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Altenberg Mine (Vieille Montagne Mine; Kelmisberg Mine), Kelmis (La Calamine), Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet mining district (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet mining district), Liège, Wallonia, Belgiumi
Regional Level Types
Altenberg Mine (Vieille Montagne Mine; Kelmisberg Mine)- not defined -
Kelmis (La Calamine)Municipality
Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet mining district (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet mining district)Mining District
LiègeProvince
WalloniaRegion
BelgiumCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
50° 42' 51'' North , 6° 0' 32'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
La Calamine10,232 (2011)0.4km
Lontzen4,862 (2011)3.7km
Plombières9,596 (2011)4.3km
Wolfhaag125 (2017)4.9km
Raren175 (2017)6.0km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
Altenberg mine
Name(s) in local language(s):
der Kull


The Altenberg mine (Vieille Montagne) in Kelmis.

This ancient zinc mine was a metasomatic replacement deposit. The zinc ore occurs as so-called “Galmei” or “Calamine” (an intergrowth of Smithsonite, Hemimorphite, and Willemite). Only traces of sulfides occurred along the walls of the open pit.


Between 1837 and 1884 some 1.414.328 tonnes of calamine was produced, total production is uncertain due to the lack of production statistics before 1825.

The open cut mine Altenberg (Kelmisberg) mountain was located north of the road leading from Aachen to Liège. The mine was abandoned in 1884. Today the open cut is refilled.

The produced ores were roasted in local shaft furnaces and then the zinc ore was converted into zinc metal by reduction with coal by muffle furnaces.

The old dumps and a settling pond are located opposite the open cut and south of the Aachen-Liège road. In this area, the former mineral processing plant was situated. Starting in 1900, the S.A. de la Vielle Montagne processed the tailings from the old Altenberg mine, ashes from the old zinc plant and handpicked ores from other mines in this area (the Schmalgraf, Fossey, Welkenraedt, and Lontzen mines).


Later, after these mines were abandoned (~1935), ores from Germany, Spain and from overseas were dressed. Consequently, minerals from different and even overseas localities may occur in the dumps.

The name "Altenberg" or “Moresnet” on old labels sometimes refers to the mining district, sometimes to the Altenberg mine. Both were used.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


20 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Brianyoungite
Formula: Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy
'Calamine'
Reference: H. Buttgenbach, les minéraux de Belgique et du Congo Belge
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Braun, M., (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Buttgenbach, H. (1947) Les Minéraux de Belgique et du Congo belge. Dunod, Paris, 573 pages.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Fraipontite (TL)
Formula: (Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Type Locality:
Reference: Ann.Soc.géol.Belgique,(1927) 50, B106-B110
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: raun, M. (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft, 354-370.
Goslarite
Formula: ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: TVM Specimen; Anderson, J. L., Peterson, R. C., & Swainson, I. (2012). The atomic structure of deuterated boyleite ZnSO4· 4D2O, ilesite MnSO4· 4D2O, and bianchite ZnSO4· 6D2O. American Mineralogist, 97(11-12), 1905-1914.
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Reference: Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Braun, M., (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Braun, M., (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 736.
Hopeite (TL)
Formula: Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 736; MJ 7 (1973), 289; Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Paul De Bondt collection
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Léon Dejonghe & Maria Boni Geologica Belgica ( 2004 ( 8/3:3-14
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: H. Buttgenbach, les minéraux de Belgique et du Congo Belge
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Braun, M., (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft
Sauconite
Formula: Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Paul De Bondt collection
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Braun, M. (1857) Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes und der Umgegend. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 354-370.; Buttgenbach, H. (1947) Les Minéraux de Belgique et du Congo belge. Dunod, Paris, 573 pages.; Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M., Van Der Meersche, E. (2002) Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, 304 pages (in French).
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: raun, M. (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft, 354-370.
Willemite (TL)
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Type Locality:
Description: This is the type locality, not the Franklin, NJ, area. Named in 1830 by Serve-Dieu Abailard "Armand" Lévy in honor of Willem I (1772-1843), King (1813-1840) of the Netherlands, wherein the type locality was located at the time. It had been previously observed, but not described, from the Franklin District orebodies.
Reference: Braun, M., (1857): Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes un der Umgegend, Zeitschrift d. Dt. Geolog. Gesellschaft

