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Poás Volcano, Alajuela Province, Costa Ricai
Regional Level Types
Poás Volcano- not defined -
Alajuela ProvinceProvince
Costa RicaCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
10° 11' 55'' North , 84° 13' 57'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Río Segundo9,853 (2018)7.0km
Sabanilla1,015 (2016)14.0km
San Juan7,729 (2018)14.1km
Santo Domingo5,745 (2018)17.2km
Zarcero3,559 (2016)17.4km
Name(s) in local language(s):
(Spanish) Volcán Poás


Poás is a large, active stratovolcano located about 19 km north of Alajuela in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. The surrounding area is protected by the Poás Volcano National Park. Extensive emission of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide gases for decades has defoliated a large area west of the active crater, and the park is frequently closed to visitors due to poor air quality. Due to the ongoing risk of further violent activity without sufficient seismic warning to enable safe evacuation, the park was closed to visitors for a time following significant eruptions in April 2017. Limited visitation had resumed as of December 2018.

The active crater, at approximately 300 m in diameter one of the largest active volcanic craters in the world, is occupied by a rain-fed lake rendered acidic by fumaroles on the floor of the crater. A period of increased activity in the late 1980s increased the temperature of the lake from 40°C to 85°C, and as a consequence the lake largely evaporated for a time except for a few small, highly concentrated pools whose pH was measured as low as 0.2, one of the most acidic conditions to exist anywhere on Earth. The crater photos by E.L. Clopton on this page were taken during that time. In the early 1990s, the temperature decreased enough to allow the crater to refill with water. The lake remains warm and is disturbed from time to time by phreatic eruptions, jets of steam formed by lake water seeping into hot fissures in the crater floor.

Regions containing this locality

Central AmericaRegion
Panama PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


