO4
Reference: Schultz, F. et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Moraesite
Formula: Be2(PO4)(OH) · 4H2O
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Morenosite
Formula: NiSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Dr. Fritz Berndt collection (Dr. Frank Keutsch analysis)
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 814.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 112 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Muscovite var. Chacaltaîte
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Hey's Mineral index
Muscovite var. Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Muscovite var. Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 80 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Nacrite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Jorge Munoz Reyes: Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia, 1955)
Nahcolite
Formula: NaHCO3
Reference: Schlüter, J. and Pohl, D.- N. Jb. MH. 182/1. 2005, 11-14
Natanite
Formula: Fe2+[Sn(OH)6]
Reference: Hyrsl, J. & A. Petrov (2006): Famous Mineral Localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record. 37: 117-162
Natroalunite
Formula: NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: [MinRec 32:473]
'Natroalunite-2c'
Formula: (Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Peter G. Seroka collection
Natrodufrénite
Formula: NaFe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
Natrojarosite
Formula: NaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Description: Gemmy, well-terminated crystals, rarely with native copper inclusions.
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection
Natropharmacoalumite
Formula: NaAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 4H2O
Reference: SEM-EDS by Joy Desor
Natropharmacosiderite
Formula: (Na,K)Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Reference: SEM-EDS by Joy Desor
Natroxalate
Formula: Na2(C2O4)
Reference: samples analysed by Gerhard Mohn and Joy Desor
Naumannite
Formula: Ag2Se
Reference: Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482. Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527.
Neotocite
Formula: (Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
Reference: Miofuvhoedki, A. P. (2001). Geochemistry and Petrology of the Tia Maria Prospect, Department of Arequipa, Peru. Thesis (M.S.)--New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Woolley, A.R. (1987) Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the world. p 167.
Newberyite
Formula: Mg(PO3OH) · 3H2O
Reference: samples analysed by Gerhard Mohn and Joy Desor
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Reference: Machlan, L. A., & Barnes, I. L. (1989). The absolute isotopic composition and atomic weight of terrestrial nickel. News Briefs, 94(6), 357.
Nickeltyrrellite (TL)
Formula: CuNi2Se4
Type Locality:
Reference: Förster, H.-J., Ma, C. Grundmann, G., Bindi, L., Stanley, C.J. (2019) Nickeltyrrellite, CuNi2Se4, a New Member of the Spinel Supergroup from El Dragón, Bolivia. The Canadian Mineralogist: 57 (5): 637–646. https://doi.org/10.3749/canmin.1900025; Förster, H.-J., Ma, C., Grundmann, G., Bindi, L., and Stanley, C.J. (2019) Nickeltyrrellite, IMA 2018-110. CNMNC Newsletter No. 47, February 2019, page 200. European Journal of Mineralogy, 31: 199–204.
Niedermayrite
Formula: CdCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
Reference: EDS analysis by Joy Desor, http://www.mindat.org/forum.php?read,11,359266,359548#msg-359548
Nikischerite (TL)
Formula: Fe2+6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Min Rec 34 (2003), 155; Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Nisnite
Formula: Ni3Sn
Reference: Hatløy, S. (2013). From cold to hot: post-Hirnantian sedimentary basins in Bolivia-A source rock for hydrocarbon deposits in the Andes?–A case study of the Uncía and Catavi formations. MS Thesis University of Stavanger.
Niter
Formula: KNO3
Reference: collected by Reynaldo Contreira
Nitratine
Formula: NaNO3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: maurzi
Nontronite
Formula: Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. p. 503 (Santa Cruz)
Nordstrandite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection; Laszlo Horvath collection
'Odontolite'
Reference: Alfredo Petrov field collected specimen.
Okenite
Formula: Ca10Si18O46 · 18H2O
Reference: Tschernich, Rudy W. (1992) Zeolites of the World
Olekminskite
Formula: Sr(Sr,Ca,Ba)(CO3)2
Reference: Laszlo Horvath
Olivenite
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: maurizio dini collection - analysed material
Olsacherite (TL)
Formula: Pb2(Se6+O4)(SO4)
Reference: Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527. Petrov, A., Smith, B., Smith, C. (2001) A Guide to Mineral Localities in Bolivia. Mineralogical Record Vol.32(6), pp. 457-482.
Onoratoite
Formula: Sb8Cl2O11
Reference: Pastor, M., Pastor, A., Torró, L., Martínez, Á., Artiaga, D., Torres, B., ... & Alfonso, P. (2015) The San José-Itos Mines, Oruro, Bolivia: Structure and Ag-Sn Mineralization. in Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World • 13th SGA Biennial Meeting 2015. Proceedings, Volume 1 pp 327-330
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahlfeld & Munoz Reyes (1955): Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia
Opal var. Andean Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: J.Hyrsl (2012) Gemstones of Peru, p. 58
Opal var. Hyalite ?
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Description: Possibly locality error for the nearby Colavi mine?
Reference: Pough, F. H. (1976) Peterson Field Guides - Rocks and Minerals, 4th Ed., plate 34.
Opal var. Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Ahlfeld, F. & Muñoz-Reyes, J. (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia
Opal var. Opal-CT
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Fritsch, E., Gaillou, E., Ostroumov, M., Rondeau, B., Devouard, B., Barreau, A. (2004) Relationship between nanostructure and optical absorption in fibrous pink opals from Mexico and Peru. European Journal of Mineralogy, 16, 743-752.
Orpiment
Formula: As2S3
Reference: Samples analysed by Tony Kampf of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Connolly Jr., & 7 others (2008). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 93, 2008 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 43(3): 571-632. (March 2008).
Oscarkempffite (TL)
Formula: Ag10Pb4(Sb17Bi9)S48
Reference: Topa, D., Makovicky, E., Paar, W.H., Stanley, C.J. and Roberts, A.C. (2011): Oscarkempffite, IMA 2011-029. CNMNC Newsletter No. 10, October 2011, page 2555; Topa, D., Paar, W.H., Makovicky, E., Stanley, C.J., Roberts, A.C. (2016): Oscarkempffite, Ag10Pb4(Sb17Bi9)Σ26S48, a new Sb-Bi member of the lillianite homologous series. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, 809-817
Osumilite-(Mg)
Formula: KMg2Al3(Al2Si10)O30
Description: - Replace biotite xenocrysts, in association with spinel-hercynite, orthopyroxene and ilmenite. - Microlites in the groundmass.