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Greenockite2.CB.45CdS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Brianyoungite5.BF.30Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Goslarite7.CB.40ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Hopeite (TL)8.CA.30Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Fraipontite (TL)9.ED.15(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sauconite9.EC.45Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Willemite (TL)9.AA.05Zn2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Calamine'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Greenockite2.8.7.2CdS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Goslarite29.6.11.2ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Hopeite (TL)40.3.4.1Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Willemite (TL)51.1.1.2Zn2SiO4
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Fraipontite (TL)71.1.2c.4(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Sauconite71.3.1b.3Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Brianyoungite-Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
'Calamine'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
H HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
H GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
CCarbon
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C SideriteFeCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
OOxygen
O Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
O WillemiteZn2SiO4
O HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
O GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O SideriteFeCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
NaSodium
Na SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
AlAluminium
Al Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Al SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Si WillemiteZn2SiO4
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
PPhosphorus
P HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
SSulfur
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S MarcasiteFeS2
S GreenockiteCdS
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
S BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
ZnZinc
Zn Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Zn WillemiteZn2SiO4
Zn HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
CdCadmium
Cd GreenockiteCdS
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb CerussitePbCO3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Haidinger, W. (1825) Beschreibung mehrerer neuer oder bisher nur unvollkommen bekannter Mineralien, XVI. Hopeit. Annalen der Physik und Chemie, 81, 169-170.
Braun, M. (1857) Über die Galmeilagerstätte des Altenberges im Zusammenhang mit den Erzlagerstätten des Altenberger Grubenfeldes und der Umgegend. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 354-370.
Arzruni, A., (1874) Über eine Zwillingsverwachsung des Willemits. Annalen der Physik und Chemie, 228, 281.
Schulz, W. (1886) Führer des Berg- und Hütteningenieurs durch die Umgegend von Aachen. Georgi Aachen.
Herbst, F. (1910) Der technische Betrieb des Erzbergbaus – Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins II.
Holzapfel, E. (1910) Die Geologie des Nordabfalls der Eifel mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gegend von Aachen – Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins I.
Klockmann, F. (1910) Die Erzlagerstätten der Gegend von Aachen - Der Bergbau auf der linken Seite des Niederrheins II.
Goldschmidt, V.M., Schroeder, R. (1912) Kieselzinkerz von Altenberg bei Aachen. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie, und Paläontologie, 1912 (I), 21.
Dewez, L., Lespineux, G. (1949) Les Minérais Du Sol Belge. Centenaire de l'Association des Ingénieurs sortis de l'École de Liège, Section Géologie.
Wintgens, Leo (1981) Neutral-Moresnet-Neutre. Kelmis La Calamine. Ursprung der/Origine de la/Oorsprong van de/Origine of the Vieille-Montagne.
Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., Dejonghe, L. (2008) The “calamine” nonsulfide Zn–Pb deposits of Belgium: Petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characterization. Ore Geology Reviews, 33, 187-210.
Leo Wintgens (2010) Neutral-Moresnet-Neutre. Echos aus Einem Europäischen Kuriosum. Echo’s uit een Europese Kuriositeit.
Philip Dröge (2016) Moresnet. Opkomst en ondergang van een vergeten buurlandje.
Nikolaus Schmitz (2018) Galmei und Schalenblende aus dem Altenberger Grubenfeld bei Kelmis/La Calamine. Zur Montangeschichte im Aachener Dreiländereck.

Other Databases

Wikipedia:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vieille_Montagne
Wikidata ID:Q947317

External Links


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