49 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Prosser, J.T., Carr, M.J. (1987) Poás volcano, Costa Rica: Geology of the summit region and spatial and temporal variations among the most recent lavas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 33(1-3), 131-146.; Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Prosser, J.T., Carr, M.J. (1987) Poás volcano, Costa Rica: Geology of the summit region and spatial and temporal variations among the most recent lavas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 33(1-3), 131-146.; Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Apjohnite
Formula: Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Prosser, J.T., Carr, M.J. (1987) Poás volcano, Costa Rica: Geology of the summit region and spatial and temporal variations among the most recent lavas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 33(1-3), 131-146.; Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
'Brewsterite'
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Carobbiite
Formula: KF
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
'Chabazite'
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Chabazite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Cowlesite
Formula: CaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Prosser, J.T., Carr, M.J. (1987) Poás volcano, Costa Rica: Geology of the summit region and spatial and temporal variations among the most recent lavas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 33(1-3), 131-146.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Greigite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2S4
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
'Hornblende'
Reference: Prosser, J.T., Carr, M.J. (1987) Poás volcano, Costa Rica: Geology of the summit region and spatial and temporal variations among the most recent lavas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 33(1-3), 131-146.
Huangite
Formula: Ca0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Hydrokenoralstonite
Formula: Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Khademite
Formula: Al(SO4)F · 5H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Kogarkoite
Formula: Na3(SO4)F
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Magnesiocopiapite
Formula: MgFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
'Magnesium'
Formula: Mg
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Prosser, J.T., Carr, M.J. (1987) Poás volcano, Costa Rica: Geology of the summit region and spatial and temporal variations among the most recent lavas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 33(1-3), 131-146.; Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Magnetite var: Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Meta-alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Mordenite
Formula: (Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
'Natroalunite-2c'
Formula: (Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Pertlikite
Formula: K2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe3+2Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
'Phillipsite'
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Phillipsite-K
Formula: (K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Prosser, J.T., Carr, M.J. (1987) Poás volcano, Costa Rica: Geology of the summit region and spatial and temporal variations among the most recent lavas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 33(1-3), 131-146.; Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Römerite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Rostite
Formula: Al(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Sauconite
Formula: Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Sofiite
Formula: Zn2(SeO3)Cl2
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Prosser, J.T., Carr, M.J. (1987) Poás volcano, Costa Rica: Geology of the summit region and spatial and temporal variations among the most recent lavas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 33(1-3), 131-146.; Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Tridymite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Tychite
Formula: Na6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Ulvöspinel
Formula: TiFe2O4
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Voltaite
Formula: K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Woodhouseite
Formula: CaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.
Wurtzite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Reference: Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Magnesium'1.AB.Mg
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Greigite2.DA.05Fe2+Fe3+2S4
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Wurtzite2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
Group 3 - Halides
Carobbiite3.AA.20KF
Halite3.AA.20NaCl
Hydrokenoralstonite3.CF.05 Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Cristobalite4.DA.15SiO2
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
var: Titaniferous Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Sofiite4.JG.15Zn2(SeO3)Cl2
Tridymite4.DA.10SiO2
Ulvöspinel4.BB.05TiFe2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Tychite5.BF.05Na6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Apjohnite7.CB.85Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Copiapite7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Epsomite7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Huangite7.BC.10Ca0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Khademite7.DB.10Al(SO4)F · 5H2O
Kogarkoite7.BD.15Na3(SO4)F
Magnesiocopiapite7.DB.35MgFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Meta-alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
'Natroalunite-2c'7.BC.10(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Pertlikite7.CC.25K2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe3+2Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Pickeringite7.CB.85MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Rostite7.DB.10Al(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Römerite7.CB.75Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Voltaite7.CC.25K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Woodhouseite8.BL.05CaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Chabazite-Ca9.GD.10(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Cowlesite9.GG.05CaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2O
Enstatite9.DA.05MgSiO3
'Halloysite'9.ED.10Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mordenite9.GD.35(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Phillipsite-K9.GC.10(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Sauconite9.EC.45Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Brewsterite'-
'Chabazite'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Hornblende'-
'Phillipsite'-
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Wurtzite2.8.7.1(Zn,Fe)S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Greigite2.10.1.10Fe2+Fe3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Ulvöspinel7.2.5.2TiFe2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Carobbiite9.1.1.4KF
Halite9.1.1.1NaCl
Group 11 - HALIDE COMPLEXES
Aluminofluorides - Isolated Octahedra
Hydrokenoralstonite11.6.12.1 Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Tychite17.1.1.1Na6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Epsomite29.6.11.1MgSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Apjohnite29.7.3.3Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Pickeringite29.7.3.1MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Römerite29.7.2.1Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Meta-alunogen29.8.7.1Al2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
Miscellaneous
Pertlikite29.9.1.3K2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe3+2Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Voltaite29.9.1.1K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Kogarkoite30.1.6.1Na3(SO4)F
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Huangite30.2.4.8Ca0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Natroalunite-2c'30.2.4.5(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Khademite31.9.11.1Al(SO4)F · 5H2O
Rostite31.9.11.2Al(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Miscellaneous
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Magnesiocopiapite31.10.5.2MgFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Group 34 - SELENITES, TELLURITES AND SULFITES
Anhydrous Selenites, Tellurites and Sulfites containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Sofiite34.6.5.1Zn2(SeO3)Cl2
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Woodhouseite43.4.1.8CaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Enstatite65.1.2.1MgSiO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