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1994, 6, pp. 145-150.
Otavite
Formula: CdCO3
Reference: Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Ottemannite (TL)
Formula: Sn2S3
Reference: Moh, G.H. and Berndt, F. (1965) American Mineralogist, 50, 2107.
Ourayite
Formula: Ag3Pb4Bi5S13
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Owyheeite
Formula: Ag3+xPb10-2xSb11+xS28, -0.13 < x > +0.20
Reference: Keutsch, F. & Brodtkorb, M. (2007) Metalliferous parageneses of the San Jose mine. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 26, 485-491.; Keutsch, F., & Brodtkorb, M. D. (2008). Metalliferous paragenesis of the San José mine, Oruro, Bolivia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 25(4), 485-491.
Oxyplumboroméite
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Reference: Rob Lavinsky specimens
Palygorskite
Formula: (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH) · 4H2O
Reference: Hyrsl & Rosales (2003), Min. Record 34:254
Parabutlerite
Formula: Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
Reference: Peter G. Seroka collection
Paranatrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Reference: PXRD by John Attard (Attards Minerals)
Pararsenolamprite
Formula: (As,Sb)
Description: Occurs as minor admixture in Arsenic, visible only in XRD pattern. The piece with Prarsenolamprite remained longer stable in air.
Reference: XRD by Igor V. Pekov, SEM-EDS by Joy Desor
Paratacamite
Formula: Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: maurizio dini collection - analysed material
Paratacamite-(Mg) (TL)
Formula: Cu3(Mg,Cu)(OH)6Cl2
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Sciberras, M.J., Leverett, P., Williams, P.A., Malcherek, T., Schlu¨ ter, J., Welch, M. and Dini, M. (2013) Paratacamite-(Mg), IMA 2013-014. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2703; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709.; Kampf, A.R., Sciberras, M.J., Leverett, P., Williams, P.A., Malcherek, T., Schlüter, J., Welch, M.D., Dini, M., Molina Donoso, A.A. (2013): Paratacamite-(Mg), Cu3(Mg,Cu)Cl2(OH)6; a new substituted basic copper chloride mineral from Camerones, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 3113-3124.
Paravauxite (TL)
Formula: Fe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: American Mineralogist (1922): 7: 107-108; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 938, 973; Hyrsl, J. & A. Petrov (2006): Famous Mineral Localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record. 37: 117-162
Pargasite
Formula: NaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
Reference: Xirouchakis, Dimitrios; Lindsley, Donald H.; Frost, B. Ronald (March 2001) Assemblages with titanite (CaTiOSiO4), Ca-Mg-Fe olivine and pyroxenes, Fe-Mg-Ti oxides, and quartz: Part II. Application. American Mineralogist. 86 (3), 259.
'Parisite'
Reference: Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408
Pavonite
Formula: AgBi3S5
Reference: Shimizu, M., & Kato, A. (1996). Pavonite from the Ikuno mine, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The Canadian Mineralogist, 34(6), 1323-1327.
Pearceite
Formula: [Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Reference: Chauvet, A., Bailly, L., André, A.-S., Monié, P., Cassard, D., Tajada, F.L., Vargas, J.R., and Tuduri, J. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 387-410.; Greffié, C., Bailly, L., & Milési, J. P. (2002). Supergene alteration of primary ore assemblages from low-sulfidation Au-Ag epithermal deposits at Pongkor, Indonesia, and Nazareno, Peru. Economic Geology, 97(3), 561-571.
Penroseite (TL)
Formula: (Ni,Co,Cu)Se2
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 635; Gordon, S. (1926) Penroseite and Trudellite: two new minerals. Proceedings Of The Academy Of Natural Sciences Of Philadelphia. 77, 317-324. Hurlbut, C.S., Aristarain, L.F. (1969) Olsacherite Pb₂(SeO₄)(SO₄), A New Mineral from Bolivia. The American Mineralogist. Vol.5, November-December, pp. 1519-1527. Livingstone, A., Jackson, B., Davidson, P.J. (1984) Grimaldiite, CrOOH, a second occurrence, from the Hiaca Mine, Colquechaca, Bolivia. Mineralogical Magazine, December 1984, Vol.48, pp. 560-562.
Pentahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Diaby, N., Dold, B., Buselli, E., & Vicetti, R. (2006). EFFECTS ON ELEMENT MOBILITY BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WETLAND ON THE MARINE SHORE PORPHYRY COPPER TAILINGS DEPOSIT, BAHÍA DE ITE, PERU. In 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), March (pp. 26-30).
'Percylite'
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 60.
Perhamite
Formula: Ca3Al7.7Si3P4O23.5(OH)14.1 · 8H2O
Reference: Anatoly Kasatkin analysis on Richie Kosnar specimen.; Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Reference: Schultz (2004)
Petříčekite
Formula: CuSe2
Reference: Luca Bindi, Hans-Jürgen Förster, Günter Grundmann, Frank N. Keutsch and Chris J. Stanley (2016) Petříčekite, CuSe2, a New Member of the Marcasite Group from the Předbořice Deposit, Central Bohemia Region, Czech Republic. Minerals 6(2), 33. ; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Petrovicite
Formula: Cu3HgPbBiSe5
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Petrukite
Formula: (Cu,Fe,Zn,Ag)3(Sn,In)S4
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Phosgenite
Formula: Pb2CO3Cl2
Reference: sample analysed by Tony Kampf, senior curator of NHM of LAC, California
Phosphophyllite
Formula: Zn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: [MinRec 32:465]
Phosphosiderite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Joy Desor analyses by EDS and Raman, December 2019.
Picaite (TL)
Formula: NaCa[AsO3OH][AsO2(OH)2]
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Celestian, A.J., Dini, M., and Molina Donoso, A.A. (2019) Camanchacaite, chinchorroite, espadaite, magnesiofluckite, picaite and ríosecoite: six new hydrogen-arsenate minerals from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine: 83: 655-671.
Pickeringite (TL)
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: American Journal of Science (1844): 46: 360; Palache et al (1951), Dana's System of Mineralogy, seventh ed., vol. II: 131, 526.
Picromerite
Formula: K2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
'Pinite'
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Jorge Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia. (Banco Minero de Bolivia, 180 pp)
'Pink Opal'
Reference: widespread in commerce from the country rock of this mine; J.Hyrsl (2012) Gemstones of Peru, p. 62
Pirquitasite
Formula: Ag2ZnSnS4
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Pitticite
Formula: (Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Reference: Collections of Alfredo Petrov and Dr. Jaroslav Hyrsl. Checked by SEM and wet chemical analysis.
Plagionite
Formula: Pb5Sb8S17
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: No reference listed
Plumbogummite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: PXRD by John Attard, 27-02-2015; Pb confirmed by XRF; PO4 confirmed by wet chemistry.
Plumbojarosite
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Plumbostannite
Formula: Pb2Fe2Sn2Sb2S11
Reference: Palache et al (1944), Dana's System of Mineralogy, seventh ed., vol. 1: 450.
'Plumosite'
Reference: John Magnasco specimen
Polybasite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), pp 268-271 (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
'Potosíite'
Formula: Pb6Sn3FeSb3S16
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: samples analysed by Gerhard Mohn and Joy Desor
Preisingerite
Formula: Bi3(AsO4)2O(OH)
Reference: Jaroslav Hyrsl specimen and analysis; Amer.Min.(1982) 67, 833-840
Probertite
Formula: NaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
Reference: Konnert, J.A., Evans, H.T., McGee, J.L., Ericksen, G.E. (1994) Mineralogical studies of the nitrate deposits of Chile: VII. Two new saline minerals with the composition K6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(XO4)12(IO3)12·12H2O: Fuenzalidaite (X = S) and carlosruizite (X = Se). American Mineralogist: 79(9-10): 1003-1008.
Prosopite
Formula: CaAl2F4[(OH)4-xFx]
Reference: Raman spectroscopy by Joy Desor
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 255.
Pseudoboleite
Formula: Pb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
Reference: maurzi; Schluter, J., Pohl, D., & Britvin, S. (2005). The new mineral challacolloite, KPb2Cl5, the natural occurrence of a technically known laser material. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen, 182(1), 95-101.
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Miofuvhoedki, A. P. (2001). Geochemistry and Petrology of the Tia Maria Prospect, Department of Arequipa, Peru. Thesis (M.S.)--New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
'Pufahlite'
Description: There are microprobe analyses of Zn-bearing Teallite from Chang and Brice (1971) "zinc content increasing with decreasing lead to 14.0% (Zn)" and from Sugaki and Kitakaze (1988) with 11.2 apfu Zn and 11.2 apfu in Teallite. More recent analyses are lacking.
Reference: Palache et al (1944), Dana's System of Mineralogy, Seventh ed., Vol. 1: 441.
Pyrargyrite
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Localities: Reported from at least 39 localities in this region.
Reference: GEOBOL, Boletín #11, June 1968.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 291 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
Pyrite var. Arsenian Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Dill, H.G. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 359-378.
Pyrite var. Cobalt-bearing Pyrite
Formula: (Fe,Co)S2
Reference: samples analysed by Anthony Kampf, Curator Emeritus of Mineral Sciences at NHM of LAC, California
Pyrite var. Gold-bearing Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Osvaldo R. Arce Burgoa (2007) Guia a los Yacimientos Metaliferos de Bolivia. (Minera San Cristobal S.A. & Empresa Minera Unificada S.A., La Paz)
'Pyrochlore Group'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Reference: (from country rock, not the ankerite-sodalite dyke); Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408; PARTS, O. C. I. W. (1981). C. PREMOLI. Geología y Metalogénesis de los Depósitos y Manifestaciones¡ IlllS Uraníferos de, 245.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld & Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina: Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia (La Paz, 1964)
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: [MinRec 32:474]
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Pyrostilpnite
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Reference: Spencer, L.J. and Prior, G.T. (1907) Mineralogical Magazine 14, #67, 308-344.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Chelle-Michou, C. (2013). Geochronologic and petrologic evolution of the magmatic suite associated with the Eocene Coroccohuayco deposit, and its role in the genesis of the associated Cu (-Au) porphyry-skarn mineralization, Tintaya district, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva).
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe1-xS
Localities: Reported from at least 71 localities in this region.
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 344 localities in this region.
Description: Japan-law twinning in quartz is unusually common here, many with inclusions of arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite or marcasite, and often coated with crusts of scorodite and pitticite.
Reference: Collections of Alfredo Petrov and Dr. Jaroslav Hyrsl.
Quartz var. Agate
Reference: Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
Quartz var. Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: USGS Bulletin #1975 (1992)
Quartz var. Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 38 localities in this region.
Reference: Amir Akhavan collection
Quartz var. Jasper
Reference: J.Hyrsl (2012) Gemstones of Peru, p. 50
Quartz var. Milky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Osvaldo R. Arce Burgoa (2007) Guia a los Yacimientos Metaliferos de Bolivia, pp 101-102 (Minera San Cristobal S.A. & Empresa Minera Unificada S.A., La Paz)
Quartz var. Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Quartz var. Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Gregorio Mamani and Alfredo Petrov specimens
'Quartz-beta'
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Field trip observations, January 2012
Quijarroite (TL)
Formula: Cu6HgPb2Bi4Se12
Type Locality:
Reference: Förster, H.-J., Bindi, L., Stanley, C.J., Grundmann, G. (2016): Quijarroite, IMA 2016-052. CNMNC Newsletter No. 33, October 2016, page 1140; Mineralogical Magazine: 80: 1135–1144; Förster, H.-J-, Bindi, L., Grundmann, G. and Stanley, C. J. (2016) Quijarroite, Cu6HgPb2Bi4Se12, a New Selenide from the El Dragόn Mine, Bolivia. Minerals: 6(4), 123.; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
'Quintinite-1M'
Reference: A.R. Kampf
Ramdohrite (TL)
Formula: Pb5.9Fe0.1Mn0.1In0.1Cd0.2Ag2.8Sb10.8S24
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Mineralogical Record 32: 461; Makovicky, E., Mumme, W.G., Gable, R.W. (2013): The crystal structure of ramdohrite, Pb5.9Fe0.1Mn0.1In0.1Cd0.2Ag2.8Sb10.8S24: a new refinement. American Mineralogist, 98, 773-779.
Rammelsbergite
Formula: NiAs2
Reference: Machlan, L. A., & Barnes, I. L. (1989). The absolute isotopic composition and atomic weight of terrestrial nickel. News Briefs, 94(6), 357.