'Halloysite'71.1.1.4Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sauconite71.3.1b.3Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Cristobalite75.1.1.1SiO2
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Tridymite75.1.2.1SiO2
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
'Brewsterite'77.1.7.1
Chabazite-Ca77.1.2.1(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Cowlesite77.1.5.8CaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2O
Mordenite77.1.6.1(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Chabazite'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Hornblende'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Magnesium'-Mg
Magnetite
var: Titaniferous Magnetite
-Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
'Phillipsite'-
Phillipsite-K-(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Hydrokenoralstonite Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O
H SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
H WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H KhademiteAl(SO4)F · 5H2O
H Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
H PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
H Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
H PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
H RostiteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
H VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
OOxygen
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2O
O CristobaliteSiO2
O EnstatiteMgSiO3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
O QuartzSiO2
O Hydrokenoralstonite Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O
O SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
O TridymiteSiO2
O UlvöspinelTiFe2O4
O WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O AnataseTiO2
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O HematiteFe2O3
O HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O KhademiteAl(SO4)F · 5H2O
O KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)F
O Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
O PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
O Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
O PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
O RostiteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
O RutileTiO2
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
O SofiiteZn2(SeO3)Cl2
O Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
O TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
O VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
FFluorine
F Hydrokenoralstonite Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O
F CarobbiiteKF
F KhademiteAl(SO4)F · 5H2O
F KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)F
NaSodium
Na Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Na Hydrokenoralstonite Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O
Na SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Na Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Na HaliteNaCl
Na KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)F
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Na Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Na TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
MgMagnesium
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg EnstatiteMgSiO3
Mg MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Mg Hydrokenoralstonite Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
Mg MagnesiumMg
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Mg PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Mg TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
AlAluminium
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2O
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al Hydrokenoralstonite Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O
Al SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Al WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Al HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al KhademiteAl(SO4)F · 5H2O
Al Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Al PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Al Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
Al PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al RostiteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Al VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
SiSilicon
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2O
Si CristobaliteSiO2
Si EnstatiteMgSiO3
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Si TridymiteSiO2
Si Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Si HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Si Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
PPhosphorus
P WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
SSulfur
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S SulphurS8
S GreigiteFe2+Fe23+S4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
S PyriteFeS2
S WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S KhademiteAl(SO4)F · 5H2O
S KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)F
S Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
S PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
S PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
S RostiteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
S TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
S TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
S VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
S Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
ClChlorine
Cl HaliteNaCl
Cl SofiiteZn2(SeO3)Cl2
KPotassium
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
K CarobbiiteKF
K Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
K PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
K Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
K VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
CaCalcium
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2O
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Ca WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Ca HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Ca Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O
TiTitanium
Ti UlvöspinelTiFe2O4
Ti AnataseTiO2
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
MnManganese
Mn ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
FeIron
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe GreigiteFe2+Fe23+S4
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Fe MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe UlvöspinelTiFe2O4
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Fe RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Fe TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Fe Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Fe VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
CuCopper
Cu TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
ZnZinc
Zn SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Zn SofiiteZn2(SeO3)Cl2
Zn TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Zn Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
AsArsenic
As TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
SeSelenium
Se SofiiteZn2(SeO3)Cl2
BaBarium
Ba Phillipsite-K(K,Na,Ca0.5,Ba0.5)4-7[Al4-7Si12-9O32] . 12H2O

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Rymer, H., Locke, C.A., Brenes, J., and Williams-Jones, G. (2005) Magma plumbing processes for persistent activity at Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Geophysical Research Letters, 32(8), L08307. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL022284
Barquero H.J. (1998) Volcán Poás. San Jose, Costa Rica: J. Barquero H. [Spanish and English].
Prosser, J.T. and Carr, M.J. (1987) Poás volcano, Costa Rica: Geology of the summit region and spatial and temporal variations among the most recent lavas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 33(1-3), 131-146.
Brantley, S.L., Borgiatt, A., Rowe, G., Fernandez, J.F., and Reynolds, J.R. (1987) Poás volcano crater lake acts as a condenser for acid metal-rich brine (letter). Nature, 330, 470-472.
Thorpe, R.S., Locke, C.A., Brown, G.C., Francis, P.W., and Randal, M. (1981) Magma chamber below Poàs volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of the Geological Society, 138, 367-373, https://doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.138.3.0367
Rodríguez, A., & van Bergen, M. J. (2017). Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems: An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 54-80.

External Links

Costa-Rica-Guide.com. Poas Volcano Tickets & Visitor Information. https://costa-rica-guide.com/nature/national-parks/poas-volcano-tickets-visitor-information/, accessed 12/2/2018.


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