Realgar
Formula: As4S4
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Redgillite
Formula: Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Reference: Gunnar Färber specimens
Reevesite
Formula: Ni6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Renardite
Formula: Pb(UO2)4(PO4)2(OH)4 · H2O
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
'Rhabdophane'
Reference: PXRD by John Attard, 18-01-2012
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Rhodonite
Formula: CaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Reference: Chauvet, A., Bailly, L., André, A.-S., Monié, P., Cassard, D., Tajada, F.L., Vargas, J.R., and Tuduri, J. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 387-410.
Rhodostannite (TL)
Formula: Cu1+(Fe2+0.5Sn4+1.5)S4
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 1968 36 : 1045-1051.
Rhomboclase
Formula: (H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Rickardite
Formula: Cu7Te5
Reference: USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 255.
Ríosecoite (TL)
Formula: Ca2Mg(AsO3OH)3(H2O)2
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Celestian, A.J., Dini, M., and Molina Donoso, A.A. (2019) Camanchacaite, chinchorroite, espadaite, magnesiofluckite, picaite and ríosecoite: six new hydrogen-arsenate minerals from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine: 83: 655-671.
Rockbridgeite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5
Reference: Kay Robertson collection
Romarchite
Formula: SnO
Reference: The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 41, pp. 649-657 (2003)
'Roméite'
Reference: Samples analysed by Anthony Kampf, Curator Emeritus of LAC Mineralogical Museum, California
Römerite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Reference: Samples analysed by Tony Kampf of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA; Kampf, A. R., Mills, S. J., Nash, B. P., Housley, R. M., Rossman, G. R., Dini, M. and Gatta G.D. (2013): Camaronesite, [Fe3+(H2O)2(PO3OH)]2(SO4)•1–2H2O, a new phosphate-sulfate from the Camarones Valley, Chile, structurally related to taranakite. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 453-465.
Rooseveltite (TL)
Formula: Bi(AsO4)
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 697.
Roquesite
Formula: CuInS2
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Roshchinite
Formula: Ag19Pb10Sb51S96
Description: actually (clino)oscarkempffite upon further analysis.
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009) personal communication Werner Paar
Rosickýite
Formula: S
Reference: [www.hedegaard.com]
Roxbyite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Rozenite
Formula: FeSO4 · 4H2O
Reference: Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
Russellite
Formula: Bi2WO6
Reference: SEM-EDS & Raman confirmed by Joy Desor, November 2019.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 35 localities in this region.
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Rutile var. Ilmenorutile
Formula: Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Reference: Alfredo Petrov (1997) Mineral News, 13, #4.
Safflorite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld y Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Sakuraiite
Formula: (Cu,Zn,Fe)3(In,Sn)S4
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Salammoniac
Formula: NH4Cl
Reference: http://forum.amiminerals.org/viewtopic.php?t=3756&highlight=patache
Sanidine
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Sanmartinite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)WO4
Reference: Ahlfeld, F. and Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. Ministerio de Minas y Petróleo, La Paz, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), p 69.
Sanrománite (TL)
Formula: Na2CaPb3[CO3]5
Type Locality:
Reference: Schlüter, J., T. Malcherek & D. Pohl (2007): "Sanrománite, from the Santa Rosa mine, Atacama desert, Chile, a new mineral of the burbankite group": Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, 183, 117-121.
Santarosaite (TL)
Formula: CuB2O4
Type Locality:
Reference: Schlüter, J., Pohl, D., Golla-Schindler, U. (2008): Santarosaite, CuB2O4, a new mineral with disordered structure from the Santa Rosa mine, Atacama desert, Chile. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 185, 27-32.
Saponite
Formula: Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Description: pink clay
Reference: Howard Minerals specimens, April 1984; Diederik Visser photo.
Saponite var. Sobotkite
Formula: (K,Ca0.5)0.33(Mg0.66Al0.33)3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2 · 1-5H2O
Description: pink clay
Reference: Howard Minerals specimens, April 1984; Diederik Visser photo.
Sauconite
Formula: Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Maria Boni, Giuseppina Balassone, Vernon Arseneau, and Paul Schmidt (2009) The nonsulfide zinc deposit at Accha (southern Peru); geological and mineralogical characterization. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 104(2):267-289.; Maria Boni, Paul Rudolf Schmidt, Jacobus Rudolph De Wet, Jacob Daniel Singleton, Giuseppina Balassone, Nicola Mondillo (2009) Mineralogical signature of nonsulfide zinc ores at Accha (Peru): A key for recovery. Int. J. Miner. Process. 93:267–277; J.R. de Wet and J.D. Singleton (2008) Development of a viable process for the recovery of zinc from oxide ores. The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 108:253-259
Schafarzikite ?
Formula: Fe2+Sb3+2O4
Description: According to Dill (1998), schafarzikite from this locality is not confirmed.
Reference: Jan Bernard & Jaroslav Hyrsl (2004) Minerals and their Localities.; Econ Geol (1997) 92:623-632; Dill, H.G. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 359-378.; Dill, H. G., Weiser, T., Bernhardt, I. R., & Kilibarda, C. R. (1995). The composite gold-antimony vein deposit at Kharma (Bolivia). Economic Geology, 90(1), 51-66.
Schapbachite
Formula: Ag0.4Pb0.2Bi0.4S
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:1206-1221
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahlfeld, F. and Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. Ministerio de Minas y Petróleo (La Paz), Boletín No. 5 (especial), p 74.
Schmiederite
Formula: Pb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Alfredo Petrov specimen (analysis by Frank Hawthorne)
Schreibersite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)3P
Reference: Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 44
Schwartzembergite
Formula: Pb5H2(IO2)O4Cl3
Reference: Remy Phillippe personal communication
Schwertmannite ?
Formula: Fe3+16(OH,SO4)12-13O16 · 10-12H2O
Reference: Diaby, N., Dold, B., Buselli, E., & Vicetti, R. (2006). EFFECTS ON ELEMENT MOBILITY BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WETLAND ON THE MARINE SHORE PORPHYRY COPPER TAILINGS DEPOSIT, BAHÍA DE ITE, PERU. In 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), March (pp. 26-30).
Scolecite
Formula: CaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Reference: Tschernich, Rudy W. (1992) Zeolites of the World
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Collections of Alfredo Petrov and Dr. Jaroslav Hyrsl. Checked by wet chemistry.
Scorzalite
Formula: Fe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Brian Kosnar specimen (checked by PXRD)
Seeligerite
Formula: Pb3(IO3)OCl3
Reference: maurizio dini collection - analysed material
Sekaninaite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Selenium
Formula: Se
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Seligmannite
Formula: PbCuAsS3
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:623-632; Dill, H.G. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 359-378.
Semseyite
Formula: Pb9Sb8S21
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Chelle-Michou, C. (2013). Geochronologic and petrologic evolution of the magmatic suite associated with the Eocene Coroccohuayco deposit, and its role in the genesis of the associated Cu (-Au) porphyry-skarn mineralization, Tintaya district, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva).
Serpierite
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
Shilovite (TL)
Formula: Cu(NH3)4(NO3)2
Type Locality:
Reference: Chukanov, N.V., Britvin, S.N., Mo¨hn, G., Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Nestola, F., Kasatkin, A.V. and Dini, M. (2014) Shilovite, IMA 2014-016. CNMNC Newsletter No. 21, August 2014, page 798; Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 797-804.; Chukanov, N.V., Britvin, S.N., Möhn, G., Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Nestola, F., Kasatkin, A.V., Dini, M. (2015): Shilovite, natural copper(II) tetrammine nitrate, a new mineral species. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 613-623.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 108 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahlfeld & Munoz Reyes (1955): Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia
Sideronatrite (TL)
Formula: Na2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 605; Bull. Min. 87 (1964): 125; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index."
Siderotil
Formula: FeSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Diaby, N., Dold, B., Buselli, E., & Vicetti, R. (2006). EFFECTS ON ELEMENT MOBILITY BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WETLAND ON THE MARINE SHORE PORPHYRY COPPER TAILINGS DEPOSIT, BAHÍA DE ITE, PERU. In 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), March (pp. 26-30).
Sigloite (TL)
Formula: Fe3+Al2(PO4)2(OH)3 · 7H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 973; American Mineralogist (1962): 47: 1-8; Mineralogical Record: 32: 474.
'Silesite'
Reference: Pauly, A. (1926) Centralblatt fuer Mineralogie, 44.
'Silica'
Reference: USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 150 & 248 (1992)
Sillénite
Formula: Bi12SiO20
Reference: Hatløy, S. (2013). From cold to hot: post-Hirnantian sedimentary basins in Bolivia-A source rock for hydrocarbon deposits in the Andes?–A case study of the Uncía and Catavi formations. MS Thesis University of Stavanger.
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Aguirre Cernades, H. C. (2017). Caracterización y exploración geológica del Proyecto Crucero-Puno. Universidad Nacional del Altiplano – Puno
Silver
Formula: Ag
Localities: Reported from at least 42 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Skutterudite
Formula: CoAs3
Reference: [MinRec 32:474]
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Hennig, D., Lehmann, B., Burgess, R., and Nekouvaght Tak, M.A. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 304-316.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Maria Boni, Giuseppina Balassone, Vernon Arseneau, and Paul Schmidt (2009) The nonsulfide zinc deposit at Accha (southern Peru); geological and mineralogical characterization. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 104(2):267-289.; Maria Boni, Paul Rudolf Schmidt, Jacobus Rudolph De Wet, Jacob Daniel Singleton, Giuseppina Balassone, Nicola Mondillo (2009) Mineralogical signature of nonsulfide zinc ores at Accha (Peru): A key for recovery. Int. J. Miner. Process. 93:267–277; J.R. de Wet and J.D. Singleton (2008) Development of a viable process for the recovery of zinc from oxide ores. The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 108:253-259
Sodalite
Formula: Na4(Si3Al3)O12Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Habit: Crystals to 9cm
Colour: blue
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection; Laszlo Horvath collection; Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408
Spangolite
Formula: Cu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
Reference: Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
Spessartine ?
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: SEM/EDS, Alfredo Petrov collection
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 221 localities in this region.
Reference: Rob Lavinsky; Rob Lavinsky
Sphalerite var. Honigblende
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Osvaldo R. Arce Burgoa (2007) Guia a los Yacimientos Metaliferos de Bolivia, pp 101-102 (Minera San Cristobal S.A. & Empresa Minera Unificada S.A., La Paz)
Sphalerite var. Marmatite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahlfeld, F. and Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. Ministerio de Minas y Petróleo, La Paz, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), p 293.
Sphalerite var. Schalenblende
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Jorge Munoz Reyes: Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia, 1955)
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Localities: Reported from at least 51 localities in this region.
Habit: [Thick tabular.]
Colour: Grey.
Description: NOTE: Some stannites turned out to be ferrokesterites (Weiß, 2017).
Reference: [MinRec 32:479]; Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:248; Keutsch, F., & Brodtkorb, M. D. (2008). Metalliferous paragenesis of the San José mine, Oruro, Bolivia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 25(4), 485-491.; Pastor, M., Pastor, A., Torró, L., Martínez, Á., Artiaga, D., Torres, B., ... & Alfonso, P. (2015) The San José-Itos Mines, Oruro, Bolivia: Structure and Ag-Sn Mineralization. in Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World • 13th SGA Biennial Meeting 2015. Proceedings, Volume 1 pp 327-330; http:/www.mineralclassics.com/Ferrokesterite.html; Weiß, S. (2017): Aus Oruro, Bolivien: Ferrokesterit statt Stannit! Lapis, 42 (1), 50.
'Stannite Group'
Formula: A2DEX4
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Stannoidite
Formula: Cu+6Cu2+2(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Staročeskéite
Formula: Ag0.70Pb1.60(Bi1.35Sb1.35)Σ2.70S6
Reference: Torró, L., Cazorla, M., Melgarejo, J. C., Camprubí, A., Tarrés, M., Gemmrich, L., ... & Mollinedo, D. (2019). Indium Mineralization in the Volcanic Dome-Hosted Ánimas–Chocaya–Siete Suyos Polymetallic Deposit, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 9(10), 604.
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Stephanite
Formula: Ag5SbS4
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), pp 268-271 (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Stercorite
Formula: (NH4)Na(PO3OH) · 4H2O
Reference: http://forum.amiminerals.org/viewtopic.php?t=3756&highlight=patache
Stetindite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(SiO4)
Reference: Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Stibarsen
Formula: AsSb
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
'Stibiconite'
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Stibiobismuthinite'
Formula: (Bi,Sb)4S7
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:623-632
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 98 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Stilbite-Ca
Formula: NaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2O
Reference: SEM-EDS and Raman Spectroscopy by Joy Desor
'Stilbite subgroup'
Formula: (Na/Ca/K)6-7[Al8-9Si27-28O72] · nH2O
Reference: Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
Stilpnomelane
Formula: (K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Reference: GEOBOL-PNUD, Proyecto Asbesto, March 1977.
Strengite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
Stromeyerite
Formula: AgCuS
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408.
'Stylotypite'
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Habit: Pseudomorphs after cogwheel bournonites.
Reference: Agustin Arando and Alfredo Petrov specimens; Milton, Charles and Axelrod, Joseph M (1951) Am Min 36:697 (misidentified in this publication?).
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Svanbergite
Formula: SrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Sillitoe, R.H., Steele, G.B., Thompson, J.F.H., and Lang, J.R. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 539-546.
Sylvite
Formula: KCl
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
'Synchysite'
Reference: Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408
Syngenite
Formula: K2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Szomolnokite
Formula: FeSO4 · H2O
Reference: Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Talmessite
Formula: Ca2Mg(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Samples analysed by Tony Kampf of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
Tamarugite (TL)
Formula: NaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: NJMM (1987), 171; Peter G. Seroka collection
Tarapacáite
Formula: K2(CrO4)
Reference: Konnert, J.A., Evans, H.T., McGee, J.L., Ericksen, G.E. (1994) Mineralogical studies of the nitrate deposits of Chile: VII. Two new saline minerals with the composition K6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(XO4)12(IO3)12·12H2O: Fuenzalidaite (X = S) and carlosruizite (X = Se). American Mineralogist: 79(9-10): 1003-1008.; Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. V.
Teallite (TL)
Formula: PbSnS2
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Dana 7:I:440.; R. Koechlin (1905) Tscherm. Min. Petr. Mitt. 24:114
'Tennantite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4C2+2)As4S12S
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
'Tennantite Subgroup var. Annivite'
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2](As,Bi)4S13
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series'
Reference: Spencer, L.J. and Prior, G.T. (1907) Mineralogical Magazine 14, #67, 308-344.
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Terrywallaceite
Formula: AgPb(Sb,Bi)3S6
Reference: Sidki Rius, N. (2017). Metalogénesis del yacimiento San José, Oruro, Bolivia (Bachelor's thesis, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya).
Tetradymite
Formula: Bi2Te2S
Reference: Ahlfeld, F. & Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia.; Ahlfeld, F. and Schneider-Scherbina, A. (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. Ministerio de Minas y Petróleo, La Paz, Boletín No. 5 (Especial), p 52 and 71.
'Tetrahedrite Group'
Formula: M2(A6)M1(B4C2)X3(D4)S1(Y12)S2(Z)
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4C2+2)Sb4S12S
Localities: Reported from at least 80 localities in this region.
Reference: Ahlfeld & Munoz Reyes (1955): Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup var. Argentian Tetrahedrite'
Formula: (Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: Chauvet, A., Bailly, L., André, A.-S., Monié, P., Cassard, D., Tajada, F.L., Vargas, J.R., and Tuduri, J. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 387-410.
Tetrahedrite-(Zn)
Formula: Cu6(Cu4Zn2)Sb4S12S
Reference: SEM-EDS by Joy Desor
'Tetranatrolite'
Reference: PXRD by John Attard (Attard's Minerals)
'Thénardite'
Formula: Na2SO4
Reference: Diaby, N., Dold, B., Buselli, E., & Vicetti, R. (2006). EFFECTS ON ELEMENT MOBILITY BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WETLAND ON THE MARINE SHORE PORPHYRY COPPER TAILINGS DEPOSIT, BAHÍA DE ITE, PERU. In 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), March (pp. 26-30).
Thermonatrite
Formula: Na2CO3 · H2O
Reference: Bojar, H.-P., Walter, F., Baumgartner, J., Färber, G. (2010) Ammineite, CuCl2(NH3)2, a new species containing an ammine complex: mineral data and crystal structure. The Canadian Mineralogist: 48: 1359-1371.
Thomsonite-Ca
Formula: NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Reference: XRD by Gerhard Möhn
Thorbastnäsite
Formula: ThCa(CO3)2F2 · 3H2O
Reference: Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408.
Thorianite
Formula: ThO2
Reference: Torres, B., Melgarejo, J. C., Torró, L., Camprubí, A., Castillo-Oliver, M., Artiaga, D., ... & Arce-Burgoa, O. R. (2019). The Poopó Polymetallic Epithermal Deposit, Bolivia: Mineralogy, Genetic Constraints, and Distribution of Critical Elements. Minerals, 9(8), 472.
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Reference: Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408.
Tiemannite
Formula: HgSe
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Tin
Formula: Sn
Description: Very rare dendritic films on cassiterite crystals; perhaps of post-mining origin.
Reference: Alfredo Petrov & Jaroslav Hyrsl collections
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Chelle-Michou, C. (2013). Geochronologic and petrologic evolution of the magmatic suite associated with the Eocene Coroccohuayco deposit, and its role in the genesis of the associated Cu (-Au) porphyry-skarn mineralization, Tintaya district, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva).
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Reference: samples analysed by Anthony Kampf, Curator Emeritus of Mineral Sciences at NHM of LAC, California; Kampf, A.R., Sciberras, M.J., Williams, P.A., Dini, M. & Molina Donoso, A.A. (2013): Leverettite from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Provence, Chile: the Co-analogue of herbertsmithite. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 3047-3054.
Tondiite (TL)
Formula: Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2
Reference: Malcherek, T., Bindi, L., Dini, M., Ghiara, M. R., Molina Donoso, A., Nestola, F., Rossi, M., Schlüter, J. (2014): Tondiite, Cu3Mg(OH)6Cl2, the Mg-analogue of herbertsmithite. Mineralogical Magazine 78, 583-590.
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Torbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Torrecillasite (TL)
Formula: Na(As,Sb)3+4O6Cl
Type Locality:
Reference: Kampf, A.R., Nash, B. and Dini, M. (2014) Torrecillasite, IMA 2013-112. CNMNC Newsletter No. 19, February 2014, page 168; Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 165-170.; Kampf, A., Nash, B., Dini, M., Molina Donoso, A. (2014): Torrecillasite, NaAs4O6Cl, a new mineral from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 747-755.; Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Dini, M., Molina Donoso, A.A. (2016): Chongite, Ca3Mg2(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)2·4H2O, a new arsenate member of the hureaulite group from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, (in press); Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., & Molina Donoso, A. (2020). Mauriziodiniite, NH4(As2O3)2I, the ammonium and iodine analogue of lucabindiite from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine, 84(2), 267-273.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Localities: Reported from at least 82 localities in this region.
Reference: Yang, S. J., Heo, C. H., & Kim, Y. D. (2015). Geology and Mineralization in Trapiche Cu-Mo Deposit, Apurimac State in Southeastern Peru. Economic and Environmental Geology, 48(6), 525-536.
'Tourmaline var. Achroite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Spencer, L.J. and Prior, G.T. (1907) Mineralogical Magazine 14, #67, 308-344.
Treasurite
Formula: Ag7Pb6Bi15S32
Reference: Torres, B., Melgarejo, J. C., Torró, L., Camprubí, A., Castillo-Oliver, M., Artiaga, D., ... & Arce-Burgoa, O. R. (2019). The Poopó Polymetallic Epithermal Deposit, Bolivia: Mineralogy, Genetic Constraints, and Distribution of Critical Elements. Minerals, 9(8), 472.
Tremolite
Formula: ◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Triazolite (TL)
Formula: NaCu2(N3C2H2)2(NH3)2Cl3 · 4H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Chukanov, N.V., Zubkova, N.V., Möhn, G., Pekov, I.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Van, K.I., Britvin, S.N. and Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (2017) Triazolite, IMA 2017-025. CNMNC Newsletter No. 38, August 2017, page 1035; Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 1033–1038.; Chukanov, N.V., Zubkova, N.V., Möhn, G., Pekov, I.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Van, K.V., Britvin, S.N., Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (2018) Triazolite, NaCu2(N3C2H2)2(NH3)2Cl3·4H2O, a new mineral species containing 1,2,4-triazolate anion, from a guano deposit at Pabellón de Pica, Iquique Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine: 82: 1007-1014.
Tridymite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Triphylite
Formula: LiFe2+PO4
Triplite
Formula: Mn2+2(PO4)F
Tripuhyite
Formula: Fe3+Sb5+O4
Reference: [MinRec 32:480]; PXRD by Jaroslav Hyrsl, Karlovy University, Prague.
Trogtalite
Formula: CoSe2
Reference: [MinRec 21:133]; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Troilite
Formula: FeS
Reference: Meteoritical Bulletin #106 - https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=65369
Trona
Formula: Na3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Schlüter, J. and Pohl, D.- N. Jb. MH. 182/1. 2005, 11-14
'Trudellite'
Reference: Palache et al (1951), Dana's System of Mineralogy, seventh ed., vol. II: 131.
Tschermigite
Formula: (NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
Tungstite
Formula: WO3 · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Alfredo Petrov field observations
'Turgite'
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Turquoise
Formula: CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Twinnite
Formula: Pb0.8Tl0.1Sb1.3As0.8S4
Reference: Sidki Rius, N. (2017). Metalogénesis del yacimiento San José, Oruro, Bolivia (Bachelor's thesis, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya).
Tyrolite
Formula: Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Reference: Rob Lavinky samples; analysed by XRD methods in USA
Uklonskovite
Formula: NaMg(SO4)F · 2H2O
Reference: Associated to challacolloite in M.E. Ciriotti collection (2005); Schluter, J., Pohl, D., & Britvin, S. (2005). The new mineral challacolloite, KPb2Cl5, the natural occurrence of a technically known laser material. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen, 182(1), 95-101.
Ulexite
Formula: NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Reference: Hyrsl & Rosales (2003), Min. Record 34:251
Ullmannite
Formula: NiSbS
Reference: Aguirre Cernades, H. C. (2017). Caracterización y exploración geológica del Proyecto Crucero-Puno. Universidad Nacional del Altiplano – Puno
Umangite
Formula: Cu3Se2
Reference: USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 255.
'Unnamed (Na-Cu-Cl Triazolate)'
Formula: NaCu2Cl3[N3C2H2]2[NH3] 2.4H2O
Description: This is Triazolite. The structure of the mineral was published separately before.
Reference: Zubkova, N., Chukanov, N.V., Pekov, I.V., Möhn, G., Giester, G., Yapaskurt, V.O., Lykova, I.S., Pushcharovsky, D.Yu. (2016): The crystal structure of the natural 1,2,4-triazolate compound NaCu2Cl3[N3C2H2]2[NH3]2·4H2O. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie - Crystalline Materials 231, 47-53.
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Uraninite var. Pitchblende
Formula: UO2
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Uranophane ?
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Reference: Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Uytenbogaardtite
Formula: Ag3AuS2
Reference: Chauvet, A., Bailly, L., André, A.-S., Monié, P., Cassard, D., Tajada, F.L., Vargas, J.R., and Tuduri, J. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 387-410.; Greffié, C., Bailly, L., & Milési, J. P. (2002). Supergene alteration of primary ore assemblages from low-sulfidation Au-Ag epithermal deposits at Pongkor, Indonesia, and Nazareno, Peru. Economic Geology, 97(3), 561-571.
Vaesite
Formula: NiS2
Reference: Günter Grundmann collection; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Valentinite
Formula: Sb2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:248
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Reference: sample analysed by Tony Kampf, senior curator of NHM of LAC, California
Variscite
Formula: AlPO4 · 2H2O
Reference: [MinRec 32:472]; Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
Varlamoffite
Formula: (Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Vauxite (TL)
Formula: Fe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2O
Reference: American Mineralogist (1922) 7, 107-108.
Veenite
Formula: Pb16Sb9-xAs7+xS40, x ~ 0-0.5
Reference: Econ Geol (1997) 92:623-632
Vermiculite
Formula: Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Viaeneite
Formula: (Fe,Pb)4S8O
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Vinciennite
Formula: Cu+7Cu2+3Fe2+2Fe3+2Sn(As,Sb)S16
Reference: Marcoux, E., Moëlo, Y. & Milési, J.P. (1994): Vinciennite and Cu-excess tennantite from Layo (Cu, Sn, As, Au) epithermal deposits (Southern Peru). Mineral. Petrol. 51, 21-36.
Virgilite (TL)
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: AM 63 (1978), 461; HB2/2 (1995)
Vivianite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Jiménez-Franco, A., Alfonso Abella, M. P., Canet Miquel, C., & Trujillo, J. E. (2018). Mineral chemistry of In-bearing minerals in the Santa Fe mining district, Bolivia. Andean Geology, 45(3), 410-432.
Volkonskoite
Formula: Ca0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Description: From green pebbles in a metaconglomerate, perhaps derived by carbonatization of a nearby kimberlite or ultrabasic intrusive.
Reference: PXRD by John Attard, 27-07-2012. Abundant Cr confirmed by arc spectroscopy.
Voltaite
Formula: K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Reference: Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
'Wad'
Reference: Maria Boni, Giuseppina Balassone, Vernon Arseneau, and Paul Schmidt (2009) The nonsulfide zinc deposit at Accha (southern Peru); geological and mineralogical characterization. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 104(2):267-289.; Maria Boni, Paul Rudolf Schmidt, Jacobus Rudolph De Wet, Jacob Daniel Singleton, Giuseppina Balassone, Nicola Mondillo (2009) Mineralogical signature of nonsulfide zinc ores at Accha (Peru): A key for recovery. Int. J. Miner. Process. 93:267–277
'Wad var. Copper-bearing Wad'
Reference: http://www.portergeo.com.au/database/mineinfo.asp?mineid=mn609#browse (accessed 01/19/2018)
Watkinsonite
Formula: Cu2PbBi4(Se,S,Te)8
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia" (La Paz, 2009) ; Grundmann, G. and Förster H.-J. (2017) Origin of the El Dragón Selenium Mineralization, Quijarro Province, Potosí, Bolivia. Minerals, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/min7050068
Wavellite
Formula: Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Waylandite
Formula: BiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection; EDS confirmations by Excalibur Minerals and Attards Minerals.
Weddellite
Formula: Ca(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2O
Reference: Cheng, Z. Y.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Applin, D. M.; Chong Diaz, M.; Fernandez-Sampedro, M. T.; Garcia-Villadangos, M.; Huang, T.; Xiao, L.; Parro, V. (2016): Oxalate formation under the hyperarid conditions of the Atacama desert as a mineral marker to provide clues to the source of organic carbon on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 121, 1593-1604.
Weeksite
Formula: K2(UO2)2(Si5O13) · 4H2O
Reference: Geological Association of Canada (2014) Abstracts Fredericton Vol 37; Li, V. (2016). The Uranium Mineralization of the Macusani District, Southeast Peru: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Geochronology and Ore-Genetic Model. PhD Thesis Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Wendwilsonite
Formula: Ca2Mg(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: samples analysed by Anthony Kampf, Curator Emeritus of Mineral Sciences at NHM of LAC, California
Wheatleyite
Formula: Na2Cu(C2O4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: SEM-EDS and Raman Spectroscopy by Joy Desor
Whewellite
Formula: Ca(C2O4) · H2O
Reference: Cheng, Z. Y.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Applin, D. M.; Chong Diaz, M.; Fernandez-Sampedro, M. T.; Garcia-Villadangos, M.; Huang, T.; Xiao, L.; Parro, V. (2016): Oxalate formation under the hyperarid conditions of the Atacama desert as a mineral marker to provide clues to the source of organic carbon on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 121, 1593-1604.
'White mica'
Reference: Dr Günter Grundmann specimens
Wickmanite
Formula: Mn2+[Sn(OH)6]
Reference: [MinRec 32:474]
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Reference: maurizio dini collection - analysed material
Wittichenite
Formula: Cu3BiS3
Reference: Salomon Rivas & Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Witzkeite (TL)
Formula: Na4K4Ca(NO3)2(SO4)4 · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Nestola, F., Cámara, F., Chukanov, N.V., Atencio, D., Coutinho, J.M.V., Contreira Filho, R.R. and Fa¨rber, G. (2012) Witzkeite, IMA 2011-084. CNMNC Newsletter No. 12, February 2012, page 153; Mineralogical Magazine, 76, 151-155.
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Localities: Reported from at least 47 localities in this region.
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: Zori, C., & Tropper, P. (2013). Silver lining: evidence for Inka silver refining in northern Chile. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40(8), 3282-3292.
Woodhouseite
Formula: CaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Description: Pseudomorphs after apatite.
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection (PXRD by Jaroslav Hyrsl)
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: maurizio dini collection - analysed material
Wurtzite (TL)
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Reference: [MinRec 32:479]
'Wurtzite-2H'
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Reference: Pring, A.; Wade, B.; McFadden, A.; Lenehan, C.E.; Cook, N.J. (2020) Coupled Substitutions of Minor and Trace Elements in Co-Existing Sphalerite and Wurtzite. Minerals 10, 147.
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Reference: [MinRec 32:474]; Hyrsl, J. & A. Petrov (2006): Famous Mineral Localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record. 37: 117-162
Yecoraite
Formula: Fe3+3Bi5(Te6+O4)2(Te4+O3)O9 · 9H2O
Reference: Yáñez, J., & Alfonso, P. (2014, May). Mineralogy of the Chaparra IOCG deposit, southern Peru. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16).
Zaïrite
Formula: BiFe3+3(PO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Joy Desor analyses by Raman and SEM-EDS.
'Zeolite Group'
Reference: Schultz (2004)
Zincobotryogen
Formula: (Zn,Mg,Mn2+)Fe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Reference: Samples analysed by Tony Kampf of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
Zinkenite
Formula: Pb9Sb22S42
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Chelle-Michou, C. (2013). Geochronologic and petrologic evolution of the magmatic suite associated with the Eocene Coroccohuayco deposit, and its role in the genesis of the associated Cu (-Au) porphyry-skarn mineralization, Tintaya district, Peru (Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva).
Zunyite
Formula: Al13Si5O20(OH,F)18Cl
Reference: Pastor, M., Pastor, A., Torró, L., Martínez, Á., Artiaga, D., Torres, B., ... & Alfonso, P. (2015) The San José-Itos Mines, Oruro, Bolivia: Structure and Ag-Sn Mineralization. in Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World • 13th SGA Biennial Meeting 2015. Proceedings, Volume 1 pp 327-330

Gallery:

AgPbSb3S6 'Andorite'